Spotlight on new research publications in May
Illustration: CBS Communications
This month, you can read the conclusions of a study that examined whether smiley stamps can make children eat more fruit and vegetables. The study included 10 primary schools in five European countries. According to the study, a simple and inexpensive incentive such as a smiley stamp can motivate children to increase their fruit and vegetable consumption.
Headlines that are more alluring than informative are a widespread phenomenon in online media, and this so-called ‘clickbait’ phenomenon is the focus of another research project. Which types of headlines attract user clicks? What happens to publishers who create clickbait on a prolonged basis? The research is based on data from the app WeChat in China.
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The following is a rough list. If you need more information, please contact the researcher.
The academic articles have been peer-reviewed, which means they have been judged by other researchers within the same area.
THE FOLLOWING IS THIS MONTH’S PEER-REVIEWED RESEARCH – ENJOY YOUR READING:
Find the abstracts under each heading.
Abstract: Communicating with customers through live chat interfaces has become an increasingly popular means to provide real-time customer service in many e-commerce settings. Today, human chat service agents are frequently replaced by conversational software agents or chatbots, which are systems designed to communicate with human users by means of natural language often based on artificial intelligence (AI). Though cost- and time-saving opportunities triggered a widespread implementation of AI-based chatbots, they still frequently fail to meet customer expectations, potentially resulting in users being less inclined to comply with requests made by the chatbot. Drawing on social response and commitment-consistency theory, we empirically examine through a randomized online experiment how verbal anthropomorphic design cues and the foot-in-the-door technique affect user request compliance. Our results demonstrate that both anthropomorphism as well as the need to stay consistent significantly increase the likelihood that users comply with a chatbot’s request for service feedback. Moreover, the results show that social presence mediates the effect of anthropomorphic design cues on user compliance.
Abstract: Contrasting the political ambitions on the next generation of government, the uptake of technology can lead to digital sclerosis characterized by stiffening of the governmental processes, failure to respond to changes in demand, and lowering innovation feedback from workers. In this conceptual article, we outline three early warnings of digital sclerosis: decreased bargaining and discretion power of governmental workers, enhanced agility and ability at shifting and extended proximities, and panopticonization. To respond proactively and take preventive care initiatives, policy makers and systems developers need to be sensitized about the digital sclerosis, prepare the technology, and design intelligent augmentations in a flexible and agile approach.
Abstract:We study how the timing of information disclosure affects the diffusion of codified technical information. On November 29, 2000, the American Inventors Protection Act (AIPA) reduced the default publication time of patents at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) to 18 months. We analyze the effects of this change by means of a regression discontinuity design with time as an assignment variable and a complementary difference-in-differences analysis. Our study shows that information flows from patents measured by forward citations, increased. Interestingly, the degree of localization within geographic boundaries remained unchanged and technological localization even increased moderately. Moreover, the effect of early disclosure on citations from patents filed by patent attorney service firms is particularly strong. These results imply that knowledge diffusion stemming from speedier disclosure of technical information is confined to the existing attention scope and absorptive capacity of inventors and organizations.
Abstract:Background: The large increase in numbers of refugees and asylum seekers in Germany and most of Europe has put the issue of migration itself, the integration of migrants, and also their health at the top of the political agenda. However, the dynamics of refugee health are not yet well understood. From a life-course perspective, migration experience is associated with various risks and changes, which might differ depending on the socioeconomic status (SES) of refugees in their home country. The aim of this paper was to analyze the relationship between pre-migration SES and self-reported health indicators after migration among Syrian refugees. Specifically, we wanted to find out how their SES affects the change in health satisfaction from pre- to post-migration. Methods and findings: We used data from the 2016 refugee survey, which was part of the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP). Although cross-sectional by design, this survey collected information referring to the current situation as a refugee in Germany as well as to their situation before migration. Using a sample of 2,209 adult Syrian refugees who had entered Germany between 2013 and 2016, we conducted a cross-sectional and a quasi-longitudinal (retrospective) analysis. The mean ± SD age was 35 ± 11 years, with 64% of the participants being male. Our results showed a positive association between pre-migration self-reported SES and several subjective health indicators (e.g., health satisfaction, self-reported health, mental health) in the cross-sectional analysis. However, the quasi-longitudinal analysis revealed that the socioeconomic gradient in health satisfaction before migration was strongly attenuated after migration (SES-by-time interaction: −0.48, 95% CI −0.61 to −0.35, p < 0.001; unstandardized regression coefficients, 5-point SES scale and 11-point health outcome scale). Similar results were produced after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, experiences during the migration passage, and the current situation in Germany. A sex-stratified analysis showed that while there was some improvement in health satisfaction among men from the lowest SES over time, no improvement was found among women. A limitation of this study is that it considers only the first months or years after migration. Thus, we cannot preclude that the socioeconomic gradient regains importance in the longer run. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the pre-migration socioeconomic gradient in health satisfaction is strongly attenuated in the first years after migration among Syrian refugees. Hence, a high SES before crisis and migration provides limited protection against the adverse health effects of migration passage.
Abstract: This book develops the law of political economy as a new field of scholarly enquiry. Bringing together an exceptional group of scholars, it provides a novel conceptual framework for studying the role of law and legal instruments in political economy contexts, with a focus on historical transformations and central challenges in both European and global contexts. Its chapters reconstruct how the law of political economy plays out in diverse but central fields, ranging from competition and consumer protection law to labour and environmental law, giving a comprehensive overview of the central challenges of the law of political economy. It also provides a sophisticated and multifaceted framework for further enquires while outlining the contours of new law of political economy.
Abstract: Bedre velfærd! Mere velfærd for pengene! Et godt psykisk arbejdsmiljø! Igennem de seneste år har der i den offentlige moderniseringsdebat været fokus på, at de økonomiske, faglige og menneskelige ressourcer optimeres i samarbejdet om velfærdsopgaven. Siden reformationen har der i Danmark været en tradition for, at selvejende og frivillige organisationer varetager en stor del af velfærdsopgaverne i samarbejde med den offentlige sektor. I de sidste 100 år har dette samarbejde gennemgået flere faser og til tider været spændingsfyldt. Samtidig diskuteres det, at det rummer mulighed for samskabelse og kreativ brug af ressourcer. Artiklen bygger på en systemteoretisk analyse af et nyt større udviklings- og forskningsprojekt. Casen, der undersøges, er et fireårigt partnerskabsprojekt mellem 100 selvejende frivillige daginstitutioner, deres paraplyorganisation og tre kommuner, der skulle udvikle samarbejdet. Det vises, hvordan samarbejde med partnerskaber kan blive til samskabelse mellem selvejende frivillige daginstitutioner og det offentlige. Dette rummer et stort potentiale i forhold til at håndtere den kompleksitet, som velfærdsopgaven i dag kræver. Analysen konkluderer, at hvis samarbejdet skal blive til samskabelse, må det imidlertid igennem en særlig transformationsproces. Som et bud på at guide denne proces præsenterer jeg en sommerfugle-model, der er udviklet på baggrund af analysen. Den viser, hvordan partnerskaber mellem frivillige og offentlige organisationer på flere planer kan bidrage til en spirende ny praksis for samskabelse om velfærdsopgaven, og der gives et bud på, hvordan der kan skabes værdi i et spændingsfuldt samarbejde. Med sommerfugle-modellen udpeges der ikke bare ét svar på ét problematisk og spændingsfyldt samarbejde. Det er derimod et normativt nedslag på arenaen af forskellige tilgange til problemer og løsninger på samarbejdets spændinger og udfordringer. Det understreges, at skal samarbejdet transformeres til samskabelse, må det hele tiden skabes, genskabes og udfolde sig relevant. Der argumenteres for en platform mellem praksis og universitet, der kan understøtte dette, for parterne må selv etablere forudsætningerne for transformationen. Sommerfugle-modellen er også relevant for samarbejdet om psykisk arbejdsmiljø, for det spejler tilsvarende kompleksitet og håndtering af mange krav til velfærdsopgaven, der løbende forandrer sig, som når der skal arbejdes med Pernille Steen Pedersens nye anerkendelsespraksis, der adresseres i den anden artikel i dette nummer.
Abstract: Purpose: This paper describes the case of how the Danish beer manufacturer, Carlsberg, developed the Green Fiber Bottle as part of its sustainability program through an open innovation approach in collaboration with complementary partners. It thereby illustrates how a grand challenge associated with sustainability can be effectively addressed through open innovation and reveals the opportunities and challenges that emerge in that context. Design/methodology/approach: The paper summarizes some key elements of the case and, in particular, discusses some of the lessons learned, which can be further explored in future research, practice, and policy. Findings: The case suggests a number of key issues that are relevant when attempting to address grand challenges, in general, and sustainability in the food and beverage (F&B) industry, in particular, namely: leveraging open innovation in the face of sustainability as a grand challenge; sustainability beyond a solid business case; opportunities and challenges in the face of new business models; the importance of early wins for addressing societal challenges for signals and scaling; and the importance of the Nordic context and long-term vision. Originality/value: The case describes a recent (and to some extent still ongoing) initiative of how a particular F&B company has explored new approaches to developing its sustainability program. Therefore, it highlights some of the unique characteristics of this case. This paper also lays the groundwork for the establishment of “Sustainable Open Innovation” as a domain in its own right.
Abstract:The SOE (state-owned enterprise) sector provides an important avenue to political power in China. A number of SOE executives are members of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and often they change career tracks to become leading government and Party officials. In the past, the oil and gas sector was a significant recruitment basis for government and Party leaders.However, in recent years, the aerospace sector has become more dominant. This is a result of the anti-corruption campaign which has, in particular, targeted the oil sector, and also reflects the emergence of new sectors and social groups due to changing political and socio-economic conditions of Chinese society. The oil and gas industry is an old industry associated with China’s heavy-industrial growth model of the past, whereas aerospace represents China’s technological future.
Abstract: The major premise of this study is that managers purposefully shape the business context for radical innovation. Particularly, the strategic option of developing radical innovation in collaboration with direct competitors offers opportunities otherwise unattainable. We tap into its cognitive underpinnings by running an experimental study of coopetition design for radical innovation. We have collected 5760 binary decisions from a sample of 160 managers. Their indications are used to run a choice-based conjoint analysis in order to identify utilities attributed to coopetition-shaping decisions in a radical innovation project (using a scenario of self-driving/electric cars produced by VW, Daimler or Tesla). We use Hierarchical Bayes Multinomial Logit Regression to test a set of four hypotheses, each addressing a different coopetition factor to unveil manager's preferences in coopetition design for radical innovation. Our findings pinpoint a clear preference for network coopetition, using formal governance, and being based on intensive knowledge sharing. Contrary to prior literature, market uncertainty does not appear to significantly influence coopetition design for radical innovation.
Abstract: We conduct a framed field experiment at a Dutch university to compare student effort provision and exam performance under the two most prevalent evaluation practices: absolute (criterion-referenced) and relative (norm-referenced) grading. We hypothesize that the rank-order tournament created by relative grading will increase effort provision and performance among students with competitive preferences. We use student gender and survey measures (self-reported as well as incentivized) as proxies for competitiveness. Contrary to our expectations, we find no significant impact of relative grading on preparation behavior or exam scores, neither among men nor among students with higher measures of competitiveness. We discuss several potential explanations for this finding, and argue that it is likely attributable to the low value that students in our sample attach to academic excellence.
Abstract: To assess whether smiley stamps work as a motivational incentive to promote fruit and vegetable eating among children, we conducted a field experiment in ten primary schools in five European countries using one control and one treatment school per country. The six-week experiment was split into three two-week phases before, during and after the smiley was implemented. During the smiley phase, the children received a smiley stamp for choosing a portion of fruits or vegetables. We find an increase attributed to the smiley stamp on children’s fruit and vegetable choice and consumption, but also waste. Comparing the effects across countries, we observe significant variations in the smiley effect. This study thus demonstrates, in general, that a low-cost, easy-to-implement incentive such as a smiley stamp has the potential to motivate school children to increase their fruit and vegetable consumption; the study simultaneously underscores the high relevance of context for the effects of incentives.
Abstract:Local content requirements – i.e. government backed requirements that extractive MNCs must procure inputs locally – are fast becoming a major issue in MNC-host country bargaining in Africa. As a result of increasingly stringent local content requirements, extractive MNCs operating in Africa are facing a rapidly evolving strategic field, the management of which may have huge implications for their profitability and efficiency. While a vibrant and dynamic literature on local content in Africa is emerging, this literature is predominantly informed by economic and political perspectives, and strategic management perspectives are virtually absent. Hence, the aim of the paper is to characterize and develop the strategic management perspective on local content. Based on the classical local responsiveness-global integration grid, a framework is developed for, how MNCs may strategize on local content. The paper contributes to research by providing a conceptual framework that can inspire future strategic management research on MNC local content practices in Africa. Moreover, by providing a theory-based understanding of the strategic opportunities and challenges that face MNCs in relation to local content requirements, the paper may inform policymakers on how to better align local content interventions with MNC strategies and interests thus rendering them more effective.
Abstract: This review answers recent calls to consider the transformative role of transnational professionals in contemporary globalization. It departs from the dominant perspective, which views professions as constrained by states’ geographical boundaries and by organizations such as nationally based professional associations. Transnational professionals have particular characteristics: they combine high-level abstract knowledge, high mobility across national and organizational settings, social and cultural capital, and distributed agency to shape global practices. Over the past two decades, a vibrant research stream has emerged on these professionals and their boundary-crossing work, raising new questions about agency, territoriality, and power. We examine transnational professionals across a range of occupations and sectors, as well as world regions, extracting the implications for sociological theory and methods. We outline a scholarly agenda highlighting the opportunity structures and likely trajectories for those who locate themselves in transnational professional spaces, suggesting how they can be investigated in future research.
Abstract: Undervejs gennem livet kan man blive ramt af uheld, ulykke eller sygdom. Man kan også ende med at blive meget gammel. For at sikre en jævn forbrugsprofil gennem hele livet er det derfor vigtigt at træffe kvalificerede valg med hensyn til forsikringer og pension. Dette gælder ikke blot pensionsopsparing, men også skadeforsikringer mod tyveri og brand; forsikringer mod sygdom, der sætter en uden for arbejdsmarkedet for en periode samt livsforsikring. Denne artikel redegør for nogle af de vigtigste forhold med hensyn til pensioner og forsikringer, som man skal være opmærksom på over et livsforløb, både generelt og i specifikke aldersklasser.
Abstract: Issues related to Catalan secessionism are central to current debates on European integration, nationalism, and territorial politics, and the Catalan independence movement has become famous for its large annual demonstrations on Catalan national day, the Diada. This paper represents the first attempt at a thorough empirical investigation of the most important political event in Catalonia combining historical and ethnographic analysis that covers the current modern period from 1977 to 2019. This paper uses a mixed-methods approach to study the Diada mobilisations with two different main approaches determined principally by the availability of sources. We investigate the recent period of activating the Diada since 2012 using qualitative interviews, ethnographic data, and social media analysis. For the more distant periods of the Diada celebration, we use a more classical historical approach centred on discourse analysis of print media and public discourses. We find that there has been a marked shift in the perception and organisation of the Diada in recent years. We conclude that when civil society organisations are in charge of the Diada celebration, the result is a more politically charged event that mobilises a much larger proportion of the population than when politicians and political parties organise the celebration. Further, when political parties are in charge, the Diada not only mobilises far fewer people, but usually takes on a much more cultural and festive character compared with the explicitly political Diada demonstrations organised by civil society actors since 2012
Abstract: Appeals to act pro-socially are becoming an increasingly popular way for utilities and authorities to encourage environmental-friendly behavior because of lower financial costs than if price incentives were used. However, recent research suggests that these measures might be emotionally taxing for utility consumers. In this article, we present the results from a randomized field experiment conducted on a sample of 1967 customers serviced by a Danish electricity company. Our results support the suggestion that socially motivated appeals are significantly more emotionally taxing than monetary incentives. We find that this difference disappears when the pro-social appeal is supplemented with a monetary incentive. Finally, we suggest a strategy for reducing emotional ‘costs’ of pro-social appeals without increasing financial costs or reducing the effectiveness of the appeal.
Abstract: We investigate the effects of automation on total factor productivity (TFP). Using Industry-level panel data for nine countries, we find that more intensive use of industrial robots has a significantly positive effect on TFP. Specifically, an increase of one standard deviation in the robot intensity is associated with more than 6% higher TFP. Moreover, we find that the robot intensity increases with Chinese import competition and that automation is associated with higher wages and unchanged or higher employment.
Abstract: Research limitations/implications – The results paint a complex picture of the nuances of social identification as an outcome of MLDPs, and problematize the notion of cascading effects on subordinates within the organization. Researchers are encouraged to further examine organizational attitudes and perceptions as outcomes of MLDPs. Practical implications – Suggestions are offered regarding how practitioners can manage strategically oriented MLDPs in order to avoid identity confusion and promote strategic action. Originality/value – Strategically oriented MLDPs are increasingly popular in organizations. This study is one of the first to evaluate the theoretical mechanisms through which these programs may affect managers and problematize these effects for complex organizations
Abstract: International trade and foreign direct investment (FDI), as well as other forms of cross‐border economic activities, are essential to globalization, even in the emerging era of neoglobalization as a unique balance between globalization and deglobalization. Despite the hype, globalization is a relatively new phenomenon. In the past few decades, international trade and FDI were largely regional in scope (Cantwell, Dunning, & Lundan, 2010; Rugman, 2003; Rugman & Verbeke, 2004). For globalization as the highest stage of internationalization, intercontinental economic activities are much more critical than intracontinental ones. In recent history, intercontinental economic activities have often occurred across the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. This contrasts with much older types of intercontinental economic activities that occurred in the form of cross‐land exchanges. For example, in the ancient Silk Road era, China and Europe engaged in intercontinental economic exchanges that gave rise to economic, social, technological, and cultural transformation in both China and Europe. This historical era included the birth of the Renaissance and the Industrial Revolution as the most significant events in the history of East‐Meeting‐West (Li, 2012). Now it seems that history is repeating itself in another context, as evidenced by the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). Even though the BRI was initiated by China, it cannot be considered a sole effort on the part of China. Rather, it could be reframed as a megaproject of international collaboration between China and Europe in a move toward an intercontinental ecosystem (in terms of a cross‐continental community of self‐organized, yet interdependent, members engaging in co‐opetition based on an institutional platform as their shared infrastructure for interaction, cf. Jacobides, Cennamo, & Gawer, 2018; Nambisan, Zahra, & Luo, 2019; Shipilov & Gawer, 2020), and as one of the most critical events in the emerging era of neoglobalization. The purpose of this article is to identify the salient challenges of the BRI to intercontinental economic integration and discuss the major strategic implications of BRI for multinational enterprises (MNEs) around the world. In particular, our study bears critical implications for the debates over the potential effect of China's international relationships on China's domestic policies, and also the domestic forces underlying such international relationships, even under the condition of economic “cold war” (e.g., Allison, 2017; Petricevic & Teece, 2019; Teece, 2020; Witt, 2019; see Li, 2019 for a review).
Abstract: In both the Danish and Norwegian military, we have seen how an extensive use of humor makes work more fun for some soldiers, while having a negative effect on others. Not least women who are often victims of the humor – a group already at the edge of this traditional male bastion. In this paper, we focus on the types, function and explanations for this excluding use of humor.
It can be debated whether this use of humor is a deliberate tool or «just a joke» but the result is often that one has to put up with more than what feels comfortable or even being a target for jokes or ridicule. But if laughing at others’ teasing or even coming up with jokes yourself is a sign that you are part of the group, who would then want to be a killjoy by saying «stop»?
We contextualize this humor with matters of cultural demarcations of what might be considered acceptable in the military and present it as an example of the problems that go beyond removing structural obstacles for gender equality. Theories of homosociality and hegemonic masculinity are also employed. Finally, we provide examples of strategies for countering this type of exclusive practice.
Abstract: Identification of fuel poverty and its impact on individuals is a growing social issue. Classifying households using subjective measures of fuel poverty yields different results than when objective measures are used. Moreover, there are assessment-related difficulties in establishing the effects on health and wellbeing, which hinders policy design to tackle this problem. In this paper, we propose a latent class ordered probit model to control for subjectivity when analysing the influence of fuel poverty on self-reported health. This methodology is applied to a sample of 25,000 individuals in 11,000 households for the 2011–2014 period in Spain, where 5.1 million people (11% of the population) could not afford to heat their homes to an adequate temperature in 2014. The results show that poor housing conditions, low income, material deprivation, and fuel poverty, have a negative impact on health. We also find that the effect of objective fuel poverty and other poverty-related factors on health are stronger when we control for unobserved heterogeneity among individuals. Since objective measures alone may not fully capture the adverse effect of fuel poverty on health, we advocate policy approaches that combine both objective and subjective measures and its application by policymakers.
Abstract: This study examines the influence of cultural regions on the interdependence between delegation of authority and other management control (MC) practices. In particular, we assess whether one of the central contentions of agency theory, that incentive contracting and delegation are jointly determined, holds in different cultural regions. Drawing on prior literature, we hypothesise that the MC practices that operate as a complement to delegation vary depending on societal values and preferences, and that MC practices other than incentive contracting will complement delegation in firms in non-Anglo cultural regions. Using data collected from 584 strategic business units across three Western cultural regions (Anglo, Germanic, Nordic), our results show that the interdependence between delegation and incentive contracting is confined to Anglo firms. In the Nordic and Germanic regions, we find that strategic and action planning participation operate as a complement to delegation, while delegation is also complemented by manager selection in Nordic firms. Overall, our study demonstrates that cultural values and preferences significantly influence MC interdependence, and suggests that caution needs to be taken in making cross-cultural generalisations about the complementarity of MC practices.
Abstract: Drawing on club theory, this study examines the challenges and opportunities facing a sustainability certification program, the Green Key scheme, in terms of its recruitment and retention of members within the Dutch tourism and hospitality industry. Extant literature on sustainability certification in this industry tends to focus narrowly on motivations and retention problems at the firm level, or else on drivers of or barriers to the adoption of sustainability certification schemes. The links between scheme design characteristics and scheme effectiveness and their implications for recruitment and retention thus have remained relatively unexamined. To address this gap, this study proposes a theoretical framework that highlights how different design features of sustainability certification schemes might inform the recruitment and retention challenges that scheme managers often face.
Abstract: Strategic contracting is based on the fundamental condition of risk and gain sharing in the course of relational rent creation. The mutual application of hardship and gain provisions implies that if such an instance occurs after the conclusion of the contract, the parties have an obligation to renegotiate the contract in a fair manner. However, even though strategic contracting strives to ensure the alignment of incentives, there might still be a risk of hold-up and perhaps even efficient breach of contract. We apply the classical microeconomic risk-preference theory of expected utility and transaction cost theory in order to develop a form of strategic contracting that entails the use of a reciprocal hardship and gain provisions, which helps the contracting parties deal with such instances. We outline three necessary and cumulatively sufficient conditions under which hardship and gain provisions make economic sense.
Abstract: Hvordan kan ledere og medarbejdere i fællesskab tage højde for stress i et moderne arbejdsliv? Dette spørgsmål er undersøgt i forskningsprojektet: ”Ledelse, kerneopgave, arbejdsfællesskaber og stress”, som er finansieret af parterne på det kommunale arbejdsmarked i regi af Fremfærd, CBS og 3 kommuner. Under navnet: ”En oplyst anerkendelsesrejse” er der udviklet forskningsbaserede dialogværktøjer, der giver et nyt sprog og perspektiv på stress-håndtering i arbejdsfællesskabet. I denne artikel vil jeg fortælle om erfaringerne fra projektet samt præsentere de nye forebyggelsesværktøjer, der bl.a. skal hjælpe til at forstå forskellige reaktionsmønstre på højt arbejdspres og give input til dialoger herom. Forskningen bidrager til en praktisk ledelsesteori med særlig fokus på forebyggelse af stressrelateret sygefravær, som forøger ledere såvel som medarbejderes evne til at sætte sig i hinandens sted og skaber handlemuligheder.
Abstract: Der findes mere end 30 internationale standarder og begrebsrammer, der kan bruges af virksomheder for at udarbejde ESG-rapportering. Dette skaber et komplekst og til stor del frivilligt rapporteringslandskab. Virksomheder anvender nemlig ikke nødvendigvis de samme standarder og begrebsrammer til at rapportere omkring deres arbejde med ESG. Dette skaber i sagens natur ESG-data, som gør det svært for investorer at sammenholde, hvordan virksomheder præsterer på forskellige ESG-parametre. Denne artikel giver en oversigt over regulering og standarder, der former ESG-rapporteringslandskabet.
Abstract: Denial of service (DoS) attack is one of the prevalent security threats in today’s digital world. A significant number of machine learning algorithms have been applied for detection of DoS attacks. However, each algorithm has its own limitations. In general, the success of any machine learning algorithm is based on the selection of appropriate data set and identification of attack parameters. In this paper, a detailed investigation is done in the process of identifying relevant attack parameters from the simple network management protocol data set. The chosen parameters underwent various metrics comparisons for validating their accuracy. We started with the linear regression model and achieved accuracy of 99.7% with 3.3% errors. Hence, to achieve further optimization in the case of error reduction, we applied gradient descent algorithm in the linear regression which reduces errors by 3%. Hence, our proposed measures help in accurate identification of DoS attacks and the same has been verified through the experimental simulations and graphical representation.
Abstract: Purpose This research aims to explore and analyze multinational enterprises (MNEs) and local firms' ambidexterity strategies to buffer against narcoterrorism impacts on their assets. The role of line managers (LMs), who have been deemed key players in the implementation of ambidextrous strategies, was investigated in detail.Design/methodology/approach This paper presents a qualitative study based on 58 semistructured interviews with key employees, i.e. firm directors, human resource (HR) managers, LMs and their subordinates, in Colombia and Mexico over a three-year period.Findings The “culture of insecurity” that exists in Colombia and Mexico due to narcoterrorism and the lack of governmental enactment of coercive institutional pillars defines the common frames and patterns of the beliefs held by managers and employees working in such contexts. To ensure the survival of employees and firms in unsafe institutional contexts while managing normative pressures to compete worldwide, LMs, HR departments, and ultimately firms are forced to strategically exploit security measures and simultaneously implement innovative explorative strategies.Originality/value The findings suggest that ambidexterity strategies in unsafe institutional contexts represent an organizational advantage for competing worldwide while surviving in such contexts. This study contributes to the literature by linking ambidexterity and new institutionalism research in a robust framework with which to examine employment relationships in unsafe institutional contexts.
Abstract: Cloud computing and the cloud services market have advanced in the past ten years. Cloud services now include most information technology (IT) services from fundamental computing services to more cutting- edge artificial intelligence (AI) services. Accordingly, opportunities have emerged for research on the design of new market features to improve the cloud services market to benefit providers and users. Based on our observation of the recent development of cloud services, in this short research commentary, we share our agenda for future studies of this important sector of IT services.
Abstract: Toilets, a neglected facility in the study of human relations at work and beyond, have become increasingly important in discussions about future experiences of gender diversity. To further investigate the spatial production of gender and its potential expressions, we transformed a unisex single-occupancy toilet at Uppsala University into an all-gender or ‘hir-toilet’.1 With the aim to disrupt and expose the dominant spatial organization of the two binary genders, we inaugurated the hir-toilet with the help of a performance artist. We describe and analyse internal and external responses thereto, using Lefebvre’s work on dialectics and space. Focusing on how space is variously lived, conceived and perceived, our analysis questions the very rationale of gender categorizations. The results contribute to a renewed critique of binary thinking in the organization of workplaces by extending our understanding of how space and human relations mutually constitute each other.
Abstract: The race to dominate digital payment markets is still ongoing, with no clear winner in sight. While some of the existing digital payment platforms continue to evolve prompted by increasing user base, others perish, making room for new contenders, such as the global tech companies (Apple, Google, and Samsung) to enter the race. This shift in the competitive environment opens new avenues for researchers to investigate the entry and expansion strategies of these entrants and the strategies, which already existing payment platforms can adopt to defend their market positions.
Abstract: To explore the emerging and contested issue of business and human rights in the area of climate change, this article provides a critical discussion from the viewpoint of moral philosophy. A novel typology of businesses’ human rights duties (‘duty’ is considered synonymous with ‘responsibility’ here) is proposed. It claims that duties are both forward- and backward-looking. Cases of human rights litigation seeking remedy for climate-related harms are backward-looking, and duties should be determined on the basis of proportion of historical emissions, culpable knowledge and counter-acts to abate climate harms. Businesses’ forward-looking duties, however, depend on their power, privilege, interest and collective abilities. The typology is then assessed against the background of recent legal principles and instruments. It is concluded that moral duties of business reach beyond mere respect for human rights and national jurisdictions in the context of climate change.
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this study is to unpack the antecedents and consequences of clickbait prevalence in online media at two different levels, namely, (1) Headline-level: what characteristics of clickbait headlines attract user clicks and (2) Publisher-level: what happens to publishers who create clickbait on a prolonged basis.
Design/methodology/approach – To test the proposed conjectures, the authors collected longitudinal data in collaboration with a leading company that operates more than 500 WeChat official accounts in China. This study proposed a text mining framework to extract and quantify clickbait rhetorical features (i.e. hyperbole, insinuation, puzzle, and visual rhetoric). Econometric analysis was employed for empirical validation.
Findings – The findings revealed that (1) hyperbole, insinuation, and visual rhetoric entice users to click the baited headlines, (2) there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between the number of clickbait headlines posted by a publisher and its visit traffic, and (3) this non-linear relationship is moderated by the publisher’s age. Research limitations/implications – This research contributes to current literature on clickbait detection and clickbait consequences. Future studies can design more sophisticated methods for extracting rhetorical characteristics and implement in different languages.
Practical implications – The findings could aid online media publishers to design attractive headlines and develop clickbait strategies to avoid user churn, and help managers enact appropriate regulations and policies to control clickbait prevalence.
Originality/value – The authors propose a novel text mining framework to quantify rhetoric embedded in clickbait. This study empirically investigates antecedents and consequences of clickbait prevalence through an exploratory study of WeChat in China
Abstract: We investigate conditional conservatism and firms’ access to trade credit during the 2007–2008 global financial crisis. Previous studies argue that suppliers prefer conservative customers because of information asymmetry in production networks; we extend this line of research by focusing on trade credit during the 2007–2008 global financial crisis, a period that was characterized by a credit supply shock. We first document a positive association between conditional conservatism and firms’ access to trade credit both before and after the onset of the crisis, which indicates suppliers’ demand for conditional conservatism. Meanwhile, the association between conditional conservatism and trade credit experienced a significant decline following the onset of the crisis, and this only held when suppliers and customers had frequent transactions or were in close proximity, when transacted goods were standardized rather than differentiated, when customers were financially constrained and had high bargaining power, and when suppliers had sufficient liquidity. It implies that, when information asymmetry along the supply chain was low and customers had strong bargaining power, liquid suppliers increased their tolerance to less conservative customers, and they were even willing to grant trade credit to the less conservative customers that were financially constrained. Overall, this study adds to previous literature by demonstrating suppliers’ multifaceted demand for conditional conservatism.