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Abstract: A large theoretical literature studies the effects of creditor control during bankruptcy proceedings on firm outcomes. Empirical work in this area mainly examines reforms to creditor control rights during liquidation. In this paper, we use administrative microdata and exploit a legal reform in Denmark to provide the first causal estimates of creditor empowerment in reorganization-the complementary bankruptcy procedure to liquidation. We find that the Danish reform led to a sharp decline in liquidations. Although few insolvent firms make use of the new reorganization procedures, we show that solvent firms improved their financial management and increased employment and investment. The findings illustrate the empirical importance of reorganization rules on the incentives of stakeholders outside of bankruptcy
This paper aims to examine the effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the relationship between UK universities and professional accounting bodies (PABs) in the context of the accreditation system and how well prepared this relationship was to observe and respond to the pandemic.
The research draws on 10 semi-structured interviews and correspondence, with six English universities in the context of their relationship with three PABs to build an extended analytical structure to understand the nature and extent of the accreditation system in light of COVID-19.
The study shows that COVID-19 has highlighted pedagogical and ideological conflicts within the PAB–university relationship. The analysis shows that, in an attempt to resolve these conflicts, universities demonstrate “unrequited love” for PABs by limiting changes to assessments to meet the PABs’ criteria. Indeed, PABs face very little resistance from universities. This further constrains academics by suppressing innovation and limiting their scope to learn and adopt new skills, habits and teaching styles.
The paper highlights the weakness of the PAB–university relationship. Moreover, it shows that rather than using the pandemic crisis to question this relationship, PABs may seek to promote their accounting pedagogy and retain greater control of the accounting curriculum. This can entail the transformation of academics into translators of PABs’ accounting pedagogy rather than exercising academic freedom and promoting critical thinking.
Abstract: In the context of global agrocommodity supply chains, the sociotechnical imaginary of neoliberal sustainability is characterized by a belief that the impactfulness of market-based solutions like fair trade standards and voluntary certification schemes relies on the transparency and traceability of those supply chains. Achieving transparency and traceability, however, relies on the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data about numerous social, environmental, and economic factors, data that are generated through increasingly intensive regimes of high-tech monitoring and surveillance. For my interlocutors, who work to design and promote these standards, surveillance comes to be seen as not only justified but also expected and necessary, leading to the tacit categorization of certain spaces (and the human and non-human actors who populate them) as surveillable. In the case of sustainability standards specifically, which are imposed almost exclusively on producers in the Global South, the notion of surveillable space raises important questions about race and gender.
Abstract: We analyze the political stability of funded social security. Using a stylized theoretical framework we study the mechanisms behind governments capturing social security assets in order to lower current taxes. The results and the driving mechanisms carry over to a fully-fledged and carefully calibrated overlapping generations model with an aging population. Funding is efficient in a Kaldor-Hicks sense. We demonstrate that, even though we can rationalize the actual introduction of a two-pillar defined-contribution scheme with funding through a majority vote, a new vote to curtail the funded pillar through asset capture or permanent diversion of contributions to the pay-as-you-go pillar always receives majority support. For those alive and thus allowed to vote, the temporary reduction in taxes outweighs the reduction in retirement benefits. This result is robust to substantial intra-cohort heterogeneity and other extensions, and only overturned with a sufficient degree of altruism. Our analysis rationalizes the experience of Central and Eastern European countries, who rolled back their funded pension pillars soon after setting them up.
Abstract: The authors investigate how strategic resource decisions—regarding slack resources and strategic marketing ambidexterity—influence the relationship between internationalization and firm performance of emerging-market firms. Drawing on the resource-based view, the authors synthesize two dominant, yet divergent, perspectives that explain the respective resource slack advantages and liabilities in the internationalization literature: the flexible capacity and the efficient capacity perspectives. They also explore the moderating role of strategic marketing ambidexterity, which comprises a bundle of marketing activities covering both exploitation-dominant actions and exploration-dominant actions. The authors empirically examine the hypothesized relationships with data from a sample of 1,683 firm-year observations for the period between 2005 and 2018 and find that distinct forms of resource slack have contrasting effects on the relationship between internationalization and performance. The results provide strong evidence for a positive moderation effect of unabsorbed slack resources and a negative moderation effect of absorbed slack resources on the internationalization–performance relationship. The authors also find a nonsignificant moderating effect of strategic marketing ambidexterity, demonstrating that internationalization results in higher firm performance regardless of the firm’s exploration-dominant or exploitation-dominant strategic emphasis in emerging economies.
Abstract: Mortality inequalities remain substantial in many countries, and large shocks such as pandemics could amplify them further. The unequal distribution of COVID-19 confirmed cases suggests that this is the case. Yet, evidence on the causal effect of the epidemic on mortality inequalities remains scarce. In this paper, we exploit exhaustive municipality-level data in France, one of the most severely hit country in the world, to identify a negative relationship between income and excess mortality within urban areas, that persists over COVID-19 waves. Over the year 2020, the poorest municipalities experienced a 30% higher increase in excess mortality. Our analyses can rule out an independent contribution of lockdown policies to this heterogeneous impact. Finally, we find evidence that both labor-market exposure and housing conditions are major determinants of the epidemic-induced effects of COVID-19 on mortality inequalities, but that their respective role depends on the state of the epidemic.
Abstract: Artiklen er den fjerde i rækken af artikler om subjektkvalifikationnote og indeholder et forsøg på systematisering af nyere praksis fra perioden 2013-2021 på området for kvalifikation af udenlandske enheder i intern dansk skatteret. På trods af en righoldig praksis er der tale om et område, som fortsat giver udfordringer, og er præget af usikkerhed.
Abstract: Exporting is a central growth strategy for most firms and managers with international experience are instrumental for export decisions. We suggest that such managers can be hired from Multinational Corporations (MNCs). We integrate theory from strategic human capital research into models explaining export decisions. We theorize that hiring managers from MNCs increases the odds of domestic firms to start exporting and this effect depends on the similarities between hiring firms and MNCs. We hypothesize that young firms will benefit comparatively less from hiring MNC managers. In contrast, firms with internationally diverse workforces and with high degrees of hierarchical specialization will benefit the most from hiring MNC managers. We test and support these hypotheses for 474,926 domestic firms in Sweden, which we observe between 2007 and 2015.
Abstract: This essay argues for reinforcing the empirical stance within organization studies by more systematically presuming non-organization. The empirical stance within organization studies thereby comes to revolve around organization as a claim made in empirical inquiries. The presumption of non-organization takes the legal principle of presumption of innocence as its paradigm. It works by placing the burden of proof on the empirical inquiries to establish, beyond a reasonable doubt, that what is inquired into is an instance of organization (where organization may be understood in terms of organizing, organization of something, formal organization etc.). Organization scholars may assume organization — and often for good reasons— when making a restaurant, a market, or something else object of inquiry. However, adopting the presumption of non-organization requires organization studies to make explicit what is understood by organization as well as what findings are mobilized to establish the claim that organization, in the sense subscribed to, is found. Hereby the presumption of non-organization reinforces the empirical stance as ‘a recurrent rebellion against the metaphysicians’ (van Fraassen). Metaphysics is not cancelled out by empirical inquiry, but it may be part and parcel of assumptions that inform empirical inquiry, and the presumption of non-organization calls for a recurrent test of such assumptions.
Abstract: Many financial instruments are designed with embedded leverage, such as options and leveraged exchange-traded funds (ETFs). Embedded leverage alleviates investors’ leverage constraints, and, therefore, we hypothesize that embedded leverage lowers required returns. Consistent with this hypothesis, we find empirically that options and leveraged ETFs provide significant amounts of embedded leverage; this embedded leverage increases return volatility in proportion to the embedded leverage; and higher embedded leverage is associated with lower risk-adjusted returns. The results are statistically and economically significant, and we provide extensive robustness tests and discuss the broader implications of embedded leverage for financial economics.
Abstract: This paper presents a stylised econometric model for the demand for on-street parking with focus on the estimation of the elasticity of demand concerning the full cost of parking. The full cost of parking consists of a parking fee and the cost of searching for a vacant parking space (cruising). The cost of cruising is usually unobserved. Ignoring this issue implies a downward bias of the elasticity of demand for the total cost of parking since the cost of cruising depends on the number of cars parked. We demonstrate that, even when the cost of cruising is unobserved, the demand elasticity can be identified by extending the econometric model to include the spatial interaction between the parking facilities. We illustrate the model with on-street parking data from Copenhagen and find indications of a somewhat greater parking demand elasticity than is usually reported in the literature.
Abstract: For this study, the authors measured attitudes toward shopping for food and cooking, before and during the first lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic, among a sample of 526 Danish consumers, using an online survey. To analyse changes due to the lockdown, they applied a latent class Markov model, which revealed four states: middle of the road, love cooking (and like shopping), like shopping and cooking, and do not like shopping or cooking. In estimating transition probabilities, the findings reveal that most respondents remained in the same state before and during the lockdown, but those that changed were more likely to exhibit relatively higher liking of shopping and cooking. These states also reflect variations in people’s food literacy and self-reported food consumption. Finally, respondents with stronger negative emotional reactions to the lockdown were more likely to change their states.
Abstract: Introduction: Over the past decades, children have been increasingly using screen devices, while at the same time their sleep duration has decreased. Both behaviors have been associated with excess weight, and it is possible they act as mutually reinforcing behaviors for weight gain. The aim of the study was to explore independent, prospective associations of screen time and sleep duration with incident overweight in a sample of European children. Methods: Data from 4,285 children of the IDEFICS/I.Family cohort who were followed up from 2009/2010 to 2013/2014 were analyzed. Hours per day of screen time and of sleep duration were reported by parents at baseline. Logistic regression analyses were carried out in separate and mutually adjusted models controlled for sex, age, European country region, parental level of education, and baseline BMI z-scores. Results: Among normal weight children at baseline (N = 3,734), separate models suggest that every hour increase in screen time and every hour decrease in sleep duration were associated with higher odds of the child becoming overweight or obese at follow-up (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.02–1.32 and OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.05–1.43, respectively). In the mutually adjusted model, both associations were attenuated slightly ( screen time OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.99–1.28; sleep duration OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.03–1.40), being consistently somewhat stronger for sleep duration. Discussion/Conclusion: Both screen time and sleep duration increased the incidence of overweight or obesity by 13–20%. Interventions that include an emphasis on adequate sleep and minimal screen time are needed to establish their causal role in the prevention of overweight and obesity among European children.
Abstract: Sustainability standards have proliferated widely in recent years but their legitimacy remains contested. This paper suggests that sustainability standards need to cope with an important but unexplored paradox to gain legitimacy. While standard setters create low entry barriers and requirements for adopters so that standards can diffuse quickly and achieve a status of cognitive legitimacy, standards also need to ensure that adopters create high levels of impact, thereby acquiring moral legitimacy. While the need for diffusion and impact occurs at the same time, they cannot be achieved simultaneously. We unpack this paradox and show that its salience for standard setters differs depending on (a) the growth trajectory of a standard and (b) the perceived intensity of the demands for diffusion and impact. We outline five response strategies that standard setters can use to tackle the diffusion–impact paradox and illustrate our theoretical considerations through a detailed case study of the UN Global Compact. Our paper advances scholarly understandings on how sustainability standards gain legitimacy and sheds light on the complex and inherently paradoxical nature of legitimacy. We derive implications for the literatures on sustainability standards, legitimacy, and paradox management.
Abstract: Dieser Beitrag behandelt die Forschungsfrage nach der Bedeutung der rumänischen Diakritika im Zusammenhang mit der neuronalen maschinellen Übersetzung mit „Google Translate“ (GNMT). Sind diese Zeichen noch wichtig, um korrekte bzw. verständliche Zieltexte zu erreichen? Haben die fünf rumänischen Diakritika bedeutungsdifferenzierende Aufgaben, so dass man sie im Ausgangstext bei maschineller Übersetzung nicht einfach ignorieren darf? Untersuchungen der Diakritika beim Übersetzen erbrachten einige erstaunliche und wichtige Ergebnisse, welche die Einbettung der Wörter in den Textzusammenhang in den Fokus rücken.
Abstract: A longer exposure time generally improves individuals’ ability to recognize faces. The current research investigates whether this effect varies between genders and whether it is influenced by the gender of the exposed faces. Based on a set of four experimental studies, we advance our knowledge of face recognition, gender, gender distribution of exposed faces, and exposure time in three main ways. First, the results reveal that women are more likely than men to suffer from a decrease in face recognition ability due to a lower exposure time. Second, the findings show that when exposure time is short (vs. long) women recognize a larger proportion of same gender faces and also recognize a larger proportion of same gender faces as compared with the proportion of same gender faces recognized by men. Third, findings reveal that when individuals are only exposed to same gender faces, women recognize more faces than men regardless whether exposure time is short, or long. In short, the findings of this research suggest that insight into the interplay between gender and exposure time length is critical to appropriately determine human beings’ ability to recognize faces.
Abstract: Bitcoin, a decentralized cryptocurrency, has not only given rise to a wave of digital innovations but also stirred up considerable controversy. Some have hailed it as the most significant innovation since the Internet, while others have dismissed it as a Ponzi scheme that should be abandoned and forbidden. Regardless of these varying views, this is an innovation in need of scrutiny. In this paper we present a metastory of Bitcoin, based on an interpretative study of 737 news articles between 2011–2019. Through our analysis, we identified five narratives, including The Dark Side, The Bright Side, The Tulip Mania, The Idea, and The Normality. Our analysis demonstrates the interpretive flexibility of technology as influenced by ideologies, and we construct a theoretical model demonstrating media’s role as constructor and conduit. The metastory provides an institutional look at the broader interpretations of digital innovations as well as the multifaceted nature of digital innovations and how their interpretation evolve over time.
Abstract: Monitoring and contract renegotiation are two common solutions for addressing information asymmetry and uncertainty between a client and a vendor of software outsourcing services. Monitoring is mostly applied in time-and-materials contracts, as a basis for inspecting and reimbursing the vendor’s efforts in system development. Renegotiation, by contrast, is deployed in fixed-price and time-and-materials contracts to mitigate the loss of surplus from uncertainty after system development. We investigate the interaction between monitoring and renegotiation and examine the corresponding contract choice problem. We find that the client benefits from renegotiation based on two effects: an uncertainty-resolution effect and a post-development incentive effect, which incentivizes the vendor to exert additional effort in system development. Monitoring does not resolve uncertainty, although it does encourage the vendor to exert additional effort, a pre-development incentive effect. Our analysis shows that the choice of renegotiation or monitoring depends on the interactions of the above effects, which are moderated by the renegotiation cost, monitoring cost, and bargaining power in renegotiation. When renegotiation cost is low: if the client has high bargaining power and low monitoring cost, monitoring and renegotiation are complements and both are selected; otherwise, the two instruments are substitutes and contract renegotiation is preferred. When renegotiation cost is high: monitoring substitutes for renegotiation and the client only chooses monitoring if the cost to do it is low; or else neither is used. Overall, this research shows that four appropriate contract strategies should be used under somewhat different circumstances. We further analyze the impacts of some other key aspects of software outsourcing and extend the base model to address two alternative situations to show the robustness of our findings. The results apply to a range of software reliability growth models, including when machine learning or cloud computing are used.
Abstract: Research issue
A consistent feature of social networks is homophily: the tendency for people to interact with similar others. Psychological and sociological research suggests that homophily is most pronounced along ideological lines, with conflicting evidence as to whether this tendency is higher among individuals who hold liberal or conservative beliefs. Based on this literature, we conduct the first study of ideological homophily in two key organizational networks: the intrafirm connections among directors on the board and the interfirm connections created by board interlocks.
In a panel of 408 U.S. firms between 2000 and 2020, we find that liberalism increases homophily both within and between boards. Furthermore, we find that homophily has decreased over time but that this has been driven by conservative boards while the effect of liberalism has strengthened in recent years. These findings provide the first evidence for an ideological component in the composition of intra- and interorganizational networks.
Most research on director selection and interlock formation has focused on situational or demographic antecedents. Our findings contribute to the development of a broader theoretical framework that accounts for individual dispositional factors in these processes.
Our findings bring attention to the issue of ideological homogeneity in firms. Given the growth of homophilic tendencies among liberal directors in recent years, we suggest that it may be increasingly important for directors to become aware, and mitigate the effects, of their ideological biases in order to maintain cognitive diversity in information networks and decision making.
Abstract: In practice what they preach in research and education, higher education institutions (HEIs) must consider economic, ecological, and social impacts in their quest for sustainable operations. We contribute to the understanding of sustainable transformation and responsible management through the development of a dual analysis of barriers and drivers to derive implementation strategies. In drawing on stakeholder theory, dynamic capabilities, and organisational psychology, we proposed a multilevel analysis of barriers and drivers to identify their manifestations in relation to the external environmental, organisational, group, and individual (EOGI) levels. Using sustainable operations as an illustrating example, we demonstrated how the multilevel barrier and driver analysis, as specified by the theory-driven EOGI subcategories, improved implementation strategies. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review combined with a content analysis, after which, we synthesised the barriers and drivers of 56 empirical studies, derived 30 strategies for sustainability, and compared them to recent review results. As a result, we have identified avenues for future research and implications for policy and practice. Where current research tends to place more emphasis on environmental impact in comparison to other sustainability dimensions, we call for a more comprehensive multilevel barrier and driver analysis to acknowledge sustainability as a multidimensional and interrelated construct, while accounting for the characteristics of HEIs and the members of the organisations.
Abstract: This paper provides the first causal evidence on the effects of gender match in the adviser–student relationship (as opposed to the well-researched instructor–student relationship) on student outcomes along both the intensive and extensive margins. We analyze administrative data from a university with a faculty adviser assignment policy that makes gender pairing between advisers and students exogenous. We find that matching female students with female adviser has a positive and significant effect on retention and grade point average (GPA) upon graduation, particularly for students with academic challenges and non-science, technology, engineering, and mathematics students. For female students with below-median high school GPA, gender match is found to raise the odds of graduate school enrollments
Abstract: Med udgangspunkt i en sætning fra ledelsesprofessor Ole Fogh Kirkeby udfolder denne artikel en eksistentiel-fænomenlogisk tilgang til ledelse og arbejdsliv. Artiklen argumenterer for, at der eksisterer en dimension af mennskeligt engagement og nærvær, lige under hverdagens overflade. Denne dimensionn har overordentlig meget at byde på i udviklingen af fremtidens arbejdsliv, bl.a. i forhold til omstillingen til en mere bæredygtig ledelsespraksis og i forhold til krav i tiden om mere nærvær, fordybelse og sindsro. Gennem filosofiske erkendelsestradioner som eksistensfilosofi, dydsetik og fænomelogi kan organisationer åbne op for flere erfaringer med det gode, det sande og det skønne i hverdagen, og derigennem skabe betingelser for mere af det menneskelige i de professionelle processer.
Published: September 2021
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Abstract: We investigate the relationship of corporate social responsibility (CSR) (often assumed to reflect corporate voluntarism) and government (often assumed to reflect coercion). We distinguish two broad perspectives on the CSR and government relationship: the dichotomous (i.e., government and CSR are / should be independent of one another) and the related (i.e., government and CSR are / should be interconnected). Using typologies of CSR public policy and of CSR and the law, we present an integrated framework for corporate discretion for engagement with public policy for CSR. We make four related contributions. First, we explain the dichotomous and the related perspectives with reference to their various assumptions and analyses. Second, we demonstrate that public policy for CSR and corporate discretion coexist and interact. Specifically, we show, third, that public policy for CSR can inform and stimulate corporate discretion and, fourth, that corporations have discretion for CSR, particularly as to how corporations engage with such policy.
Abstract: Conventionally, organizational change research has viewed history as objective facts associated with path dependencies, making change difficult. However, started with the work of Suddaby et al. (2010), a different stance has emerged, viewing history as a subjective, narrative construction that can be utilized to facilitate change. This paper responds to calls for ways of bridging these two perceptions and increasing historical consciousness in organizational change studies. To these ends, the paper explores the capacity of Bourdieu’s construct of hysteresis as a bridging construct. Based on an ethnographic study, the paper operationalizes hysteresis to analyze the response strategies of technicians and shop stewards to organizational change following privatization in a Scandinavian telecommunications company. The paper argues that hysteresis constitutes a valuable alternative to bridging constructs available in extant literature and holds the potential to open new avenues for exploring the implications of history for organizational change.
Abstract: Corporate social responsibility (CSR) aspirations by companies have been identified as a motivating factor for active employee participation in CSR implementation. However, a failure to practise what one preaches can backfire and lead to attribution of hypocrisy. Drawing on a qualitative study of an award-winning sustainability pioneer in the cosmetics sector, we explore the role of moral judgement in how and when employees interpret word–deed misalignment in CSR implementation as hypocritical. First, our case reveals that high CSR aspirations by companies raise employees’ moral expectations. Second, we develop a framework that explains variations in employees’ hypocrisy interpretations based on consequentialist and deontological forms of moral judgement. Our research advances a contextual view of hypocrisy, not as an objective characteristic of an organisation, but as an outcome of interpretative processes of perceived motives and results in CSR implementation. Our framework thereby explains why even highly committed organisations may face accusations of hypocrisy.
Journal: Journal of Business Ethics
Published: September 2021
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Abstract: On September 27, 2018, Professor James G. March, a giant in our field, passed away at the age of 90 (1928–2018), just one month after his wife and high school sweetheart, Jayne, passed away. March's impact on the field of organization studies and beyond is profound and long-lasting. The advancement of the field is truly indebted to March's brilliance and dedication to the search of truth as a great scholar. March wrote the inaugural article for Management and Organization Review (MOR) (2005), ‘Parochialism in the Evolution of a Research Community: The Case of Organization Studies’. This article not only provided a critical foundation underlying the editorial structure and philosophy of MOR but also argued eloquently for the salience of indigenous Chinese management studies as a necessary condition for building both contextualized and universal knowledge.
To remember, celebrate, and advance March's rich ideas on organizations, MOR and the IACMR held, in June 17–18, 2019, a special paper development workshop at the University of Nottingham Ningbo, China for a special issue of MOR. Following the workshop, invitations to submit revised manuscripts based on the feedback provided at the workshop were sent out for the final submissions before the due date of October 30, 2019. In total, we received eleven well-developed submissions, out of which five articles were accepted for publication in this special issue. Next, we will present synopses of the five articles, and then discuss critical implications for future research.
Abstract: In this contribution, Sweden´s favourable tax regime which awards a significantly reduced electricity tax rate to data centres is examined. The findings of the paper are applicable to other jurisdictions, such as Denmark and Finland, as they are subject to similar conditions. Data centres are, when subject to the tax regime, subject to less than 2% of the normal electricity tax tariff. Multinational tech-giants benefit heavily from it while many domestic companies (colocation centres) are excluded due to its technical design and attached administrative case law. Initial calculations indicate there is tax savings of more than SEK 500 million (circa Euro 50 million) on an annual basis. Therefore, the tax regime acts as an international tax competition tool through its fiscal state aid function while, at the same time, eroding the tax bases and business life of northern Sweden. It does not initially appear to infringe on EU state aid rules nor the principle of non-discrimination. This Illustrates that there is still some margin of freedom for individual Member States to compete through tax measures. Additionally, tax policy objectives of the tax regime are considered and analysed. In particular, the impact it has had on not only international tax competition but also the economy of local municipalities, local business life, and progressive climate goals. A critical commentary focusing on sustainability is applied throughout the paper.
Abstract: This article examines algorithmic trading and some key failures and risks associated with it, including so-called algorithmic ‘flash crashes’. Drawing on documentary sources, 189 interviews with market participants, and fieldwork conducted at an algorithmic trading firm, we argue that automated markets are characterized by tight coupling and complex interactions, which render them prone to large-scale technological accidents, according to Perrow’s normal accident theory. We suggest that the implementation of ideas from research into high-reliability organizations offers a way for trading firms to curb some of the technological risk associated with algorithmic trading. Paradoxically, however, certain systemic conditions in markets can allow individual firms’ high-reliability practices to exacerbate market instability, rather than reduce it. We therefore conclude that in order to make automated markets more stable (and curb the impact of failures), it is important to both widely implement reliability-enhancing practices in trading firms and address the systemic risks that follow from the tight coupling and complex interactions of markets.
Abstract: This study investigates how global manufacturers offer advanced services, such as outcome-based contracts, to global customers. Offering advanced services requires companies to engage in and manage win–win collaborations with a diverse set of service network partners. However, there is currently a lack of insights into the value co-creation challenges faced by manufacturers’ R&D units and their service network partners. Equally, there is a pressing need for roles to be properly aligned when offering advanced services in global markets. Based on 34 exploratory interviews with respondents from two manufacturers and their six globally dispersed front-end service network partners, this study identifies diverse co-creation challenges related to the provision of advanced services in global markets. The results show that complex collaborations of this nature often do not lead to win–win relationships but rather to less understood win–lose or lose–win scenarios. Our proposed framework unpacks how to manage value co-creation challenges and establish win–win relationships through role alignment. This study’s findings show that the successful provision of advanced services requires manufacturers to play the role of global service orchestrators and service network partners to act as global service integrators. Thus, role alignment provides greater latitude to establish a joint sphere of value co-creation for back-end and front-end actors. We conclude by discussing this paper’s theoretical and practical contributions to the emerging literature on servitization in global markets and global service networks.
Abstract: The emergence of logistics and supply chain management as a fully mature business discipline may depend on the development of foundational supply chain management perspectives embracing a focus on responsiveness. Hundreds of papers in our field conceptualize responsiveness and related concepts in disconnected ways ignoring this potentially valuable foundation for investigating supply chain strategic and logistical adjustments. Although these extant studies highlight many important issues related to responsiveness, their conceptualizations and nomological networks vary considerably. This diffuse focus seriously hinders efforts to create an overarching theoretical perspective in a dynamic field without one. The result is a masking of promising research directions that could help define the discipline. Drawing from the organizational economics, logistics, and supply chain management literatures, we begin the argument that responsiveness—realized through logistics and supply chain management—has strong potential as our defined foundational perspective. All roads to superior performance depend upon supply chain responsiveness to the environment, supply chain members, stakeholders, and the consumer. Our proposed Responsiveness View of supply chain management supports the exploration of how supply chains compete successfully amidst disruption and change, helping to define a young, theoretically distinct, research domain.
Abstract: As a service innovation in the sharing economy, on-demand features (ODFs) allow customers to temporarily access additional features of a product they already own in return for a fee. Using ODFs, manufacturers can infuse existing product-centric business models with sharing economy and servitization principles, in order to generate recurring revenues. This article conceptualizes the novel phenomenon and delineates it from other concepts. Moreover, based on two experimental studies and drawing from fairness theory, first evidence is provided for how consumers react to key characteristics of ODFs, namely their tangibility and pricing structure. While intangible, software-based ODFs appear to find acceptance, consumers perceive on-demand access to tangible, hardware-based features as unfair, which explains their reduced purchase intent. Moreover, fairness perceptions and behavioral intentions are more positive towards ODFs that offer flat rate pricing compared to those that employ a pay-per-use pricing structure.
Abstract: It is generally accepted that cultural differences affect individuals' approaches to ethics, but how are the effects of culture manifested in perceptions of ethics? Further, how are cultural differences displayed in such ethics-related actions as recommendations for business ethics education? Managers' responses from two starkly different cultures, China and Iceland, reveal, somewhat surprisingly, that one group's top business ethics concerns and business ethics education recommendations are at the bottom of the other group's rankings, and vice-versa, yet each appears reasonable given the cultural background. This shows how nuanced the expression of cultural differences in the realm of ethics can be and how potential practical steps may rely on perceived “top” ethical issues. Together, these findings imply that there is more to explore about the role of culture on ethical reasoning and behavior than researchers have examined to date. We provide suggestions for further research and practical applications.
Abstract: Whereas recent scholarly research has provided many insights about universities engaging in commercial activities, there is still little empirical evidence regarding the opposite phenomenon of companies disseminating scientific knowledge. Our paper aims to fill this gap and explores the motivations of firms that disclose research outcomes in a scientific format. Besides considering a dimension internal to the firm, we focus particularly on knowledge sourcing from academic institutions and the appropriability regime. We conduct an econometric analysis with firm-level data from the fourth edition of the French innovation survey (CIS) and matched scientific publications for a sample of 2512 R&D performing firms from all manufacturing sectors. This analysis provides evidence that firms are more likely to adopt academic principles if they need to access scientific knowledge that is considered important for their innovation development, whereas the mere existence of collaborative links with academic institutions is not a strong determinant. Furthermore, the results suggest that the inclination of firms to publish is sensitive to the level of knowledge spillovers in a sector and the effectiveness of legal appropriation instruments.
Media use may influence metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children. Yet, longitudinal studies are scarce. This study aims to evaluate the longitudinal association of childhood digital media (DM) use trajectories with MetS and its components.
Children from Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Sweden participating in the IDEFICS/I.Family cohort were examined at baseline (W1: 2007/2008) and then followed-up at two examination waves (W2: 2009/2010 and W3: 2013/2014). DM use (hours/day) was calculated as sum of television viewing, computer/game console and internet use. MetS z-score was calculated as sum of age- and sex-specific z-scores of four components: waist circumference, blood pressure, dyslipidemia (mean of triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol−1) and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Unfavorable monitoring levels of MetS and its components were identified (cut-off: ≥ 90th percentile of each score). Children aged 2–16 years with ≥ 2 observations (W1/W2; W1/W3; W2/W3; W1/W2/W3) were eligible for the analysis. A two-step procedure was conducted: first, individual age-dependent DM trajectories were calculated using linear mixed regressions based on random intercept (hours/day) and linear slopes (hours/day/year) and used as exposure measures in association with MetS at a second step. Trajectories were further dichotomized if children increased their DM duration over time above or below the mean.
10,359 children and adolescents (20,075 total observations, 50.3% females, mean age = 7.9, SD = 2.7) were included. DM exposure increased as children grew older (from 2.2 h/day at 2 years to 4.2 h/day at 16 years). Estonian children showed the steepest DM increase; Spanish children the lowest. The prevalence of MetS at last follow-up was 5.5%. Increasing media use trajectories were positively associated with z-scores of MetS (slope: β = 0.54, 95%CI = 0.20–0.88; intercept: β = 0.07, 95%CI = 0.02–0.13), and its components after adjustment for puberty, diet and other confounders. Children with increasing DM trajectories above mean had a 30% higher risk of developing MetS (slope: OR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.04–1.62). Boys developed steeper DM use trajectories and higher risk for MetS compared to girls.
Digital media use appears to be a risk factor for the development of MetS in children and adolescents. These results are of utmost importance for pediatricians and the development of health policies to prevent cardio-metabolic disorders later in life.
Abstract: The article is based on a theoretical exploration and empirical analysis of formalized public initiated instruments—eight network entrepreneurs—intended to promote, intermediate and support innovation and entrepreneurship in firms and firm networks located in three different business areas in Mid-Norway: food value chain, experience industries, and renewable energy and environmental technology. The article intends to explore how the intermediation perspectives in innovation theory could be combined with the entrepreneuring perspective in entrepreneurship theory, to build an alternative analytic approach to understand and explain contextually and dynamically embedded organisation-creation, better than the innovation-intermediation and the entrepreneuring perspectives separately are capable of. By inventing a tertius typology representing six archetypes of organizationcreative action and strategies inherent in all innovative and entrepreneurial firm development, intermediation and entrepreneuring are seen as interwoven processes constantly emerging, evolving and interacting in multilayered contexts and dynamics of organisation-creation. Embeddedness or contextuality factors of all kinds are at work in every process of becoming and in spacing of newness, the primary goal for entrepreneurship and innovation suis generis. Accordingly, the article explores the traditional conceptions of change, entrepreneurship and innovation by contrasting them with process and event philosophical perspectives of firm development.
Abstract: Artiklen bidrager med et teoretisk-illustrativt bud på, hvordan en lovende gaveøkonomi kan bidrage med en vej til velfærd og ikke mindst en vej ud af det økonomiske efterslæb, som COVID-19 har skabt. Gaveøkonomi er en økonomisk udveksling, der skaber velfærdsværdi gennem relationer, dvs. hvor hver part får adgang til det, som andre giver (gaver), ved selv at give (gengave). Som sådan udgør gaveøkonomien et andet medie for udveksling end penge, som skaber velfærdsværdi gennem adskillelse. Budskabet er, at gaveøkonomien principielt er pengeøkonomien overlegen målt på velfærdsværdi. Denne tese finder evidens i fire illustrative cases fra den danske offentlige sektor og understøttes desuden af det politologiske-socioøkonomiske forskningsfelt.
Abstract: Transmission and distribution networks are capital intensive segments of the electricity sector and are generally considered natural monopolies. Due to their non-competitive nature, these are subject to independent regulation to prevent the abuse of monopolistic power and to induce competitive behaviour. Effective economic regulation of the electricity networks has become a key target in most developed economies after the 1980s. In Norway, incentive regulation and efficiency benchmarking were introduced in 1997. In Norway, the electricity grid is divided into three levels, namely, central, regional and distribution networks. In this paper, we study two overlooked aspects when analysing the performance of electricity networks: vertical integration and ownership structure. We use a stochastic frontier analysis approach to analyse the performance of Norwegian electricity distribution utilities for the period 2007–2014. We observe that vertical integration between distribution and regional transmission implies higher cost inefficiencies. This indicates that the efficiency gains due to separate management of the networks exceed the economies of coordination from vertical economies of scope. In addition, we find that council ownership entails higher efficiencies. This could be explained by the state having an interest in high-voltage electricity networks, rather than low-voltage ones, and the decentralised model from which the now centralised system was once developed.
Abstract: As the international mobility of academic scientists is ever increasing, its effects on outcomes beyond research productivity deserve more attention. In this paper, we therefore investigate to what extent academics with different international mobility experiences differ in their likelihood to commercialize their research through entrepreneurship. To answer this question, we make use of a detailed survey covering all academics employed at Danish universities in 2017. Empirically, we distinguish three groups of academics according to their international experience (stayers, returnee, and immigrants) and focus on entrepreneurial outcomes realized while residing in the host country, Denmark. The estimation of duration models reveals that returnees are more than 50% more likely to become academic entrepreneurs than stayers. Immigrants, however, were between 38 and 47% less likely to start a firm than returnees. This difference seems to increase at higher levels of commercially relevant research and international research stays at international top institutions.
Abstract: Building on an in-depth study of a manufacturing company’s shift from a product to a product-service business model, we explore how single-focus companies transition to a dual orientation. Although companies generally use highly sophisticated practices to manage a dual orientation, those that transition to one successfully start with less sophisticated practices. Early on, the use of simple tradeoff practices, which maintain the product and service logics, helps single-focus companies explore the emergent tensions that their transition to a dual orientation causes. Conversely, adopting more sophisticated practices at this early stage overwhelms them. At a later stage, these companies’ growing understanding of the tensions allows them to experiment with more comprehensive paradox practices that transcend the product and service logics. Conversely, maintaining simple practices at this stage prevents them from gaining the solution experience required to complete the transition. The evolutionary process culminates in sophisticated routinized practices that institutionalize recurrent tensions’ solution, while allowing for further experimentation to deal with new tensions. The different practices’ appropriate sequence and pacing during the evolutionary process facilitate companies’ transition to a dual orientation.
Abstract: The literature on healthcare management has noted that shared decision-making (SDM) - a practice of organizing joint decisions between healthcare professionals and patients - should improve healthcare outcomes through patient engagement and autonomy, fostering patient-centeredness. While SDM projects are implemented across Europe and the US, the diffusion of the practice remains partial, and its' conceptualization scattered. Healthcare management literature explores SDM on the underlying assumption that its limited diffusion results from an information problem, implying objective criteria and rational behavior. The purpose of this research is to study the social construction of SDM within the clinical setting and the underlying rationales using the case of one of the largest healthcare markets worldwide – Germany. To capture the complexity of SDM, a frame analysis is conducted on its medial representations. News media is both influential in shaping public opinion, as well as in generating public discourse. This analysis enables one to elaborate different facets of the construct of SDM, to capture inherent patterns of facilitating and obstructing aspects and to explore consequences for the diffusion of SDM. Three facilitating and three obstructive frames on the implementation of SDM were identified. The polarities of these frames range from the questioning of one's decision-making authority to the perception of individual competence and decision-making agency. Moreover, this study reflects on how physicians' and patients' role for SDM is conceived.
Abstract: Divergent but complementary perspectives have been articulated regarding how management practices and their implementation influence firm performance. Integrating such perspectives in the human resource (HR) management literature, we examine how HR management practices formulated at firm level interact with HR decisions at lower levels, and how this affects firm performance. HR implementation models have proposed that consistency in HR practices across organizational levels and units is key; conversely, idiosyncratic deals (i-deals) theory advances individualization as a central principle, suggesting that lower-level initiative in making decisions that reflect local circumstances should have beneficial effects. Addressing the interplay between the consistency and individualization perspectives in a sample of 870 employees nested in 36 firms, we present evidence suggesting that individualized HR decisions positively affect firm performance only in the presence of strong firm-level HR practices. This interplay occurs through two mediating social exchange processes: perceived organizational support and perceived distributive justice.