Spotlight on new research publications in June
Photo: Bjarke MacCarthy
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The following is a rough list. If you need more information, please contact the researcher.
The academic articles have been peer-reviewed, which means they have been judged by other researchers within the same area.
THE FOLLOWING IS THIS MONTH’S PEER-REVIEWED RESEARCH – ENJOY YOUR READING:
Find the abstracts under each heading.
Abstract: Forfatteren redegør for og analyserer de nye regler i ægtefællelovens afsnit VI om lovvalget for formueforholdet mellem ægtefæller. De nye regler er inspireret af dels ændringen af Den Nordiske Ægteskabskonvention i 2006, dels EU's Ægteskabsforordning fra 2016. De nye lovregler er et markant brud med de gamle regler, som blev skabt i retspraksis og stammer fra Ørsteds tid. I 1990'erne blev de gamle regler kritiseret, og med en åbenbart urimelig dom fra 2002 blev det klart, at området skulle lovreguleres. De nye regler bygger i langt overvejende grad på de udkast til regler, som Retsvirkningslovudvalget foreslog i Betænkning 1552/2015. Det konkluderes, at de nye regler er meget moderne og imødekommer internationale ægtepars behov for begrænset partsautonomi, ligesom de lovvalgsregler, der gælder, når der ikke er aftalt et lovvalg, er meget hensigtsmæssige. Også de lovfastsatte begrænsninger for lovvalget er særdeles rimelige. Endelig er både loven og forarbejderne testet i retspraksis.
Abstract: The question of how markets emerge has gained comparatively little attention in economic theory. As the paper demonstrates, the dominant patterns of explanation can be distinguished into three groups, each of which representing an ideal-typical approach regarding market fashioning: mutual adjustment, organization, and fields. Whereas theories of mutual adjustment assume markets to emerge in a “natural” manner from market actors’ mutual orientation, theories of organization focus on the deliberate design of relevant institutions by the state and equivalent actors. Field theories of Bourdieu and Fligstein center on how processes of markets emerging are embedded into contexts, yet do not provide a genuine explanation of these processes in a narrower sense. Comparing the relevant literature permits identifying which processes each pattern serves to explain empirically. While mutual adjustment applies to undesigned processes and markets characterized by a vastly differentiated set of products, organization as a phenomenon can be found primarily in “framed” markets for standardized products and in the securities market. Social field theories address the overarching social contexts and power struggles concerning markets as political and cultural structures. Based on these observations, the paper argues for an integrating perspective which benefits from the advantages of each approach but rejects being pinned down to one single paradigm.
Abstract: This article offers a detailed analysis of the policy design of the current fourth round of state-owned enterprise (SOE) corporate restructuring in China. This time, the state’s efforts to improve SOE performance hinged on attracting private capital to take ownership shares in state firms—or so-called mixed-ownership reforms. The article relies on an analysis of policy documents, interviews with policy experts in China, and a case study of local mixed-ownership reform implementation in the city of Nanjing. It discusses implications of mixed ownership for corporate governance amid changing state–Party–business relations in China. It concludes that the reform agenda consolidates a hybrid political-economic system that organically blends planning and market modes of economic coordination, as well as public and private modes of ownership.This article offers a detailed analysis of the policy design of the current fourth round of state-owned enterprise (SOE) corporate restructuring in China. This time, the state’s efforts to improve SOE performance hinged on attracting private capital to take ownership shares in state firms—or so-called mixed-ownership reforms. The article relies on an analysis of policy documents, interviews with policy experts in China, and a case study of local mixed-ownership reform implementation in the city of Nanjing. It discusses implications of mixed ownership for corporate governance amid changing state–Party–business relations in China. It concludes that the reform agenda consolidates a hybrid political-economic system that organically blends planning and market modes of economic coordination, as well as public and private modes of ownership.
Abstract: Although disease etiologies differ, heart failure patients with preserved and reduced ejection fraction (HFpEF and HFrEF, respectively) both present with clinical symptoms when under stress and impaired exercise capacity. The extent to which the adaptation of heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), and cardiac output (CO) under stress conditions is altered can be quantified by stress testing in conjunction with imaging methods and may help to detect the diminishment in a patient’s condition early. The aim of this meta-analysis was to quantify hemodynamic changes during physiological and pharmacological stress testing in patients with HF. A systematic literature search (PROSPERO 2020:CRD42020161212) in MEDLINE was conducted to assess hemodynamic changes under dynamic and pharmacological stress testing at different stress intensities in HFpEF and HFrEF patients. Pooled mean changes were estimated using a random effects model. Altogether, 140 study arms with 7,248 exercise tests were analyzed. High-intensity dynamic stress testing represented 73% of these data (70 study arms with 5,318 exercise tests), where: HR increased by 45.69 bpm (95% CI 44.51–46.88; I2 = 98.4%), SV by 13.49 ml (95% CI 6.87–20.10; I2 = 68.5%), and CO by 3.41 L/min (95% CI 2.86–3.95; I2 = 86.3%). No significant differences between HFrEF and HFpEF groups were found. Despite the limited availability of comparative studies, these reference values can help to estimate the expected hemodynamic responses in patients with HF. No differences in chronotropic reactions, changes in SV, or CO were found between HFrEF and HFpEF. When compared to healthy individuals, exercise tolerance, as well as associated HR and CO changes under moderate-high dynamic stress, was substantially impaired in both HF groups. This may contribute to a better disease understanding, future study planning, and patient-specific predictive models.
Abstract: Back pain is a common and debilitating disorder with largely unknown underlying biology. Here we report a genome-wide association study of back pain using diagnoses assigned in clinical practice; dorsalgia (119,100 cases, 909,847 controls) and intervertebral disc disorder (IDD) (58,854 cases, 922,958 controls). We identify 41 variants at 33 loci. The most significant association (ORIDD = 0.92, P = 1.6 × 10−39; ORdorsalgia = 0.92, P = 7.2 × 10−15) is with a 3’UTR variant (rs1871452-T) in CHST3, encoding a sulfotransferase enzyme expressed in intervertebral discs. The largest effects on IDD are conferred by rare (MAF = 0.07 − 0.32%) loss-of-function (LoF) variants in SLC13A1, encoding a sodium-sulfate co-transporter (LoF burden OR = 1.44, P = 3.1 × 10−11); variants that also associate with reduced serum sulfate. Genes implicated by this study are involved in cartilage and bone biology, as well as neurological and inflammatory processes
Abstract: Much entrepreneurship research has focused on explaining why some countries and regions have more entrepreneurial activity than others, and the role played in this regard by cross-national and cross-regional differences in institutions. However, this stream has not considered entrepreneurship from a process perspective that is, as a set of activities that unfold over different, discernible stages, and has therefore not examined how institutions and policies impact entrepreneurship in different stages of the process. To address this highly policy-relevant gap, we consider the role of institutions for both nascent and realized entrepreneurship, combining cross-country data of entrepreneurial nascency and start-up activity with standard measures of institutions in structural models to obtain estimates of the moderating and mediating effects of policies and institutions of different quality. Analyzing data on early entrepreneurial activities from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, data on new firm formation from the World Bank, and Economic Freedom of the World and Doing Business data, we find that a larger government sector leads to lower levels of both measures of entrepreneurship, while legal quality only impacts later-stage entrepreneurship. In general, the main impact of institutions lies in the later stage of entrepreneurship. We suggest that attention allocation by entrepreneurs may help explain these findings.
Abstract: Several countries have created policy instruments seeking to direct research and innovation (R&I) toward addressing societal challenges. However, the design of such instruments might not always live up to their proclaimed transformative rationale. The aim of this paper is to examine empirically this matter. In a unique cross country comparison of four Grand Challenge-oriented R&I programs in the Nordic countries, we ask to what extent the design of new policy instruments for grand challenges are nested according to the rationale of transformative R&I policy. The findings show that, while all have individual transformative elements, they only exhibit weak or medium degrees of nesting. At a time of increasing transformative ambition of R&I policies, our findings make an important contribution to understanding and addressing the complexity of designing R&I transformative policy instruments.
Abstract: Sagsøgere, der ikke har hjemting i Danmark, kan på sagsøgtes begæring pålægges at stille sikkerhed for sagsomkostninger (cautio judicatum solvi). Retsplejelovens § 321 fastlægger dog to undtagelser til dette: nemlig dels sagsøgere, der har bopæl eller hjemsted i Det Europæiske Økonomiske Samarbejdsområde, dels sagsøgere, der har bopæl eller hjemsted i et land, hvor en sagsøger, der har bopæl eller hjemsted i Danmark, er fritaget for at stille sikkerhed for sagsomkostninger. Som en tredje undtagelse gælder, at krav om sikkerhedsstillelse i særlige tilfælde kan være afskåret på andet grundlag. I artiklen fastlægges den nærmere afgrænsning af disse tre undtagelser.
Abstract: Many real-life applications consider nominal categorical predictor variables that have a hierarchical structure, e.g. economic activity data in Official Statistics. In this paper, we focus on linear regression models built in the presence of this type of nominal categorical predictor variables, and study the consolidation of their categories to have a better tradeoff between interpretability and fit of the model to the data. We propose the so-called Tree based Linear Regression (TLR) model that optimizes both the accuracy of the reduced linear regression model and its complexity, measured as a cost function of the level of granularity of the representation of the hierarchical categorical variables. We show that finding non-dominated outcomes for this problem boils down to solving Mixed Integer Convex Quadratic Problems with Linear Constraints, and small to medium size instances can be tackled using off-the-shelf solvers. We illustrate our approach in two real-world datasets, as well as a synthetic one, where our methodology finds a much less complex model with a very mild worsening of the accuracy.
Abstract: By re-architecting markets, digital platforms can significantly disrupt incumbents’ businesses. We identify three characteristics of markets that digital platforms exploit to gain a foothold in existing markets: inefficiencies caused by asymmetric, fragmented and complex information; the modular nature of offerings; and unaddressed heterogeneous customer preferences. We provide a tool that incumbents can use not only to assess the risk of digital platform disruption, but also to identify digital platformrelated opportunities
Abstract: We examine the impacts of potential artificial intelligence (AI) regulations on managers’ perceptions on ethical issues related to AI and their intentions to adopt AI technologies. We conduct a randomized online survey experiment on more than a thousand managers in the United States. We randomly present managers with different proposed AI regulations, and ask about ethical issues related to AI and their intentions related to AI adoption. We find that information about AI regulation increases manager perception of the importance of safety, privacy, bias/discrimination, and transparency issues related to AI. However, there is a tradeoff; regulation information reduces manager intent to adopt AI technologies. Moreover, information about regulation increases manager intent to spend on developing AI strategy including ethical issues at the cost of investing in AI adoption, such as providing AI training to current employees or purchasing AI software packages.
Abstract: Governance of cross-sector partnerships involving the public and private sector actors has been explored in literature. However, little is known about a complicated governance arrangement involving multiple actors including informal sector players and market women in response to a pandemic to achieve an unprecedented outcome. The study focused on the implications of standards and regulations imposed by government and its agencies on small and female-owned enterprises producing PPEs in a partnership arrangement to address the Covid-19 pandemic in Ghana. Following the analysis of data collected qualitatively from 38 participants to explore the phenomenon, the findings suggest that business associations can play a vital role to support and empower small businesses in complicated governance arrangements in a time of crisis. The study recommends that government agencies should be creative in the enforcement of standards and regulations to empower small businesses taking initiatives to respond to a pandemic while sustaining their livelihoods.
Abstract: Firms organize tournaments on online crowdsourcing platforms to outsource complex business problems to external solvers. Participants on these platforms often self-organize into ad-hoc virtual teams to compete in such tournaments. Social dominance-based faultlines, which originate from the alignment of members based on IT-enabled social dominance attributes (e.g., rank and tier), have emerged as a novel type of faultline in crowdsourcing teams. Building on the Categorization-Elaboration Model (CEM), we investigate the contingent effects of team ability and team effort on the relationship between social dominance-based faultlines and team performance in crowdsourcing tournaments. We collected data of 265 virtual teams from Kaggle.com. We discovered that IT-enabled social dominance-based faultlines positively influence the performance of teams with low ability and high effort, whereas the effect becomes negative for teams with high ability and low effort. Our study yields theoretical implications by advancing a novel type of social dominance-based faultline and extending the CEM with two contingent factors (i.e., team effort and team ability) pertinent to team performance on crowdsourcing tournaments. We also offer practical guidelines for team formation in crowdsourcing tournaments and for the design of crowdsourcing platforms.
Abstract: Although the management of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) and of projects are connected in practice, they remain disjoined in academia. In this paper, we conceptually bridge the literature on projects and M&As to discuss the transitory nature of organisations by mobilising the concepts of project, programme, and portfolio as alternative modes of organising M&As. As a project, the managerial effort in M&A focuses on completion on time and budget. As a programme, M&As are managed as complex processes of convergence between organisations. As a portfolio, M&A management is part of the ongoing integration efforts within organisations that have grown via M&As. Our contribution to project studies is to position projects, programmes, and portfolios as modes of organising, hence, not as phenomena but as managerial choices used to shape strategic change initiatives, such as M&As. We conclude with implications beyond project studies, thereby drafting a project-based theory of the firm.
Abstract: The COVID-19 crisis and countries’ reactions led to analyses about how governance systems influenced the management of the pandemic and how COVID-19 influenced businesses. The concept of institutional resilience transcends these directions of research, but we know little about what it means and how to measure it. This paper proposes an innovative framework to conceptualize and assess institutional resilience based on three organisational traits: preparedness, agility and robustness. This approach provides the opportunity to sequence actions before, during and after the pandemic. This framework will be applied through various cases studies in Europe in the contributions to this symposium.
Abstract: In two studies, we identify a novel moderator (objective time pressure) of the relationship between knowledge over-/underconfidence (O/U) and subjective choice quality. Knowledge O/U is an individual difference variable with behavioral correlates in the consumption realm. As a common decision bias, knowledge overconfidence leads consumers to speed up decision making and to deem their decisions more accurate than those who are less knowledge confident. As knowledge-overconfident consumers accelerate decisions, it is tempting to assume that they would be less affected by objective time pressure than less knowledge confident consumers, who often need more decision time. However, we demonstrate that knowledge-overconfident consumers are more prone to suffer from the effects of objective time pressure. Specifically, in a dietary choice setting, objective time pressure positively moderates the relationship between knowledge O/U and subjective time pressure and perceived choice difficulty, respectively. Taking a moderated-mediation approach, we also investigate perceived choice difficulty and subjective time pressure as mediators of the relationship between knowledge O/U and subjective choice quality and find that objective time pressure moderates these mediating effects.
Abstract: In a large nationally representative study in the United States, we explored the role of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism on adhering to protective measures against COVID-19. Controlling for one’s politics, perception of risk, state policies, and important demographics, we find higher grandiose narcissism predicts less vaccination and less mask-wearing, but more telling other people to wear a mask, if one wears a mask. The individual facets of higher entitlement/exploitativeness predicted less mask-wearing and less vaccination while higher authority/leadership-seeking predicted telling others to wear a mask, but not getting vaccinated. Regarding vulnerable narcissism, higher self-centered/egocentrism predicted less mask-wearing or vaccination, while higher oversensitivity-to-judgement predicted more mask-wearing and vaccination. Our results are consistent with expectations that reflect narcissism’s multidimensionality, and present a nuanced picture of narcissism’s role in adhering to protective policies.
Abstract: To survive, major and minor digital platform complementors need different strategy playbooks, which comprise synergistic combinations of the three complementor strategies described in this article. Following these playbooks enables executives to develop and provide a thriving complement product on digital platforms.
Abstract: The present study examines how organizational designers of Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) form an ensemble of structures, routines, and tools, consistent with the field-level ideal type. This longitudinal case study is theoretically informed by literature on decoupling and recoupling to account for these actors' efforts. The case studied demonstrates that recoupling actors draw on three modes of action—discursive, material, and relational—to address the two forms of decoupling identified by Bromley and Powell [2012. From smoke and mirrors to walking the talk: Decoupling in the contemporary world. The Academy of Management Annals, 1(6), 483–530]: policy–practice and means–ends. This study contributes to current research in three ways. First, it unpacks risk experts' efforts to address different forms of decoupling, reinvigorating debates on recoupling. Second, it shows that ideal-typical ERM is shaped by a succession of external templates. Third, it draws attention to the preeminent role of double-embedded actors who link successive templates to enable the formation of an organizational ERM that is consistent with the field-level ideal type. Together, these findings contrast with those of previous studies that argued that ERM working ensembles are inexorably inconsistent with the ideal type.
Abstract: Institutional investors who commit to integrating environmental, social and governance (ESG) aspects into investment decisions require ESG data of sufficient quality. However, concerns have risen over a lack of quality in ESG data, as outlined by the Global Reporting Initiative. The lack of quality in ESG data deters institutional investors from using the data for investment decisions. This study outlines the ESG data reporting process and explores where in the process quality concerns emerge. Semi-structured interviews are applied with professionals involved in ESG data analysis and reporting of listed companies, a rating agency and institutional investors. The results show that current barriers to using ESG data include a lack of materiality, accuracy and reliability. Interviewees agree that access to data collected by governmental institutions is lacking, and that companies’ purchase of carbon credits raise questions about the reliability of ESG data. Companies hold contrasting views to the institutional investors on the useability of the data they disclose. The results enhance our understanding of the common and contrasting concerns about the lack of quality in ESG data. The results can be used as guide for companies, investors and regulators for actions to mitigate barriers related to the lack of quality in ESG reporting
Abstract: We examine how a firm's disclosure-audience policy affects investors' expertise acquisition and price informativeness in the market. We distinguish the investors' information advantage due to superior access from that due to superior ability to process information. We show that targeted selective disclosure to sophisticated investors may encourage greater expertise acquisition on the part of investors and lead to more informative prices than either public disclosure or untargeted selective disclosure, because the value of expertise is maximized if sophisticated investors gain exclusive information access at a relatively low cost. These results illuminate the persistence of private communications between investors and firms in the post-Regulation Fair Disclosure era and provide implications for regulators in addressing increasing concerns raised about the enforcement of Regulation Fair Disclosure.
Abstract: This article explores the development and focus of public sector accounting education (PSAE) research and its current status, performing a structured literature review on journal publications. Despite the importance of the topic, research on PSAE appears limited. The findings suggest that the main focus of PSAE studies is on curricula and teaching tools/techniques. Some studies do focus on PSAE for employment, public servants and citizens. The analysis reveals important gaps and discusses future research directions arguing that PSAE research needs to widen its scope to address public sector's contemporary challenges.
Abstract: Providing collective solutions to global pandemics requires the coordination of information that is accurate and accountable. In recent years there has been a global push for reliable pandemic preparedness indicators. This push has come from U.S. foreign policy, the World Health Organization (WHO), NGOs, and private foundations. These actors want control over how data for preparedness indicators is collected, analysed, and promoted. Governments want to influence how they are assessed, using poor performance to attract attention and good performance to deflect blame. In this article we discuss how the push for pandemic preparedness indicators comes from the dual aims of repelling national risk, the spread of disease, while reducing global harm through stronger transnational governance arrangements. We delve into the development of indicators from the WHO and the privately-run Global Health Security Index, and examine how their claims to authority measure-up against standards of transparency, veracity, and accountability. We stress the importance of understanding how these indicators are composed. This is vital given the current drive to include social and governance metrics in revised efforts at data collection, as well as efforts to include pandemic preparedness indicators in how intergovernmental organizations, NGOs, donors, and funders devise health and development policies.
Abstract: Adopting a multi-stakeholder perspective on brand management, this paper discusses different methodological approaches that allow for a cross-stakeholder evaluation of associations the brand triggers. Our main contribution is the proposal and illustration of a Venn-diagram approach as a simple-to-implement, yet insightful methodology to visualize findings from free association questions. This approach helps brand management understand and compare the associations attached to a brand by multiple stakeholders and their degree of match with management-desired brand associations. We illustrate the managerial relevance of this approach with results from an international study comparing brand associations desired by the management of a company with brand associations elicited by customers and employees, with some 1500 respondents respectively. For the particular case investigated, we find that management-desired associations may not (yet) be top-of-mind for customers, employees or both groups, while these groups hold (and partly share) associations not desired by the organization. The findings also show that specific types of associations are more likely to be top-of-mind with multiple stakeholders than others. We discuss how brand management should use the insights gained via this Venn-diagram approach in their brand-building efforts.
Abstract: Wage employment is the most commonly observed type of employment after a spell of entrepreneurship. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of having been an entrepreneur on earnings after individuals exit. The question is how the entrepreneurship spell influences their value in the labor market? Based on a theoretical framework and earlier literature, our specific interest lies in how these outcomes interact with education level and the nature of the entrepreneurial venture. To investigate this question, we use longitudinal register data on firms and individuals in Sweden. The empirical strategy builds on matching techniques and estimations of earnings equations in a difference-in-differences framework with heterogenous treatment years. We provide evidence that there exists an earnings penalty when highly educated entrepreneurs return to wage employment. This effect is persistent throughout the time period that we observe. For individuals with lower educational attainment, we find no or weak evidence of a wage penalty. Our results suggest that the wage penalty for highly educated individuals operates through the depreciation of specific specialized skills valuable in wage employment.
Abstract: Although language has become a central theme in international business and management research, this stream still holds many unexplored research avenues. One area that has attracted some attention, but lacks extensive systematic assessment, is the connection between language and personal reputation. Qualitative research has offered tentative insights suggesting that proficiency in key organizational languages increases the status of individuals over and above their functional abilities. In this study, we use data from 171 pairs of expatriate academics and their local academic collaboration partners. We asked the local academic peers to rate expatriate academics' reputation, their local and English language skills, and collaboration performance. As expected, we found a positive association between academic reputation and collaboration performance. In line with analyses from qualitative research, we show a moderation effect of language skills, where high common organizational language (English) proficiency compensates for a weaker perceived reputation in predicting collaboration performance. Surprisingly, however, there was no moderating effect of local language skills.
Abstract: This paper describes the history of Couchsurfing, a platform matching free, peer-to-peer hospitality launched in 2004, as a series of four deaths and resurrections. The platform was first brought back to life by its members, in the spirit of open collaboration, then by its leaders, in an effort to legitimize the platform as a US-based charity, then by Silicon Valley investors, seeking to mold it into a profitable startup, and finally by private investors, only to find itself yet again in jeopardy as a result of Covid-19. The aim of the paper is to consider what the history of this niche platform tells us about the changing ecology of the Web as a whole. Through that lens, Couchsurfing’s struggles to respond to drastic changes in its environment are indicative of the growing specialization of the Web into a closed and monetized information ecosystem.
Abstract: The concept of the city-region food system is gaining attention due to the need to improve food availability, quality and environmental benefits, for example through sustainable agri-food strategies. The COVID-19 pandemic has reinforced the importance of coherent and inclusive food governance, especially regarding food resilience, vulnerability and justice. Given that evidence from good practices is relatively sparse, it is important to better understand the role of different types of cities, regions and household characteristics. The paper's aim is to describe, analyze and attempt to explain (sub-national) regional variations of household food behavior before and during the first wave of COVID-19 in 2020 using a city-region food system perspective. Informed by the literature, comprehensive survey data from 12 countries across Europe is used to describe the pre-pandemic landscape of different household food behaviors across comparable regional types. We examine how a specific economic and social shock can disrupt this behavior and the implications for city-region food systems and policies. Conclusions include the huge disruptions imposed on income-weak households and that the small city scale is the most resilient. Proposals are made that can strengthen European city-region food system resilience and sustainability, especially given that future shocks are highly likely.
Abstract: Initiated in 2017 and formally established in 2020, the Multilateral Cooperation Center for Development Finance (MCDF) is the latest addition to the development finance landscape in Asia. This article provides an in-depth analysis of MCDFʼs potential to offer additionality in development finance and its political legitimacy by comparing it to 18 development finance and capacity-building organisations. The article finds that while the MCDF contributes to closing the substantial infrastructure financing gap in Asia, it risks overlapping with existing initiatives to such a degree that it may become an inefficient use of resources while lacking legitimacy as a multilateral organisation due to its unclear relationship with Chinaʼs Belt and Road Initiative. From this outset, and given the climate mandates of its multilateral development bank members, this article finds that if the MCDF focuses specifically on green and climate finance, it could carve out an area where it can become a much-needed new platform for project development and coordination.
Abstract: Case: Ciano Trading & Services v European Commission (T-45/21) unreported 13 October 2021 (GC)
Abstract: This paper proposes an ideal typology, based on Danish cooperative history, of contending ‘spirits’ that inform the establishment of democratically-owned enterprises. Democratic enterprises have in recently been subject of increasing interest from scholars and activists as an alternative to the neoliberal corporation. However, studies on democratic enterprises lack a historical understanding of the constitution of the democratic sector of the economy and an analytical approach todistinguish between different types of democratic enterprises. Drawing on Weberian methodology and using Denmark as historical-empirical vantage point, the paper distinguishes four ideal typical socio-economic motivations for constituting a democratic enterprise: the Proudhonian (liberation from socio-economic domination), Smithian (improving commercial leverage), Polanyian (protection against ravages of market society), and Hirstian (realizing cultural-ideological aims of voluntary associations). The paper uses a recent data set (n = 5,864) measuring the performance of the Danish ‘democratic enterprise sector’ as the starting point to argue that a better informed historical as well as theoretical approach is needed in order to comprehend this increasingly important organizational form. We conclude by discussing the relevance of the findings beyond Denmark, arguing for more appreciation of the history and the potentials of a variegated organizational ecology that combines different socio-economic ideals.
Abstract: We consider an infinitely divisible random field indexed by given as an integral of a kernel function with respect to a Lévy basis with a Lévy measure having a regularly varying right tail. First we show that the tail of its supremum over any bounded set is asymptotically equivalent to the right tail of the Lévy measure times the integral of the kernel. Secondly, when observing the field over an appropriately increasing sequence of continuous index sets, we obtain an extreme value theorem stating that the running supremum converges in distribution to the Fréchet distribution.
Abstract: It goes without saying that digital technologies form an increasingly crucial component of companies’ value offerings in recent times. In many industries, this trend has led to converging markets, where traditional firms compete and collaborate with software firms and digital startups. One central competitive factor in these markets is the ability to capitalize on digital options faster than the competition. Prior research on agility in this context has advanced our knowledge on managerial and employee behaviors, and structures supporting such behaviors, to enable agility both in traditional and in software firms. The challenge for firms in digitally converging markets is that agility now requires a combination of organizational and IS development agility – perceiving these concepts as separate entities is no longer appropriate or instructive. Building on prior work on agile behaviors and structures, and published cases on digital firms, we develop an integrative conception of digital agility in line with the realities of the digital era.
Abstract: We study 115 Indian listed companies (ILCs) over the period 2009–2012. The study explicitly connects the Indian way of doing business with a broader mission of serving the community by arguing that dividend payout policy and signaling via voluntary CSR disclosures are strategic decisions made by the board of directors of ILCs to balance the interests of multiple stakeholders. The study finds that signaling via CSR disclosures and dividends are complementary means of managing this broader mission of stakeholder relations. The findings in the Indian context are similar to the study of European firms by De Villiers et al. (2020) in showing that managers use both CSR disclosure and dividends to signal sustainable future performance. Additionally, the results suggest that this complementary relation between dividends and CSR disclosures is particularly valued by institutional investors.
Abstract: Økonomer har fra den statsvidenskabelige uddannelses oprettelse i 1848 udgjort en central del af den danske moralske elite, forstået som den del af eliten, der har bl.a. uddannelsesmæssige og organisatoriske ressourcer til at påvirke samfundets normative fundament. I artiklen gennemføres en karrierenetværksanalyse af data fra Kraks Blå Bog i perioden 1910-1923 til at skitsere en prosopografi (kollektiv biografi) af økonomerne som gruppe. Det vises, at økonomerne i Blå Bog i høj grad reproducerede deres klassemæssige baggrund, og at de var engagerede i samfundets dominerende organisationer på tværs af sektorer. Desuden identificeres fem klynger af økonomer. I anden del fokuseres idéhistorisk på klynge fem, i hvilken en ny generation af videnskabeligt revolutionerende statsøkonomer befinder sig. Særligt fokus lægges på professor Harald Westergaard, idet det vises, hvordan de nye metoder, han var med til at udvikle, fungerede rammesættende for den politiske debat om universalisme i socialpolitikken, mens hans eget sociale engagement gik på tværs af sektorer, idet han fremførte, grundlagde og støttede religiøse civilsamfundsorganisationer som en løsning på samfundsproblemer.
Abstract: Iceland’s 360,000-person population has been gradually rebuilding its trust in public institutions after the harsh financial crisis of 2008–2010. The country was once again shaken in 2020; this time by the arrival of COVID-19 with its extreme impact on the country, including its number one sector, tourism, which came to a grinding halt in March 2020. Iceland’s swift response to battle the pandemic garnered headlines around the world for its public–private collaboration with deCODE genetics, which used their deep genetics experience to develop and roll-out screening services and extensive analysis of the virus, thereby changing the trajectory of COVID-19 and permitting an earlier re-opening than most European countries. This article shows how the public–private partnership boosted the nation’s trust in institutions and bolstered the country’s resilience in a time of crisis.
Abstract: In business discourse, the leader is often portrayed as the one who changes the current order. Leaders stand above the organization, and from that elevated position they can bring about the necessary change that offers a way out of whatever crisis afflicts the business. In this paper, I consider the paradoxical fact that leaders, in our popular understanding at least, do not use orders when creating order: leadership is generally thought to exclude the coercive force that we associate with the giving of orders or commands. I explore this distinction between leading and commanding through a reading of Elias Canetti’s chapter on ‘The command’ in his book Crowds and power. My overall argument is that the violence of the command (its ‘sting’, in Canetti’s terms) can also make itself felt in seemingly benign models of leadership that challenge various forms of authoritarianism. My suggestion is therefore to put the sting back into leadership research by giving up on the idea that it is possible to conceive of leadership as operating without any coercive force.
Abstract: This article examines imaginaries of platform entrepreneurship in film industries in Ghana. To understand how these imaginaries are spatially shaped and locally defined, we carried out in-depth qualitative research with fifty filmmakers in four regions of Ghana. Digital and platform technologies have long been optimistically celebrated as a way for marginalized creative entrepreneurs, particularly in Africa, to break into global markets and reach unprecedented levels of business success. However, far from being universally adopted by African creative entrepreneurs, these global techno-optimistic imaginaries are continually reworked, contested and subverted in practice. In this article, we show how Ghanaian filmmakers mobilized, deployed and resisted imaginaries of platform entrepreneurship in their efforts to make sense of their situated entrepreneurial practices and to imagine the future of their creative businesses. We found that rather than naïvely adhering to techno-optimist imaginaries, through their practices, Ghanaian filmmaking entrepreneurs challenged the power geometry of the current platform ecosystem dominated by major Silicon Valley players. We contribute empirically rich data on how filmmaking entrepreneurs use and imagine platform technologies, as is necessary when African digital entrepreneurs are surrounded by hype but inadequate data. We also contribute to the literature about how individual platforms and platform types have unique affordances and how these affordances are shaped by the location and socio-economic position of the entrepreneur.
Abstract: Individuals and communities increasingly depend on, and fill their lives with, machine cultures, in the form of both interfaces and infrastructures. This global push for machine cultures has given rise to an increasing demand for data and engendered a proliferation of public, private and public-private dataset repositories. While datasets form a foundational element of machine cultures, they rarely come into focus as objects of critical study. But in recent years a critical discursive formation on datasets has begun to emerge, which disturbs the idea of datasets as operational instruments of digital knowledge production and seek to instead ‘bring people back in’. The present article identifies these preliminary explorations as ‘critical dataset studies’ and draws on critical archival studies to articulate the ethico-political surfaced by these studies. Specifically it argues that critical dataset studies shows the need for an expanded ethical and conceptual approach to datasets that not only relies on linear notions of deletion and accountability but also on iterative frameworks of remains and response-ability.
Abstract: In June 2020, the Danish Parliament adopted a new Climate Act that included legally binding measures. Two months earlier, in March 2020, the European Commission presented a proposal for a European Climate Law Regulation based upon the content of the Paris Agreement. Subsequently, the EU adopted the EU Climate Law Regulation in April 2021. This article presents a comparative legal analysis of the Danish 2020 Climate Act and the 2021 European Climate Law Regulation and investigates these new types of climate acts that have risen as results of the Paris Agreement and international climate law in general. Moreover, the article presents and discusses some examples of the implementation results in Denmark and the latest EU climate strategies. It is concluded that both the Danish and the EU Climate Acts can be considered umbrella legislation presenting the binding climate objectives and legal bases for future climate law however without presenting substantive legal provisions that implement the climate objectives.
Abstract: Drawing on extensive case study evidence, this study unpacks sustainability reporting’s evolution from a moral values–based practice toward a financialized value–based one. We argue that this transition can be seen as a commensuration project. We examine the dynamics of this process and its implications for sustainability-related outcomes. We find that increased levels of commensuration have moved sustainability reporting away from an original emphasis on morality and values to a focus on strategic value creation for the firm. We theorize this process as a “crowding out of morality” that is enabled by a rigid cognitive framing of social and environmental issues (objectification) and the monetized coordination of relevant social interactions (marketization). We outline implications of our analysis for the scholarly debates on the institutionalization of sustainability reporting and commensuration.
Current research lacks a clear definition of blended learning in entrepreneurship education (EE), a comprehensive overview of the recent research, and a conceptualization of different types of blends with their respective challenges and advantages. In response to that, the author systematically reviewed the literature on blended learning in EE and developed four archetypes of blends for entrepreneurship educators.
The author conducted a systematic literature review and identified 75 relevant peer-reviewed articles published between 2004 and 2021.
The findings suggest that blended learning is a common yet underexplored and undertheorized phenomenon in EE. The findings display the rationale and motives, educator characteristics, content, teaching methods, student characteristics, and results of blended learning in EE.
The paper is original because it posits blended learning as an independent and unique mode of delivery in EE. In addition, the author suggests four archetypes of blends in EE: the traditional blend, the for-action blend, the in-action blend, and the experiential blend. For each of these blends, the author identified specific advantages and challenges and discussed under which circumstances educators may employ them.
Abstract: The complexity and diversity of socio-economic environments call for a more nuanced consideration of contextualized risks confronting enterprises operating in these environments. By dissecting six cases that successfully adopted blockchain technology in China, we present findings of a grounded theory study into the deployment of blockchain for managing contextualized risks and opportunistic risks. Findings reveal that applying blockchain can augment risk management by controlling opportunistic risk, the latter of which denotes the variability arising from opportunistic practices of internal agents or external parties afforded by their immediate socio-economic environment. Particularly, we not only identify credibility, predatory, and compliance risk as three distinct types of opportunistic risk stemming from the unique socio-economic environment of China, but we also illustrate how blockchain could be leveraged to deal with such opportunistic risks through trust-evoking mechanisms. We discovered that blockchain could evoke trust between individuals-to-organization, organization-to-organization, and organization-to-individuals by bolstering competency, fostering benevolence, and gauging integrity in individual, inter-organizational and intra-organizational contexts, respectively.
Abstract: In this paper, we aim to help researchers think, design, and execute their empirical journey by mapping the terrain of choices common in qualitative research. We offer a matrix that relates to various dimensions—the level at which to study the phenomenon (level of analysis), types of field materials, time orientation of research and data, the analytic approach, and the unit of data (unit of analysis). This matrix is intended to support making informed decisions that result in specific research designs and the continuous process of reflection as to how these choices open and limit the ability to answer the research question and offer an analytic generalization based on the findings.