Spotlight on new research publications

10/10/2023

Photo: Jakob Boserup

Are you a journalist, researcher or simply interested in academic articles on business and society?
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The following is a rough list. If you need more information, please contact the researcher.

The academic articles have been peer-reviewed, which means they have been judged by other researchers within the same area.

THE FOLLOWING IS A LIST OF THIS MONTH’S PEER-REVIEWED RESEARCH – ENJOY YOUR READING:
Find the abstracts under each heading.

Assembling a Zero-waste World: From Situated to Distributed Prefiguration

Abstract:
The concept of prefiguration is drawing increasing interest as a lens to study the collective dynamic and transformative potential of alternative organizing. We introduce an analytical distinction between two modes of prefiguration. Situated prefiguration emphasizes affective bonds and direct struggle taking place in bounded organizational spaces, while distributed prefiguration manifests in wider socio-spatial formations. While situated prefiguration has been studied substantially, distributed prefiguration has so far not been adequately theorized. To conceptualize more spatially dispersed forms of prefiguration, we approach prefiguration from a relational perspective, drawing especially on assemblage thinking, which reveals a different way of thinking about how prefigurative practices are spatially organized. We demonstrate different socio-spatial forms of prefiguration in action through an empirical investigation of the zero-waste phenomenon. Our empirical material is built on site visits, interviews, and online material related to zero-waste stores. We find that zero-waste stores transcend situated prefiguration by being part of a zero-waste assemblage that aims to radically transform the food and retail system through distributed prefiguration.

Journal: Organization Studies
Published: Published - 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Jacob Hasselbalch

Barriers to Social Impact Bond Implementation: A Review of Evidence from the UK and US

Abstract:
Purpose – This study investigates barriers to social impact bond (SIB) implementation through a review of academic and gray literature. A SIB is a type of public policy instrument that leverages payment for performance (P4P), contracting together with private investments in the delivery of welfare programs. Outcome-based contracts, such as SIBs, are gaining attraction for public service providers in developed countries, but research regarding their implementation remains underexplored both empirically and theoretically.

Design/methodology/approach – A literature review is conducted in which two types of documents are included: (1) empirical research papers and (2) evaluations of completed SIB projects. In total, 43 documents have been investigated. The study engages in a comparative design where insights across sectors (healthcare, social care and employment/education), are leveraged. The insights rest on evidence from the UK and US.

Findings – The investigation reveals five types of barriers to SIB implementation related to: (1) the SIB model, (2) organizational competencies, (3) data infrastructure, (4) stakeholder engagement and (5) the institutional context. The study discusses ways of managing these barriers and develops a conceptual framework for empirically investigating SIB implementation.

Originality/value – This study is the first academic paper to systematically assess insights regarding the implementation of SIBs. Also, the article proposes a conceptual framework for investigating SIB implementation.

Journal: International Journal of Public Sector Management
Published: Published - 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Mikkel Munksgaard

Complexity and Multinationals

Abstract:
Research Summary:

The multinational corporation (MNC) is a typical example of a complex organization. In this essay, we employ an established body of literature on complexity in organizations to explore and discuss the nature and consequences of complexity for global strategy and MNCs. On that basis, we develop a simple organizing framework for complexity in global strategies emphasizing the source (external and internal complexity) and type (process and structural complexity) of complexity. We use this framework to structure and discuss the six research contributions in this Special Issue. We conclude by suggesting additional avenues of research on the interface between global strategy and complexity.

Managerial Summary:

Firms internationalize because they recognize business opportunities abroad and devise strategies to successfully exploit them. At the same time, managers face increasing complexity as MNCs expand internationally and engage in more unknown and dispersed operations. Not only do MNCs face considerable complexity by operating in diverse and uncertain environments, but also by managing and coordinating organizational tasks and activities spanning multiple countries. This essay discusses these challenges and corresponding strategies for MNC managers. It also provides an overview of the six research articles included in this Special Issue about complexity and MNCs.

Journal: Global Strategy Journal
Published: Published - 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Marcus Møller Larsen

Drømmen om datadrevet velfærd

Abstract:
How is the dream of artificial intelligence and the potentiality of data shaped among managers in the public administration? What roles are assigned to the frontline employee in data-driven welfare? Based on observations of municipal managers and consultants, the article examines a project group’s attempt to introduce artificial intelligence in municipal employment efforts. The distrust in the frontline employee mimics research traditions in studies of management and professions. In alignment with these research traditions, the data dream problematizes how human experience distorts political goals, impairs organi-zational value creation, is driven by individual coping strategies or professional interest and therefore does not provide appropriate welfare service.

Journal: Politica - Tidsskrift for politisk videnskab
Published: Published - 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Kirstine Zinck Pedersen

Early-stage Start-up Hiring: The Interplay Between Start-ups’ Initial Resources and Innovation Orientation

Abstract:
Start-up firms often operate under high levels of uncertainty and resource constraints, which makes hiring a particularly challenging process. Integrating perspectives from the resource- and competence-based views of the firm and signaling theory, we posit that founders’ start-up experience and the initial presence of corporate or university shareholders can mitigate challenges associated with hiring and facilitate the recruitment of employees in the nascent stages of a firm. Moreover, we propose that early-stage hiring will be more likely in start-ups that combine such a strong set of initial competences and resources with a strategic orientation towards innovation. We find support for our hypotheses with a rich dataset of Italian innovative start-ups.

Journal: Small Business Economics
Published: Published - 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Vera Rocha

Faculty as Catalysts for Training New Inventors: Differential Outcomes for Male and Female PhD Students

Abstract:
STEM PhDs are a critical source of human capital in the economy, contributing to commercial as well as academic science. We examine whether STEM PhD students become new inventors (file their first patent) during their doctoral training at the top 25 U.S. universities (by patenting). We find that 4% of PhDs become new inventors. However, among PhDs of faculty who are themselves top (prolific) inventors, this figure rises to 23%. These faculty train 44% of all the new inventor PhDs by copatenting with their advisees. We also explore whether new inventor PhDs are equally distributed by gender. In our university sample, the female share of new inventors is 9% points (pp) lower than the female share of PhDs. Several channels contribute to this: First, female PhDs are less likely to be trained by top inventor advisors (TIs) than male PhDs. Second, they are less likely to be trained by (the larger number of) male top inventors: The estimated gap in the female % of PhDs between female and male TIs is 7 to 9 pp. Third, female PhDs (supervised by top inventors and especially by other faculty) have a lower probability of becoming new inventors relative to their male counterparts. Notably, we find that male and female top inventors have similar rates of transforming their female advisees into new inventors at 4 to 8 pp lower (17 to 26% lower rate) than for male advisees. The gap remains at 4 pp comparing students of the same advisor and controlling for thesis topic.

Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Published: Published - 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Mercedes Delgado

Finding the “Sweet Spot”: The Politics of Alignment in Cross-Sector Partnerships for Refugees

Abstract:
Cross-sector partnerships (CSPs) between nonprofits and businesses are increasingly implemented in response to humanitarian crises. These partnerships are motivated by ideals of alignment as stakeholders strive to find the “sweet spot” between humanitarian and business interests. However, this article shows that the ideals of alignment differ from the actual practices of alignment in the CSPs, and sweet spots are not merely found but constructed in and through changing relations of power. Based on an ethnographic case study of partnerships between a global humanitarian organization and five technology companies, the article deploys a theoretical lens from critical humanitarian studies to analyze how alignment in CSPs comes about in practice. This analysis demonstrates that in the construction of alignment, the companies’ interests become the priorities with which humanitarian organizations must align their and their beneficiaries’ needs. Consequently, while the discourse of sweet spots perpetuates an ideal of alignment where all partners benefit equally from the partnership, it legitimates power imbalances and asymmetrical alignment in practice.

Journal: Business & Society
Published: Published - 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Sofie Elbæk Henriksen

From the Universe of EU Structural Funds: On ‘Irregularity’ and ‘Financial Corrections’ (C-545/21, <i>ANAS</i>)

Journal: EU Law Live
Published: Published - 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Grith Skovgaard Ølykke

Greenwashing: A Broken Business Model

Abstract:
Is greenwashing a business model? The paper is a conceptual effort to advance the discussions of greenwashing though the lenses of business model thinking. We argue that the business model literature can offer a useful supplement to the existing conceptualisations of greenwashing by linking talk-action disconnects to the broader business architecture. Essentially, greenwashing is considered as a broken business model, which characterizes organisations that deliberately disconnect the promises to the stakeholders (i.e. value proposition) from the underlying business architecture. We also argue that the concept of greenwashing can contribute to the business model literature by drawing attention to organisations with imperfect business architectures, which fail to deliver on the value proposition communicated to their stakeholders. Fundamentally, greenwashing calls attention to the multitude of organisations with limited integration between the individual building blocks of a business model.

Journal: Journal of Business Models
Published: Published - 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Esben Rahbek Gjerdrum Pedersen

How Accounting Research Understands Performativity: Effects and Processes of a Multi-faceted Notion

Abstract:
Purpose – This paper aims to review the literature on the use of the notion of performativity and its related concepts in accounting research. The literature uses the term performativity in almost diametrically different ways, yet most papers assume that the meaning of the term is self-evident. We build on recent reviews of the notion of performativity and explicate the implicit tensions in the accounting literature, discovering a need to clarify how the accounting literature has explored the processes – how accounting becomes performative – and effects – what is performed – of accounting performativity. The paper develops suggestions for future theoretical and empirical research.

Design/methodology/approach – The authors have searched in six leading accounting journals (Accounting, Organizations and Society, Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, Management Accounting Research, Critical Perspectives on Accounting and Qualitative Research in Accounting and Management) for the terms “performativity” and/or “performative” and/or “performable”. This yielded 289 results from which we distilled a core sample of 92 papers which substantially draw on the concept and explicate their use of the term.

Findings – The authors find that the accounting literature has paid almost equal attention to the conforming and amplifying effects of performativity but has mostly explored how conditions of performativity are built. Less attention has been paid to how accounting generates multiple worlds and how differences in these worlds are coordinated by accounting. Building institutions and searching for accounting incompleteness have been developed as the two main processes where accounting is made performative.

Research limitations/implications – The paper develops avenues for future research, highlighting the potential for a deeper understanding of how the notion of performativity can be used. We do not advocate homogenizing the literature, instead exploring its fruitful tensions to discover a renewed interest in how accounting is constitutive of existing and/or new worlds. We illustrate this potential by reflecting on the debates about accounting incompleteness and the boundaries of accounting. The authors also suggest the potentials for concepts of performativity in studying emerging phenomena such as big data and sustainability and revisiting the ethics of using accounting as a social and organizational practice.

Originality/value – The literature review explicates differences in the use of the term performativity, which usually remain implicit in the literature. The study develops a framework that attends to both the processes – problematizing the conditions for performativity or not – and effects – conforming and amplifying – of performativity accounting studies have drawn upon, which clarifies how the accounting literature has mobilized the notion of performativity and the contributions the accounting literature has added. Further, the authors extend Vosselman’s (2022) review both in scope and nuance.

Journal: Qualitative Research in Accounting and Management
Published: Published - 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Christian Huber

Inside Algorithmic Bureaucracy: Disentangling Automated Decision-making and Good Administration

Abstract:
Public administrative bodies around the world are increasingly applying automated, administrative decision-making as underlying technologies such as machine learning mature. Such decision-making is a central element of emerging forms of algorithmic bureaucracies. With its direct exercise of public authority over individual citizens and firms, automated, administrative decision-making makes it particularly important to consider relations to values of good administration. Based on a multiple case-study, the article focuses on how empirical use of automated decision-making influences and transforms issues of good administration in four policy areas in Denmark: Business and social policy; labour market policy; agricultural policy; and tax policy. Supplementing emerging literature, the article exemplifies how public authorities struggle to apply automated decision-making in ways that support rather than undermine good administration. We identify six empirical relations of usage of automated, administrative decision-making and good administration: (I) Giving accurate and comprehensible reasons; (II) Informing addressees’ expectations; (III) Combining material and algorithmic expertise; (IV) Achieving effective oversight; (V) Continuously ensuring quality; and (VI) Managing high complexity. Additionally, we pinpoint related key capabilities for administrative bodies in order to support good administration.

Journal: Public Policy and Administration
Published: Published - 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Ulrik Roehl

Institutionally Sustaining or Abandoning Mandatory Joint Audits: The Contrasting Cases of France and Denmark

Abstract:
This study draws on two longitudinal case studies of the French and Danish joint audit models to understand and compare how mandatory joint audits have emerged and evolved. In both settings, joint audits appeared in the 1930s to increase auditors’ competence and independence. After a few decades of practice, joint audits became taken for granted, but in the 1980s, conglomerated audit networks attempted to circumvent the joint audit rule, entering into conflict with local auditors. In France, the main association of auditors adopted successive regulatory measures that prevented circumventing the model, therefore avoiding its erosion. Such regulatory layering crucially reshaped the model to sustain belief in its potential whenever a particular form of joint audit failed. In Denmark, the local audit firms essentially resisted attacks against the model rhetorically, which was insufficient to prevent its erosion in the 1990s and its suppression by the law in 2005. Contrasting the two cases shows the multi-modal ways in which actors undertake institutional work and it provides timely information for regulators engaged in discussions about joint audits.

Journal: European Accounting Review
Published: Published - 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Fatma JemaaKim Klarskov Jeppesen

Karriereaspirationer hos unge revisorer Del 2: Hvilken betydning har mentoring? 

Abstract:
Mens den første artikel beskrev karriereaspirationer hos unge revisorer i Danmark og analyserede dette i forhold til arbejdsrelaterede aspekter i revisorprofessionen, kaster denne artikel lys på mentoring og mentorfunktioner. Vi zoomer også ind om betydning af mentoring for de unge revisorers ønske om at fortsætte i revisorbranchen og for deres aspiration om at blive revisionspartner. Artiklen er baseret på data indsamlet fra 94 revisorer i Danmark med en gennemsnitlig arbejdserfaring på 2,8 år i professionen. Deltagerne i undersøgelsen er i gennemsnit 26 år gamle.

Journal: Revision & Regnskabsvæsen
Published: Published - 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Caroline Aggestam PontoppidanMelanie L. Feldhues

Linking Power and Inequality in Global Value Chains

Abstract:
There is increasing interest in the study of globalization on whether the emergence and consolidation of global value chains (GVCs) have exacerbated inequalities within and across nations and/or how GVCs may be leveraged to mitigate them. Although power asymmetries have been identified as a central factor shaping (un)successful GVC participation, dominant discourses still disregard the links between power and inequality or use these concepts interchangeably. In this article, we provide an analytical approach to GVC-related inequalities (within, along and through value chains) and examine how they may co-evolve with different types of power (bargaining, demonstrative, institutional and constitutive). We apply this approach to the case study of the hake value chain in South Africa to illustrate how existing inequalities are manifested, challenged, mitigated or exacerbated—and draw an agenda for future research.

Journal: Global Networks
Published: Published - September 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Juliane LangStefano Ponte

Luxury Hospitality: A Systematic Literature Review and Research Agenda

Abstract:
This article provides a systematic literature review of the hospitality, leisure, tourism, business, and management literature on luxury hospitality. We use a data-driven quantitative method (i.e., bibliometric review) to provide an integrated view of extant luxury hospitality research. The bibliographic coupling analysis allowed us to outline the field’s intellectual structure and identify six clusters: (1) digital interactions, online reviews, and complaint handling; (2) brand attributes and service encounters; (3) status consumption and premium pricing; (4) service quality and consumer experiences; (5) sustainable practices and workplace environment; and (6) workforce-related traits. Furthermore, we identified 114 theoretical lenses, with the most frequently used theories being: (1) social exchange theory; (2) social identity theory; (3) theory of leisure class; (4) stimulusorganism-response theory; and (5) theory of uniqueness. Finally, building on our analyses, we outline a further research agenda.

Journal: International Journal of Hospitality Management
Published: Published - October 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Robin Nunkoo

Metaverse in Services Marketing: An Overview and Future Research Directions

Abstract:
Although it is still at the inception stage, the Metaverse is likely to revolutionize service marketing and management by disrupting existing business strategies, consumer norms, and marketing practices. However, most of the existing research focuses on the co-creation of metaverstic experiences in terms of interaction, but not on the co-creation of the purchase experience process of the actual products and services. This study proposes a conceptual framework that explains how and why the Metaverse will have significant impacts on creation and delivery of service experiences, the marketing of those experiences, and the co-creation of the purchase experience process through the provision of functional and hedonic benefits to various stakeholders. This study also discusses the potential of Metaverse in mitigating decision risks attributed to uncertainties associated with service experience offerings, information overload, and confusion in the marketing ecosystems and customers’ service experience journey. Since the adoption of the Metaverse will have significant implications for all stakeholders while presenting challenges, implications of the Metaverse and the associated challenges are discussed. This study also provides a research agenda to investigate the possible impacts of the Metaverse on service industries.

Journal: The Service Industries Journal
Published: Published - September 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Robin Nunkoo

Mobilization and Strategies: Comparing Trade Lobbying in the US and Canada

Abstract:
Do US lobbying patterns extend to other countries? To date no study has systematically compared US lobbying patterns with those of other countries using observational data. Taking advantage of similar lobbying disclosure rules in the US and Canada, we create a cross-country lobbying dataset. We focus on the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) to control for timing, salience, and issue scope. This helps us attribute differences in firm mobilization and trade lobbying strategies across the two countries to differences in political institutions. Strikingly different USMCA lobbying patterns emerge. Within the same industry, trade associations, the executive branch, and in-house lobbyists play a larger role in Canada. Meanwhile, well-established determinants of US lobbying fail to explain patterns of mobilization and the use of external lobbyists in Canada. These findings provide insights into comparative lobbying studies and indicate that some stylized facts about lobbying are unique features of the US political system.

Journal: Comparative Political Studies
Published: Published - August 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Jan Stuckatz

Nowe spojrzenie na służbową hierarchię

Abstract:

Warto przemyśleć i na nowo zaprojektować ideę władzy menedżerskiej oraz sprawić, by była dopasowana do dzisiejszego środowiska biznesowego

Journal: MIT Sloan Management Review Polska 
Published: Published - 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Nicolai J. Foss

Outsourcing in Africa: How Do the Interactions Between Providers, Multinationals, and the State Lead to the Evolution of the BPO Industry?

Abstract: 

We explore the evolution of Africa’s business process outsourcing (BPO) industry. In so doing, we seek to derive policy and managerial implications on how African suppliers can grow and become more attractive to foreign multinational corporations (MNCs). We discuss insights from the literature on (BPO) clusters and how these evolve. Our conceptual arguments are supported by a case study of the evolution of the Kenyan BPO cluster through three broad stages: embryonic, early, and developmental. We argue that this evolution has been hampered by factors including the small and sometimes informal nature of local suppliers, the reluctance of foreign multinationals to make long-term commitments, and the intermittent devotion by the Kenyan government to supporting BPO clusters. Accordingly, we suggest direct and indirect policy initiatives to grow the industry toward a more mature stage, increase knowledge spillovers and formalization levels, and improve working conditions. Journal of International Business Policy (2023)

Journal: Journal of International Business Policy 
Published: Published - 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Marcus M. LarsenMichael J. Mol

Policy Initiatives for Artificial Intelligence-enabled Government: An Analysis of National Strategies in Europe

Abstract: 

Governments have been putting forward various proposals to stimulate and facilitate research on Artificial Intelligence (AI), develop new solutions, and adopt these technologies within their economy and society. Despite this enthusiasm, however, the adoption and deployment of AI technologies within public administrations face many barriers, limiting administrations from drawing on the benefits of these technologies. These barriers include the lack of quality data, ethical concerns, unawareness of what AI could mean, lack of expertise, legal limitations, the need for inter-organisational collaboration, and others. AI strategy documents describe plans and goals to overcome the barriers to introducing AI in societies. Drawing on an analysis of 26 AI national strategy documents in Europe analysed through the policy instrument lens, this study shows that there is a strong focus on initiatives to improve data-related aspects and collaboration with the private sector, and that there are limited initiatives to improve internal capacity or funding

Journal: Public Policy and Administration 
Published: Published - 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Rony Medaglia

Searching Wide and Deep for Business Model Innovation

Abstract: 

To remain competitive, firms must innovate their business models (BMs) to meet the demands of the external environment. Given the severity of external threats or opportunities, managers need to determine the scope of BM innovation (BMI) – how many elements of a BM need to be changed – and the degree of novelty required. However, internal firm knowledge may not be sufficient to conceive of and implement new BMIs. Seeking external knowledge can offer managers diverse perspectives and expertise that should foster BMI, a topic that has been insufficiently addressed in the literature. To address this gap, we investigate whether firms that engage in external knowledge search are more likely to engage in BMI and whether different external knowledge sourcing strategies are associated with different BMI types. Analysing Norwegian firm-level data, we find a close association between a firm’s choice of external knowledge search activity in terms of breadth and depth and the scope and novelty of a BMI. The wider a firm’s search, the wider its BMI scope, and the deeper that search, the more novel its BMI. Our findings contribute new, empirically supported insights on external knowledge search as an important antecedent to BMI. For practitioners, our findings illustrate how different search strategies help firms initiate and implement different types of BMI

Journal: Innovation: Organization & Management 
Published: Published - 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Nicolai J. Foss

Sorting Out Economic Forms: A Field Guide to Contemporary Capitalism

Abstract: 

A series of recent works have put forward a post-commodification understanding of the contemporary economy as based on one central economic form. While this approach allows us to conceptualize the transformation of the economy around one particular type of valuable, it also suffers from conceptual monoculture, risking to overlook the specific relationships between different forms. To grasp the complexities of contemporary capitalism, this article offers an analytical field guide for analysing the interdependent relationships of the most salient economic forms – commodities, assets, gifts and singularities – on three levels: (i) form, defining the boundaries of economic forms as socio-material configurations determined by their mode of exchange; (ii) formatting, denoting the process of turning something into a particular economic form through relational and boundary work; and (iii) formation, referring to the wider configuration of prerequisites and opportunities that allows economic things to take on their respective forms. We argue that rethinking economies as specific relational configurations of multiple economic forms allows for a sharper understanding of regional dynamics and politics

Journal: Distinktion
Published: Published - 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Alexander Dobeson

Stack Bricolage and Infrastructural Impermanence in Financial Machine-learning Modelling

Abstract: 

Hoping that the promises of machine-learning can be realised in financial markets, investment management and trading firms increasingly employ machine-learning techniques to extract exploitable informational edge from large datasets. In addition to heavy investments in technology and the human resources capable of manipulating it, this development has led to increased use of open-source machine-learning and data-management resources. Drawing on 44 interviews with developers and users of machine-learning techniques in finance, we explore how such platforms and other open-source resources are understood and used by said practitioners. Building on work in the Social Studies of Finance (SSF) on financial modelling and platformisation, we argue that these users of machine learning in finance engage in what we term stack bricolage activities, when they reuse disparate open-source resources in their modelling work. We argue that stack bricolage creates dependencies on open-source cloud resources characterised by infrastructural impermanence, which is a result of their substitutability and maintenance sensitivity. Our study contributes to the emerging SSF literature on machine-learning modelling cultures and debates in Science and Technology Studies and adjacent fields on the reuse of data and software in platformised cloud infrastructures

Journal: Journal of Cultural Economy 
Published: Published - August 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Kristian Bondo HansenNanna Bonde Thylstrup

Strong Collaborative Governance Networks Support Effective Forest Stewardship Council-certified Community-based Forest Management: Evidence from Southeast Tanzania

Abstract: 

Research on community-based forest management indicates its conservation outcomes depend on local rule enforcement, extraction pressures, and community support. However, many community-based forest management projects, particularly in the Global South, also involve collaborative networks of non-state actors such as NGOs and private corporations. Many of these networks promote sustainability certification under programs like the Forest Stewardship Council. We report on analyses of longitudinal forest cover data constructed using satellite observations alongside inter-organizational collaborative governance network data constructed from archival sources, document analysis, and oral histories to assess how collaborative governance networks shape community-based forestry’s conservation effectiveness in eight villages in Kilwa District, Tanzania. Our findings indicate certified community-based forestry’s impacts on deforestation can depend on the composition and structure of collaborative governance networks. Using matched Cox proportional hazards models with geographic fixed effects, we find evidence that certified community-based forest management can stem forest loss as effectively as state-led forest management (in the form of National Forest Reserves). However, the characteristics of collaborative governance networks connecting organizations engaged in forest management in our study villages shape both which areas are selected into certified community-based forest management and villages’ overall deforestation rates. Specifically, we find that the more each village government’s organizational partners are connected to one another through bonding ties, and the more civil society organizations collaborate with each village government through bridging ties, the lower the village’s deforestation risk. More private sector organizations connected to village governments through bridging ties, however, are associated with higher deforestation risks. Our evidence highlights the importance of investments in inter-organizational networks for promoting sustainably certified community-based forest conservation

Journal: Global Environmental Change 
Published: Published - September 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Lasse Folke Henriksen

Styring af myndigheders teknologianvendelse: Hvad kan og bør gøres? 

Abstract: 

Both in Denmark and abroad, discussions of the consequences of public authorities’ use of technology abound. Advantages and disadvantages of use of automated, administrative decision-making can be perceived as an embodiment of authorities’ use of technology in general. The article calls for increased management of use of automated, administrative decision-making to, among other consequences, prevent an increased imbalance between state apparatus and individual citizens. Hoping to stimulate further debate, three policy suggestions are put forward: i) strengthen relevant professional expertise particularly among high and mid-level public servants; ii) appoint an expert committee focusing on the need for supplementary legislation and guidance; and iii) increased focus and knowledge among regulatory authorities with a particular focus on technical and organizational aspects of automated, administrative decision-making

Journal: Politica - Tidsskrift for politisk videnskab 
Published: Published - September 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Ulrik B. U. Røhl

The Domain of Formal Matching in Sluicing

Abstract: 

This article is concerned with the role of syntax in the licensing of sluicing in English. It amends and provides new support for a proposal made by Rudin (2019) in which syntax plays a crucial but circumscribed role: crucial in that antecedents are required; circumscribed in that matching with an antecedent holds only with respect to a proper subpart of the elided clause—its argumental core

Journal: Linguistic Inquiry 
Published: Published - July 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Daniel Hardt

The Effect of Marital Status on Life Expectancy: Is Cohabitation as Protective as Marriage?

Abstract: 

It is well-known that marital status is an important predictor for life expectancy. However, non-married individuals are often misclassified as singles which ignores the heterogeneity within the group. This paper shows the importance of distinguishing between types of singles, and in particular whether they are cohabiting, when predicting life expectancies. We use unique and detailed longitudinal register data to track marital status throughout the individual's lifetime. We find that all types of singles consistently benefit from living with a spouse, i.e., after divorce, becoming widower or being never married. This result holds for both men and women. For certain types of cohabiting singles we reject significant differences in life expectancy compared to married individuals. Finally, we use a case study to show that, like married individuals, all types of singles that cohabit also serve as informal caregivers and have the potential to limit the end-of-life long-term care expenditure levels

Journal: Journal of Demographic Economics 
Published: Published - 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Malene Kallestrup-Lamb

The Firm-territory Nexus in a Fragmented Economy: Scales of Global Value and Wealth Chain Entanglement

Abstract: 

Multinational enterprises (MNEs) take advantage of local differences in their global location of assets and activities. Scholarship in economic geography and international political economy associates value-producing entities organized in Global Value Chains (GVCs), and wealth-protecting entities in Global Wealth Chains (GWCs). At the aggregate level, these are often associated with different geographical manifestations, with GVCs centered around “production hubs” and GWCs around “offshore jurisdictions.” This indicates an asymmetrical geography between value and wealth with a low level of entanglement. This does not account, however, for the ways value and wealth are governed within MNEs. We investigate how the firm-territory nexus can be understood across scales and what this implies for the geographical overlap between GVCs and GWCs. While there is seemingly limited entanglement of GVC and GWC activities at the macro scale, at the meso scale there are overlaps and significant entanglement at the micro scale. This implies value and wealth are more geographically aligned than previously thought, and that initiatives aimed at regulating these chains needs to address practices within MNEs rather than targeting arbitrary geographies at the country level

Journal: Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space 
Published: Published - August 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Leonard Seabrooke

The Limits to Upgrading and Value Capture in R&D Global Value Chains: Indian and Chinese Contract R&amp;D Firms in the Integrated Circuit Design and Pharmaceutical Global Value Chains

Abstract: 

This article analyzes the interaction between lead firms and Chinese and Indian contract research and development (R&D) firms in integrated circuit (IC) and chemistry-based pharmaceutical global value chains (GVCs) in order to delineate what factors influenced the upgrading and value capture outcomes of these contract R&D firms in the two sectors. There are five main findings. First, the two sectors differed significantly in terms of the upgrading of contract R&D firms’ activities and capabilities. More upgrading was found in chemistry-based pharmaceuticals than in ICs. Second, in both industries, lead firms utilized a range of strategies to control and limit upgrading and value capture by contract R&D firms. Third, level of R&D uncertainty (risk) and lead firms’ level of market access control informed the strategies of lead firms. Lead firms generally adopted strategies to limit upgrading by contract R&D firms except in two situations: where R&D risk was high so that lead firms wished to offload costly risks onto contract R&D firms and where lead firms had significant market access control to limit value capture by upgrading contract R&D firms. Fourth, the strategies to limit upgrading included minimizing the flow of information possible in modular linkages and discouraging IP development by contract R&D firms. Fifth, the lead firm strategies to limit value capture included limiting upgrading and thus any associated potential value capture, enhancing lead firm bargaining leverage, and controlling market access via established market channels and continual engagement with regulatory agencies in relevant markets

Journal: Competition and Change 
Published: Published - September 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Douglas B. Fuller

Trading Liberties: Estimating COVID-19 Policy Preferences from Conjoint Data

Abstract: 

Survey experiments are an important tool to measure policy preferences. Researchers often rely on the random assignment of policy attribute levels to estimate different types of average marginal effects. Yet, researchers are often interested in how respondents trade-off different policy dimensions. We use a conjoint experiment administered to more than 10,000 respondents in Germany, to study preferences over personal freedoms and public welfare during the COVID-19 crisis. Using a pre-registered structural model, we estimate policy ideal points and indifference curves to assess the conditions under which citizens are willing to sacrifice freedoms in the interest of public well-being. We document broad willingness to accept restrictions on rights alongside sharp heterogeneity with respect to vaccination status. The majority of citizens are vaccinated and strongly support limitations on freedoms in response to extreme conditions -especially, when they vaccinated themselves are exempted from these limitations. The unvaccinated minority prefers no restrictions on freedoms regardless of the severity of the pandemic. These policy packages also matter for reported trust in government, in opposite ways for vaccinated and unvaccinated citizens

Journal: Political Analysis 
Published: Published - August 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Felix Hartmann

Undeclared Danish Labor: Using the Labor Input Method with Linked Individual-level Tax Data to Estimate Undeclared Work in Denmark

Abstract: 

This paper shows the advantages of an individual-level approach when estimating undeclared work using the labor input method. It shows the shortcomings of an aggregated approach, namely assuming that all workers with missing administrative data are working fully undeclared, being unable to adequately account for overtime, extreme values and not being able to detect and correct for errors in the administrative data. The paper illustrates how these shortcomings can be overcome to a large extent by using an individual-level linked dataset and yield results that are useful both for researchers and for tax authorities. It shows that the method can estimate undeclared work for the self-employed, as well as show seasonal and industry differences in undeclared labor. Denmark is used as a case study, and unlike other papers utilizing individual-level data, this paper provides detailed instruction for how a similar approach can be applied in other countries with Labor Force Survey data. The paper shows how an individual-level approach can yield results that are useful for example for tax administrations’ monitoring of undeclared work across sectors. The study uses Danish Labor Force Survey data linked with individual-level tax data, yielding estimates of undeclared work that are in line with past Danish studies of related aspects of undeclared work, namely that approximately 29% of workers have undeclared hours, 25% of wage earners and 37–39% of non-wage earners, and that the value of these hours is close to 2% of the Danish GDP

Journal: Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 
Published: Published - 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Johanne Søndergaard

Unpacking the Relationship between Digital Capabilities, Services Capabilities, and Firm Financial Performance: A Moderated Mediation Model

Abstract: 

Extant research exploring the relationship between servitization, digitalization, and firm financial and market performance provides valuable insights, but yields inconsistent and inconclusive results. This study argues that these inconsistencies arise from the ambiguous nature of servitization. Prior research have operationalized servitization as a business model (service type) or a set of service capabilities, treating these distinct constructs interchangeably. This study, therefore, advanced the proposition that both service capabilities and service type need to be incorporated into an integrated framework. To test this, the research develops and empirically validates a moderated-mediation model for the relationship between digitalization, service type (moderator), service capabilities (mediator) and firm financial and market performance using data from 204 manufacturing firms. The results indicate that service capabilities positively mediate the relationship between digitalization and firm financial and market performance. The moderating effect of the service type on service capabilities and firm financial and market performance are more pronounced for services supporting customers than services supporting products. The findings underline the imperative for manufacturers to develop their digital capabilities to enhance their service capabilities, irrespective of the type of services they offered. The findings contribute by enriching our understanding of the relationship between servitization, digitalization and firm performance

Journal: Industrial Marketing Management 
Published: Published - 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Marin Jovanovic

Visibility Management: New Managerial Work in Digitalized Organizations

Abstract: 

Visibility management is becoming an important task in organizations as work is increasingly made visible by digital technologies, but the consequences of increased visibility for management are still underexplored. Based on a qualitative study in heavily digitalized public organizations, the paper investigates managers’ experiences with visibility and control. New concerns arise relating to the risk of employee prying, increase in visualizations of workflow deviations, and the explosion in performance indications. These concerns entail new types of managerial work that we refer to as visibility management, consisting of technological mediation work, relation work, and compensation work. By identifying these types of work, the study challenges the assumption that more visibility, understood as increased ease of access to information, automatically eases control tasks for managers. The paper offers a vocabulary that can help practitioners describe and better understand new types of otherwise often invisible managerial work in digitalized organizations

Journal: M@n@gement 
Published: Published - 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Lise JustesenUrsula Plesner

What Drives Project Success in Online Labour Markets? A Bilateral Perspective on Freelancers and Clients

Abstract: 

Despite some advantages over traditional (offline) labour markets – such as lower search costs, better matching and improved monitoring – online labour markets (OLMs) have not taken off as initially expected. In this paper, we study the challenges of managing projects in OLMs and discuss factors that limit perceived success both from the perspective of the employer and the freelancer. Using psychological contract theory, we theorise how common OLM features including contracts with virtual monitoring, multi- freelancer projects, and simultaneous projects by a client trigger the perception of psychological contract breach among OLM participants and reduce perceived project success for both participants. We test these hypotheses using an extensive dataset with more than 143,000 transactions on the world’s largest freelancing platform, Upwork, and find that – contrary to predictions from agency theory – projects equipped with strict freelancer monitoring (hourly-pay contracts) and projects enabling peer comparison (multi-freelancer projects or multiple simultaneous projects), lead to lower perceived project success both from the freelancer’s and the client’s perspective. Our work implies that transactions on online labour markets should not be viewed solely as agency relations, and that some features that supposedly reduce agency costs and improve efficiency on OLMs come at the cost of triggering the perception of psychological contract breach

Journal: Industry and Innovation 
Published: Published - August 2023
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Contact CBS Researcher: Jörg Claussen

The page was last edited by: Sekretariat for Ledelse og Kommunikation // 11/09/2023