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I denne måned handler publikationerne blandt andet om, hvor langt vi er villige til at bøje vores moral ved udsigten til flere penge.
Derudover sætter ny forskning spot på frivillig-turisme og undersøger effekten af kampagnerne Barbie Savior på Instagram og Radi-Aid på YouTube.
HER ER DENNE MÅNEDS PEER-REVIEWED FORSKNING (PÅ ENGELSK) – GOD LÆSELYST:
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ABSTRACT: Humans not only value extrinsic monetary rewards but also their own morality and their image in the eyes of others. Yet violating moral norms is frequent, especially when people know that they are not under scrutiny. When moral values and monetary payoffs are at odds, how does the brain weigh the benefits and costs of moral and monetary payoffs? Here, using a neurocomputational model of decision value (DV) and functional (f)MRI, we investigated whether different brain systems are engaged when deciding whether to earn money by contributing to a “bad cause” and when deciding whether to sacrifice money to contribute to a “good cause,” both when such choices were made privately or in public. Although similar principles of DV computations were used to solve these dilemmas, they engaged 2 distinct valuation systems. When weighing monetary benefits and moral costs, people were willing to trade their moral values in exchange for money, an effect accompanied by DV computation engaging the anterior insula and the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). In contrast, weighing monetary costs against compliance with one’s moral values engaged the ventral putamen. Moreover, regardless of the type of dilemma, a brain network including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), anterior insula, and the right temporoparietal junction (TJP) was more engaged in public than in private settings. Together, these findings identify how the brain processes three sources of motivation: extrinsic rewards, moral values, and concerns for image.
ABSTRACT: How is volunteer tourism practice portrayed and policed in an online setting? First, this article describes three humanitarian-themed campaigns—Radi-Aid on YouTube, Humanitarians of Tinder on Tumblr, and Barbie Savior on Instagram—to consider the ways edgy humor might be employed to rebuke and resolve problematic humanitarian practices as well as representations of the African “other” and the humanitarian self. Second, through an inspection of repeated semi-structured interviews and visual content uploaded to Facebook, this article shows how a group of UK-based international volunteers took measures to avoid “stereotypical” volunteer photography (embracing children, selfies) when communicating their experiences in Kenya to a public audience, determined to avoid the scrutiny of “in the know” audience members. We consider these counter-narratives in light of Jane’s concept of “digilantism,” an emerging style of networked response to injustice.
ABSTRACT: The hallmark of today’s global value chains (GVCs), still dominated by multinationals from advanced economies, is a sophisticated international division of labor based on scale economies and prevailing factor endowment differences between countries. However, GVCs led by multinationals from large emerging economies may be configured on the basis of considerations that supplement factor cost efficiencies, namely, those of societal objectives as formulated by political actors in the home country. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to examine the implications of political and socio-economic factors on GVC configuration of multinational firms.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to enhance the knowledge about the use of online communication between patients and health-care professionals in public health care. The study explores digital divide gaps and the impacts of online communication on the overall costs of health care.
ABSTRACT: This paper develops the idea that global city characteristics in distinct micro-locations attract foreign and domestic firms differentially. The hypotheses are tested on a large data set of workplaces during the period 2007–16 and a complex relationship is found between global connectivity and foreign-owned location choice. Specifically, global infrastructure is strongly associated with foreign ownership in the upstream value chain (manufacturing or wholesale), whereas cosmopolitanism exhibits a stronger association with foreign ownership in downstream value-chain activities, such as retail. The agglomeration of producer services in a given location and the likelihood of foreign ownership in that location is higher in highly knowledge-intensive industries.
ABSTRACT: Scientific knowledge dissemination is necessary to collaboratively develop solutions to today’s challenges among scientific, public, and commercial actors. Building on this, recent concepts (e.g., Third Mission) discuss the role and value of different dissemination mechanisms for increasing societal impact. However, the value individual scientists receive in exchange for disseminating knowledge differs across these mechanisms, which, consequently, affects their selection. So far, value capture mechanisms have mainly been described as appropriating monetary rewards in exchange for scientists’ knowledge (e.g., patenting). However, most knowledge dissemination activities in science do not directly result in capturing monetary value (e.g., social engagement). By taking a value capture perspective, this article conceptualizes and explores how individual scientists capture value from disseminating their knowledge. Results from our qualitative study indicate that scientists’ value capture consists of a measureable objective part (e.g., career promotion) and a still unconsidered subjective part (e.g., social recognition), which is perceived as valuable due to scientists’ needs. By advancing our understanding of value capture in science, scientists’ selection of dissemination mechanisms can be incentivized to increase both the value captured by themselves and society. Hence, policy makers and university managers can contribute to overcoming institutional and ecosystem barriers and foster scientists’ engagement with society.
ABSTRACT: This paper takes a fresh look at the determinants of the holding of reserves with the aim of highlighting similarities and differences among emerging markets (EMs), advanced economies (AEs), and low‐income countries (LICs). We apply two panel estimation techniques: fixed effects (FE) and common correlated effects pooled mean group (CCEPMG). FE regression results suggest that precautionary savings’ motives, both current account‐ and capital account‐related, are generally the most important determinants of reserves’ holding for all country groups. Nonetheless, there is considerable heterogeneity across country groups and over time. The intertemporal motive, a novelty of this paper, has gained importance everywhere. The CCEPMG results confirm the importance of precautionary motives and suggest that current account motives matter only for EMs and LICs and capital account motives matter for all groups while being more relevant for EMs. The CCEPMG results also point to the importance of taking into account the heterogeneous impact of unobserved common factors that affect coefficient estimates and the dynamic process through which reserves adjust to changes.
ABSTRACT: We investigate the principal-principal (PP) conflicts between large blockholders in the context of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs). We focus on the conflicts between family blockholders and two groups of financial institutional investors – banks and mutual funds. We hypothesize that different types of blockholders have heterogeneous preferences with respect to the CBA decision and outcomes. We suggest that the PP conflicts in CBA differ across the blockholders. Banks are pressure sensitive and cooperative with the management because of their clientele relationship with firms, while mutual funds are subject to more financial scrutiny and independent from the management, making them pressure resistant. When in conflict with more powerful family blockholders, mutual funds will choose to exit after a CBA decision, whereas banks are more likely to stay. With an equally distributed voting power, family and mutual fund blockholders will be more motivated to monitor over each other and jointly discipline the management, leading to more careful selection of CBAs and higher overall shareholder value. However, such effects are weak in the case of family and banks. We find support for these conjectures using data on CBAs undertaken by US public firms over the period 2003–2016.
ABSTRACT: In this study we aimed to determine whether decision-making ability, cognitive inflexibility and emotion-driven impulsiveness are associated with weight status as expressed by body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat, waist circumference and skinfold thickness in adults from eight different European countries taking part in the I.Family study. The Bechara Gambling Task was used to assess decision-making ability (n = 1717). The Berg Card Sorting Test was used to measure cognitive inflexibility (n = 1509). Lastly, the negative urgency subscale from the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale was used to measure emotion-driven impulsiveness (n = 4450). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that more emotion-driven impulsiveness was statistically significantly associated with a higher BMI, a higher percentage body fat, and a larger waist circumference in adults, controlling for age, sex, socioeconomic status, country and binge eating; but not with skinfold thickness. Cognitive inflexibility and decision-making ability were not statistically significantly associated with any of the weight status related variables. These results support that impulsivity in response to negative emotions, but not decision-making ability or cognitive inflexibility, is associated with the susceptibility to excessive weight (as indicated by a higher BMI, a higher percentage body fat, and a larger waist circumference). In people behaving impulsively when emotional, focusing on reducing negative affect or improving coping skills is of interest in interventions targeting obesity.
ABSTRACT: Adults with ADHD had considerably lower disposable income and paid less tax than their siblings. They also received more state benefits, had higher costs for health, social care, and crime than their siblings. The total average costs difference for the year 2010 was 20,134 euros more than their sibling for each adult with ADHD.
ABSTRACT: By separating and defining the use of infinitives and imperatives as directives it is concluded that the infinitive is used to issue prohibition or to give orders at the authoritative level of the Russian society, whereas the imperative is used in social problem solving among ordinary people at the non-authoritative level of the society. When dealing with single actions, it is demonstrated that the perfective imperative form is linked to alethic modality, i.e. laws of nature, while the imperfective imperative is tied up with deontic modality, i.e. laws of society. Compared to the individualist culture of United Kingdom that seems to be based on the alethic notion of possibility and compared to the collectivist culture of China that seems to be grounded in the deontic notion of obligation, the Russian society stands out as a third variety with a sharp distinction between two different types of societal logic: knowledge of what is possible, impossible, necessary or unnecessary and knowledge of what is permitted, prohibited, obligated or not obligated for specific persons in concrete situations. It is furthermore demonstrated that whereas the English society focusses on the hearer’s face and the Chinese society on the speaker’s face, the Russian society focusses on both the speaker’s and the hearer’s face. In that way, a problem is considered a mutual problem, a problem of society that has to be solved as quickly as possible. By constantly establishing contact between members of the society the imperative mood can be said to have a binding effect. This is part of the reason why the imperative itself has no negative connotations.
ABSTRACT: This special issue introduces a new object of analysis: the organization of markets for collective concerns and their failures. This paper discusses how the study of this new object challenges key assumptions in recent social studies of markets. We focus on three issues, each related to the keywords of the title: organization, market, and concern. The first problem is the fluctuating conceptual value of the market-organization pair in the forms of expertise used to implement and repair markets for collective concerns. The second challenge pushes social researchers to develop a stronger analytical sensibility to the identification and understanding of the concepts of markets mobilized in their fields. Third, we show how the consolidation of professions involved in practices of market design challenges the political expectations found in social studies of markets.
ABSTRACT: Practitioners have played an important role in the information system (IS) field’s development since its beginnings. In the 1970s, IS researchers’ integration with practitioners was high with Society for Information Management members receiving copies of the MIS Quarterly, practitioners funding the ICIS Doctoral Consortium, and submissions receiving at least one practitioner review. Today, however, the integration between practitioners and researchers appears more distant. Given that almost 50 years have passed since the field’s development, we believe that we need to reflect on the past, present, and future relationship between IS research and IS practice. Has the distance between academics and practitioners become too great? Is our relevance too low to expect practitioners to join AIS and attend our conferences? How might we increase the integration? At a panel at ICIS 2018, several panelists provided position statements about those issues.
ABSTRACT: Building on postcolonial critical organization and development studies, this paper explores the neo-colonial drive of a global development initiative. The New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition (NA) was launched in 2012 and provides a governance framework for partnerships between donors, governments, and companies that applies principles and practices of market-led growth as means to the end of inclusive development. Through an in-depth, multilevel analysis that juxtaposes the NA’s stipulated framework with the lived experiences of smallholder farmers in Malawi, one of ten African countries to participate in NA, the paper shows how local consequences are decoupled from global goals through governance gaps in both the horizontal and vertical dynamics of implementation. This decoupling of intention and consequence, we argue, happens at the national level of translating global principles into local practices. On the basis of this analysis, we suggest that vertical and horizontal governance must be integrated in one framework. Thus, we contribute to ongoing efforts to improve the theory and practice of the organization of development by introducing a framework of transglocal governance.
ABSTRACT: The configurations of global value chains and production networks are constantly changing, leading to new trajectories and geographical distributions of value creation and capture. In this article, we offer a 40-year evolutionary perspective on power and governance in the global coffee value chain and production network. We identify three distinct phases that are characterised by different power dynamics, governance setups and distributional configurations. We find that the kinds of power exercised along the coffee chain have changed, but also that the underlying power inequities between Northern buyers and Southern producers have remained fundamentally unaltered.
ABSTRACT: How do crisis perceptions interrelate with the emergence and re-constitution of policy problems? By using a novel combination of interviews with a content and network analysis of hand-coded parliamentary questions, this article maps the emergence of brain drain as a policy problem at the level of the European Union and follows the evolution of the issue over the last four parliamentary periods (from 1999 to 2019). I identify a skills storyline (emphasizing reform of vocational and educational training to address skills mismatches) and a solidarity storyline (emphasizing worker conditions, rights, and wages) as the main contending narratives that define the contours of the debate. The article analyzes how each of these storylines interacted over time with changes in the perception of crisis urgency facing the European Union in ways that run counter to what we would expect. I explain this by examining the capacity of each storyline to problematize or de-problematize the movement of labor, as well as their institutionalization over time. The article contributes to the study of the political economy of labor mobility with an original case study from the EU’s Single Market, and challenges conventional wisdom regarding the role of framing during times of crisis.
ABSTRACT: Recent research has increasingly emphasized the micro-foundations of knowledge transformation in multi-national enterprises (MNEs). Although the literature has provided ample evidence of the enablers of and barriers to the translation of practices, less is known about the activities and efforts of translators that lead to specific types of translation in the context of the transfer of practices initiated at a MNE’s headquarters (HQ) to foreign subsidiaries. We apply a Scandinavian institutionalist approach to examine the translation of corporate social responsibility reporting, an HQ-initiated practice that is transferred to five foreign subsidiaries of a UK-based MNE. Our paper builds from a preliminary framework based on extant research to develop an extended framework of the micro-processes of translation. By theorizing the sequence of the micro-processes undertaken by translators, identifying the conditions under which they occur, and connecting them to the three types of translation, we provide a deep understanding of the micro-foundations of translation when transferring practices from HQ to subsidiaries. Our paper shows that translation is an evolving phenomenon and illuminates the importance of attending to the social, spatial, and temporal situatedness of translators. It also brings insights into the individual experience of institutional distance and its effects on translation.
ABSTRACT: The Brexit negotiations endured a turbulent year in 2018. 1 Nevertheless, member states and EU institutions were able to produce timely and coherent negotiating positions on Brexit. Just as importantly, they have appeared, by and large, united and have not broken rank in the negotiations despite some attempts by the UK to play a divide‐and‐conquer strategy (Kassim and Usherwood, 2018). This article sets out to explain the unexpected unity of the EU in the Article 50 negotiations.
In order to explain the unexpected unity of the EU27 and the EU's institutions, this article develops and operationalizes four different models; namely, the rational choice model, the identity model, the bureaucratic model and the framing model. Building on comprehensive empirical material, this article examines the explanatory value of the models. Third, it concludes by reflecting upon the utility of the theoretical framework.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to examine the challenges and solutions emerging when fashion brands develop and test circular economy solutions within their existing business models. The results indicate that fashion brands need to cope with multiple challenges in the process of developing circular business models in the organization, including: diverging perspectives of value and unclear success criteria, poor alignment with existing strategy, limited internal skills and competences, and limited consumer interest.
ABSTRACT: The author analyses the options available to user jurisdictions for taxing the value generated by cloud computing service providers. The focus is on the challenges of allocating the taxing right to payments for cloud computing provided as a service in the form of Infrastructure-as-a-Service, Platform-as-a-Service and Software-as-a-Service, deployed as both public and private cloud computing. More specifically, the focus is on mixed contracts, the distinction between business income and royalties and whether the provision of such services constitute a permanent establishment. The analysis is primarily based on the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital, but some relevant derogations and national practices are also considered. Among other things, it is concluded that the user jurisdictions, pursuant to the current international tax regime, will, under certain circumstances, be precluded from taxing the income of foreign cloud computing service providers, as cloud computing service providers may be able to deliver their digital services from remote locations while structuring their business around potential withholding taxes. Against this background, value creation and the fundamental principles of legal certainty, neutrality and the ability to pay tax are discussed. Finally, it is recommended that policymakers assess the full effects of the changes made in the tenth update to the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital (21 November 2017) before introducing new measures.
ABSTRACT: Approaches to positioning predominantly examine the input and outcome effectiveness of certain positioning strategies. However, less is known about the positioning management process and internal dynamics. This study remedies this limitation by identifying corporate brand positioning (CBP) in industrial firms as a strategic development process. Based on comparative case studies within two globally operating industrial multi-business firms, this study opens the proverbial ‘black box’ to reveal how CBP occurs over time and what the driving mechanisms are. Findings suggest understanding CBP as a recurring, multi-level process, making it more than just a corporate-level marketing activity. Positioning episodes are found to pass through seven stages, each creating enablers and barriers for change. CBP should be viewed as a political process that integrates stable corporate and business levels and temporary levels that emerge in micro-events of reflective strategic practice.
ABSTRACT: In this introductory paper for the special issue “Government and the Governance of Business Conduct: Implications for Management and Organization”, we focus on government as an institution in the broader context of the governance of business conduct. We review the longevity and heterogeneity of governmental actors along with, and in relation to, the evolving role and place of business and civil society actors under the double challenge of privatization and globalization over the last three to four decades. In so doing we track the evolution of government’s primary governance roles. We suggest that part of the organization and management scholarship builds upon problematic assumptions when it comes to the role(s) of government in the governance of business conduct. We suggest that while governments might be losing some power, they are also acquiring and deploying it in other areas; that governments are taking on new governance roles in relation to business conduct; that government regulation may contribute positively to the governance of business conduct; and that government is an ever-important focus for management and organizational research. We show how the six contributing papers to the Special Issue both illustrate these arguments and reveal new roles for government in the contemporary governance of business conduct. We end by proposing a research agenda for the further exploration of government in governance.
ABSTRACT: We investigate the effects of automation on total factor productivity (TFP). Using industry-level panel data for nine countries, we find that more intensive use of industrial robots has a significantly positive effect on TFP. Specifically, an increase of one standard deviation in the robot intensity is associated with more than 6% higher TFP. Moreover, we find that the robot intensity increases with Chinese import competition and that automation is associated with higher wages and unchanged or higher employment.
ABSTRACT: Agency and state grant funding should be disseminated in ways so it will result in better management of household hazardous waste (HHW) and environmental sustainability. Since location seems to matter in HHW collection activities, it is important to consider pro-environmental spatial spillovers that occur, based on agency actions and waste collection behavior taking place in other locations. These may influence HHW-related practices in close-by regions. Using a county-level spatio-temporal dataset that consists of economic, demographic, and HHW data in California from 2004 to 2015, we evaluate the impact of HHW grants on HHW collection activities while considering pro-environmental spillovers. We employ a research design that controls for confounding factors across the North, Central and South Regions, and over time. The research models assess causal relationships using a random effects panel data model with instrumental variables to estimate the grants’ influences, while considering spatial effects and unobservable bias. Several findings were obtained: (1) HHW grants had positive effects on waste collection in a consistent way across multiple models that we tested; (2) positive spatial spillover effects occurred for HHW collection activities due to the pro-environmental activities of nearby counties. This research contributes to the growing body of research on geospatial policy analytics, ways to establish the basis for causal inference, and the use of robustness checks to develop a deeper understanding of how to make waste management grant programs more effective in the regions where they are implemented.
ABSTRACT: In spite of their distinctive normative and political differences, critical organizational scholars use a vocabulary which in several respects resembles that adopted by right-wing populists. This vocabulary, we argue, consists of components that can be deployed in the pursuit of radically conflicting goals. At its heart lies a profoundly antithetical stance toward bureaucracy and the state. In this article, we explore the components of this vocabulary as well as the role they play in both populist- and critical organizational theory-variants. In doing so, we further discuss the lack of critical potential this vocabulary has in the present. For critical organization scholars, we argue, this should perhaps lead to a renewed consideration and reflexivity concerning not only the merits of bureaucracy and the state, but also of how to conduct critique in populist times.
ABSTRACT: We explore multinational strategy formation in the context of rising economic nationalism. Specifically, we examine how firms develop strategies to capitalize on the historical and aspirational attributes of national identity. Analyzing the histories of two German multinationals in late colonial India, we find that these firms engaged in “geopolitical jockeying” to delegitimize rival multinationals and position themselves as complementary to the economic and political goals of the host nation. Toward that end they employed “aspirational political practices,” addressing the inherently future‐oriented character of nationalism, and invested in the development of political capabilities to gather information and shape perceptions of national contexts. The paper contributes to a more robust conceptualization of nations and nationalism and their role in the formation of international competition and strategy.
ABSTRACT: We investigate the role of local labor standards on MNEs’ location decisions across different sectors and sub-national regions within a developing country. We suggest that foreign investors adopt selective location strategies in connection with specific labor standards as a result of reputational and operating considerations. Foreign firms in more hazardous sectors prefer locations with higher occupational health and safety standards because they are more exposed to reputational risks. Those in sectors with less reversible investments prefer locations with lower degrees of unionization because their lower bargaining power increases their sensitivity to operating costs. We test our arguments across 26 sub-national Turkish regions over the period 2005–2011.
ABSTRACT: We develop a theoretical framework for executives’ expectations for receiving help from professional contacts in their advice networks across national (local/nonlocal) and organizational (inside/outside) boundaries. Moreover, we examine the effects of relational duration and trust in the relationships. In a study using unique data on 1807 professional relationships in a US-headquartered multinational consulting firm, we find that executives expect less help from outside contacts. This result is partially mediated by trust. Also, relational duration mitigates expectations for help from outsiders. Surprisingly, we find no evidence that executives expect less help from nonlocal contacts. Yet a test of nonlocal professional contacts reveals that geographic distance rather than cultural distance, affects the expectations for help. Another supplemental analysis shows that the type of help provided in the network influences the effects of organizational and national boundaries.
ABSTRACT: This paper examines the identity work of a budding entrepreneur through a longitudinal case study based on his ongoing personal reflections as he tries to construct an entrepreneurial life. In particular, we investigate the role of emotional reflexivity and liminality, concepts that give us analytical purchase in exploring the complex dynamics of this identity work. The liminal condition of multiple identity positions enables our informant to experiment with and integrate several parallel identity narratives as he tries on socio-political constructions of ‘the entrepreneur’ for size; and it is the permanence of the liminal condition that makes emotional reflexivity necessary so he can handle the constant lack he experiences. The contribution of our work lies in exploring how the operation of the discourse of enterprise never closes on the centre of subjectivity that is imputed in that discourse, and how our subject, through emotional reflexivity, deals with this fundamental lack.
ABSTRACT: This study explores gender gaps and differences in citation practices of scholars in the top-cited articles in tourism research. The results suggest that male researchers dominate the authorship of those articles and are more likely to engage in self-citation than females. The study also finds a disparity in citation counts between male- and female-authored articles. Controlling for other factors, author gender is an important determinant of citation counts. The study advocates for a more gender conscious citation practices and provides potential gender-based interventions to reduce the citation gap. The research raises awareness about the dangers of the perfunctory use of citations and paves the way for further debates on the politics and embedded inequalities of citations in tourism research.
ABSTRACT: Neoliberalism is usually associated with pro-market values. This paper argues that more attention should be paid to the specific forms of market criticisms that unfold in neoliberal settings. We adapt Foucault's and Callon's notion of problematization to study recent policy reforms in Chile. The analysis shows a transition from a set of policies justified in terms of the virtues of the market to policy interventions based on a comparison between the situation in the specific area and ideal well-functioning markets. This transition, we propose, signals a particular mode of governing with its characteristic cognitive operation (areas of collective concerns are assessed in terms of market failures), apparatus (policy instruments oriented to remediate market failures), and the jurisdiction of a particular type of experts.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how organisational complexities influence the design of circular business models, which have recently been introduced as a new panacea for aligning the interests of business with the needs of the environment.
The analysis highlights multiple challenges emerging when a fashion product with a significantly extended lifecycle passes through different users, organisations and business models. It is concluded that it is difficult to talk about a circular business model (singular) as circular economy solutions depend on the contributions of multiple stakeholders with business models.
ABSTRACT: This paper investigates the comprehensive compassionate care reform programme within the National Health Service (NHS) in England. Through a synoptic reading of policy documents, we show how ‘compassion’ is introduced as an overarching meta‐virtue designed to govern relationships and formal positions in health care. Invoking an ‘ethics of office’ perspective, mainly drawing on the thinking of Max Weber, we evaluate the promotion of compassion as a managerial technology and argue how seemingly humanistic and value‐based approaches to healthcare management might have unintended consequences for the quality of care and the conduct of health professionals that in some ways resemble and in some ways exceed those of the more traditional New Public Management measures, which the new compassion paradigm is expected to outdo. In the paper's final sections, we turn to the original work of the nursing icon Florence Nightingale to argue that compassion and other virtues should continuously be formulated and re‐formulated in relation to the role‐specific skills and duties of particular offices in the healthcare sector.
ABSTRACT: The abatement of greenhouse gas emissions represents a major global challenge and an important topic for transportation research. Several studies have argued that energy efficiency measures for virtual arrival and associated reduced anchorage time can significantly reduce emissions from ships by allowing for speed reduction on passage. However, virtual arrival is uncommon in shipping. In this paper, we examine the causes for waiting time for ships at anchor and the limited uptake of virtual arrival. We show the difficulties associated with the implementation of virtual arrival and explain why shipping is unlikely to achieve the related abatement potential as assumed by previous studies. Combining onboard observations with seafarers and interviews with both sea-staff and shore-based operational personnel we show how charterers’ commercial priorities outweigh the fuel saving benefits associated with virtual arrival. Moreover, we demonstrate how virtual arrival systems have unintended, negative consequences for seafarers in the form of fatigue. Our findings have implications for the IMO’s greenhouse gas abatement goals.
Understanding Control in Communities of Practice: Constructive Disobedience in a High-tech Firm.
ABSTRACT: Communities of practice (CoPs) represent a broad range of work situations characterized by shared knowledge and situated knowledge use. Although CoPs have been studied rather extensively, discussions of control in CoPs are rarer. This is peculiar because CoPs are characterized by a common tension in contemporary work: on the one hand, CoPs are expected to autonomously “think together,” but on the other they are expected to be responsive to various managerial control attempts. We interrogate this tension in an ethnographic study of engineering work, where we found that in response to management control the engineering communities engaged in constructive disobedience – that is, subversion and displacement of rules and orders to construct a dynamic of control where work can be executed autonomously. By associating constructive disobedience with control in CoPs, our study contributes with insight into and theorization of how management control is dealt with and how control operates in work characterized by CoPs. The study also provides deepened insight into the limits of management control and how professionalism may be maintained despite increased management. These insights may support development of a more knowledgeable and nuanced approach to attempts at managing communities of practice.
Central Limit Theorem for Mean and Variogram Estimators in Lévy–based Models.
ABSTRACT: We consider an infinitely divisible random field in ℝd given as an integral of a kernel function with respect to a Lévy basis. Under mild regularity conditions, we derive central limit theorems for the moment estimators of the mean and the variogram of the field.
Emergence of Collective Digital Innovations through the Process of Control Point Driven Network Reconfiguration and Reframing: The Case of Mobile Payment
ABSTRACT: Decentralized digital technologies require multiple organizations to collectively create digital innovations. Control over the resources required for digital innovations is often therefore dispersed among multiple actors. Actors may have conflicting interests and business models which cause collective digital innovations to come to a standstill. While existing research suggests various factors that block collective innovation processes, there is still little understanding of how organizations can overcome standstills, and progress to bringing digital innovations to market. The main question addressed in this paper is: How do collective digital innovation initiatives overcome standstills in order to progress in bringing the innovations to market? We offer a novel perspective on the process of developing collective digital innovations based on a longitudinal case study of mobile banking in the Netherlands. Our case shows how parties have collaborated to learn about new opportunities for distributing control and framing solutions, while the actual commercialization of the mobile payment solutions was performed by individual actors. The framework shows how digital innovations emerge through a series of collective innovation processes that build upon each other through control point driven network reconfiguration and reframing.
Balancing Flexibility and Security in Europe? The Impact of Unemployment on Young Peoples’ Subjective Well-being.
ABSTRACT: We examine the relationship between ‘flexicurity’ systems, unemployment and well-being outcomes for young people in Europe. A key tenet of the flexicurity approach is that greater flexibility of labour supply supports transitions into employment, trading longer-term employment stability for short-term job instability. However, there is a risk that young people experience greater job insecurity, both objective and subjective, with less stable contracts and more frequent unemployment spells. Our research draws on data from the European Social Survey and uses multi-level models to explore whether and how flexibility-security arrangements moderate the effect of past and present unemployment on the well-being of young people. We distinguish between flexibility-security institutions that foster improved job prospects and those that provide financial security.
Contracting Development: Managerialism and Consultants in Intergovernmental Organizations
ABSTRACT: Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) are now managed with an eye to managerial trends associated with transnational professionals, a view that has ramifications for how IGOs govern their policies and processes. Drawing on interviews and focus groups with staff in IGOs, we trace how managerialism in IGOs is changing how staff perceive work practices. We find that IGOs increasingly rely on consultants to enact policy scripts and to evaluate program success. This signals a subtle yet significant shift from expertise and bureaucratic impartiality, grounded in particular types of knowledge, to skills and flexibility to meet client demands and advance best practice norms according to prevailing world cultural frames. This managerial trend in IGOs is partly driven by stakeholder dynamics but is primarily a normative change in who is seen as having the authority to make claims over professional best practices. Such managerialism is contracting the development policy space. This contraction is partly driven by consultants, who defer to their peers and to donors rather than IGO staff and concerned member states. This work also depletes institutional memory for IGO operations. We trace how IGO staff perceive managerial trends and changes in work practices.
The Productivity Advantage of Serial Entrepreneurs.
ABSTRACT: Using panel data from Denmark from 2001 to 2013, the authors find that serial entrepreneurs—those who open more than one business—have higher sales and greater productivity than do novice entrepreneurs—those who open only one business. Specifically, serial entrepreneurs’ firms have 98% higher sales than the novices’ firms, and serial entrepreneurs utilize more initial capital and labor, and thus are 49% more productive. Further, certain subsets of serial entrepreneurs perform especially well; those who hold a portfolio of overlapping firms or who open as limited liability corporations (LLCs) are top performers. The authors’ findings suggest that 41% of LLC entrepreneurs are serial entrepreneurs, thus deepening the need to understand these types of entrepreneurs. Finally, female entrepreneurs are shown to realize sizable gains from serial entrepreneurship: The firms of both female and male serial entrepreneurs are twice as large as the firms of novice entrepreneurs of their respective gender.
Communicating to and Engaging with the Public in Regulatory Science.
ABSTRACT: This paper presents selected highlights from the ‘Engaging with society’ session of EFSA's third Scientific Conference ‘Science, Food and Society’ (Parma, Italy, 18–21 September 2018). The social dimension for scientific advisory bodies largely concerns science communication and public engagement. The political, economic and technological transformation of contemporary societies is challenging conventional structures and approaches in these areas. The disintermediation of communication and the proliferation of misinformation, it is argued, herald the onset of the post‐truth society. A better understanding of the way individuals consume information today has led to the development of tools to guide mediators such as journalists and communication specialists in countering these trends. Public engagement can reinforce confidence in regulatory bodies and potentially contribute to the quality of the scientific process. Scientific advisory bodies in Europe have created strategies and mechanisms to engage the public that are designed to increase transparency and representativeness. To be effective, several engagement mechanisms are needed, although factors such as resource constraints, institutional culture and public/stakeholder attitudes may limit their development. In conclusion, a more vigorous role for social research is needed to place scientific risk assessment within broader socio‐economic and political contexts. Social science expertise can help to define more impactful public information strategies and to explore the potential opportunities that engaged stakeholders and citizens can make to sustain and strengthen regulatory science.
Breaking up a Partnership to Build a Competitive Market in Denmark’s Ambulance Service: How Can Studies of Contract Reversals Learn from the Sociology of Markets?
ABSTRACT: This paper analyses a case of contract reversal in the market for ambulance services. The paper suggests that the sociology of markets-literature provides insights into market institutions of importance to relations between government and contractors that will benefit contracting out theory. Building on document analysis and interviews with 19 key stakeholders, it is demonstrated how a regional government in Denmark tried to wrestle the service provision from a long-time private provider and create a competitive market, only to discover that the implementation of the new contract was beset by obstacles largely stemming from informal norms in the market and attempts of the existing provider to hamper market entry for challenger firms. The result was a contract reversal: from private provision to government-provided service delivery. The paper contributes to the contracting out literature by providing a more elaborate understanding of the institutional conditions under which contract reversals can take place.
The Terms of “Becoming Empowered”: How Ascriptions and Negotiations of Employee Identities Shape the Outcomes of Workplace Voice Activities
ABSTRACT: While empowerment practices have been the subject of considerable debate, little attention has been paid to how employees shape the outcomes of these practices through their active participation. Through analyses of interactions in workplace voice activities, this study shows how developing initiatives to improve the local organization of work is complicated by the fact that supporting initiatives as an employee can lead to undesired identity ascriptions from other participants, especially in relation to employees’ organizational identification or disidentification. By drawing on the method of membership categorization analysis, it is argued that the appeal of voice activities for employees depends on how the terms of “becoming empowered” are negotiated in practice, and that these negotiations shape the employees’ participation in the practices.
The Cultural Roots of Compositional Capability in China: Balanced Moderation.
ABSTRACT: A large number of Chinese firms lack the resources for having competitive advantages. Under this severe constraint, such firms are forced to find new paths toward developing certain competitive advantages, including the ability to combine ordinary resources into novel competitive advantages, which is referred to as compositional capability. Such a special capability underlying novel competitive advantages is related to certain cultural factors, such as the Chinese cultural tradition in the case of China. However, the potential links between compositional capability and the Chinese cultural tradition remain poorly understood and largely unspecified. This paper responds to the call for more research on identifying relevant cultural factors by explicating the inherent connections between compositional capability and the Chinese cultural value of balanced moderation.