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Hvad risikerer undervisere, når de bruger emojis i kommunikationen med studerende? Og findes der en model, der kan skille de gode aktier fra de dårlige? Få svaret i vores liste over den nyeste forskning fra CBS.

30/04/2019

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De videnskabelige artikler er peer-reviewed, dvs. de har været igennem flere uvildige forskere, der har anerkendt og godkendt resultater og fremgangsmåde. 

I denne måned handler publikationerne om alt fra værdien af en emoji i forbindelse med kommunikation, til hvordan vi bedst håndterer vores personlige oplysninger på nettet.


HER ER DENNE MÅNEDS PEER-REVIEWED FORSKNING (PÅ ENGELSK) – GOD LÆSELYST:
 

THIS MONTH’S PEER-REVIEWED RESEARCH – ENJOY YOUR READING:

Smile(y) – and Your Students Will Smile with You? The Effects of Emoticons on Impressions, Evaluations, and Behaviour in Staff-to-student Communication
ABSTRACT: Emoticon usage in computer-mediated communication (CMC) by university staff is potentially a double-edged sword in forming desired impressions in the minds of students, increasing perceived warmth but also decreasing perceived competence of the sender. Existing studies in higher education have provided little understanding of this trade-off. No work has examined effects of, first, emoticon usage on important educational outcomes (student evaluations, task behaviour), and second, potential moderators relevant within education (i.e. job title, institutional prestige, age of sender, assessment level). We contribute to this area of knowledge through three controlled experiments across different educational CMC settings (total n = 848). Generally, we find that emoticon use increases perceived warmth, which outweighs decrease in perceived competence of university staff, in that perceived warmth – but not competence – affects student evaluation and task behaviour positively. These findings hold largely irrespective of the moderators explored. Implications for higher education practitioners are provided.

Journal: Studies in Higher Education
Published: April 2019
Read more here.
Contact CBS researcher: Antonia Erz.


Quality Minus Junk
ABSTRACT: We define quality as characteristics that investors should be willing to pay a higher price for. Theoretically, we provide a tractable valuation model that shows how stock prices should increase in their quality characteristics: profitability, growth, and safety. Empirically, we find that high-quality stocks do have higher prices on average but not by a large margin. Perhaps because of this puzzlingly modest impact of quality on price, high-quality stocks have high risk-adjusted returns. Indeed, a quality-minus-junk (QMJ) factor that goes long high-quality stocks and shorts low-quality stocks earns significant risk-adjusted returns in the United States and across 24 countries. The price of quality varies over time, reaching a low during the internet bubble, and a low price of quality predicts a high future return of QMJ. Analysts’ price targets and earnings forecasts imply systematic quality-related errors in return and earnings expectations.

Journal: Review of Accounting Studies
Published: 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Lasse Heje Pedersen.
 

De-Westernizing Creative Labour Studies: The Informality of Creative Work from an Ex-Centric Perspective
ABSRACT: Creative labour studies focus almost exclusively on Euro-American metropolitan ‘creative hubs’ and hence the creative worker they theorize is typically white, middle-class, urban and overwhelmingly male. This article outlines the contours of a de-Westernizing project in creative labour studies while introducing a special journal issue that examines the lived dynamics of creative work outside the West. The article advocates an ‘ex-centric perspective’ on creative work. An ex-centric perspective does not merely aim at multiplying non-West empirical case studies. Rather, it aims at destabilizing, decentring and provincializing the taken-for-grantedness of some entrenched notions in creative labour studies such as informality and precarity. An ex-centric perspective, we contend, offers a potential challenge to many of the claims about creative work that have taken on the status of general truths and universal principles in spite of them being generated from limited empirical evidence gleaned from research sites situated almost exclusively in the creative hubs of Euro-America.

Journal: International Journal of Cultural Studies
Published: January 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Ana Alacovska.

CEO Education and Corporate Environmental Footprint
ABSTRACT: We analyze the effect of CEO education on environmental decision-making. Using a unique sample of Danish firms from 1996 to 2012, we find that CEO education significantly improves firms' energy efficiency. We seek to derive causality using health shocks: the hospitalization of highly educated CEOs induces a drop in energy efficiency, whereas the hospitalization of less educated CEOs does not have any significant effect. Exploring the mechanisms at play, we show that our results are largely driven by advanced education in business degrees. Moreover, we show that CEO education is associated with greater environmental awareness: highly educated CEOs exhibit greater concerns for climate change, as measured by a survey of social preferences, and drive more environmentally efficient cars. Taken together, our findings suggest that education shapes managerial styles giving rise to greater sustainability in corporate actions.

Journal: Journal of Environmental Economics and Management
Published: March 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Birthe Larsen.


Follow the Money: Online Piracy and Self-regulation in the Advertising Industry
ABSTRACT: We study the effects of a self-regulation effort, orchestrated by the European Commission in 2016 and finalized in 2018, that aims to reduce advertising revenues for publishers of copyright infringing content. Data on the third-party HTTP requests made by a large number of piracy websites lets us observe the relations of the piracy and advertising industry over time. We compare these dynamics to a control group of non-advertising services which are not subject to the self-regulation. Our results suggest that the effort is limited in its effectiveness. On average, the number of piracy websites that make requests to EU-based advertising services does not change significantly. Only when we allow for heterogeneity in the popularity of third-party services, we find that the number of piracy websites that interact with the most popular EU-based advertising services decreases by 42%. We do not find evidence that non-EU-based advertising services react to the self-regulation. This implies that only a small share of the firms in the market comply with self-regulation in a way that is visible in our data. We also do not find evidence that the demand for piracy websites decreases due to this “follow the money” initiative.

Journal: International Journal of Industrial Organization
Published: July 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Jörg Claussen.


European Policy and Markets: Did Policy Initiatives Stem the Sovereign Debt Crisis in the Euro Area?
ABSTRACT: We investigate how European policy initiatives influenced market assessments of sovereign default risk and banking sector fragility during the sovereign debt crisis in four adversely affected countries — Portugal, Ireland, Spain and Italy. We focus on three broad groups of policies: (a) ECB policy actions (monetary and financial support), (b) EU programs (financial and fiscal rules as well as financial support in crisis countries), and (c) domestic austerity programs. We measure immediate market impact effects: what policies changed risk perceptions, using CDS spreads on sovereign bonds and banks in this assessment. We employ dynamic panel and event study methodologies in the empirical work. We find that a number of programs initially stabilized sovereign and bank bond markets (e.g. Outright Monetary Transactions program), although announcement and implementation impacts on markets differed in some cases (e.g. second Covered Market Bond Program). Actions designed to shore up sovereign markets often lowered risk assessments in bank bond markets and policies designed to ensure safety and soundness of the European banking system in some cases significantly impacted sovereign debt markets. Finally, a number of policies designed to stabilize markets had surprisingly little immediate impact on either sovereign or bank bond market risk assessments.

Journal: European Journal of Political Economy
Published: March 2019
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Conctact CBS researcher: Svend E. Hougaard Jensen.


Stances, Paradigms, Personae
ABSTRACT: This paper argues that paradigmatic thinking in organization studies has failed to treat personhood as a central problematic within the research enterprise and that this oversight underlies a number of seemingly intractable field-level problems. We emphasise the centrality of personhood to the development and exercise of knowledge via three distinct but complementary projects: Ian Hunter’s investigation into «the moment of theory», Pierre Hadot’s exposition of «philosophy as a way of life», and Bas Van Fraassen’s reconceptualization of philosophical positions as «stances». The notion of «stance» provides a means for assimilating and differentiating otherwise distinct paradigms and thereby circumvents debates about paradigm incommensurability or the theory-practice dualism. Rather, the shift from «paradigms» to «stances» enables us to re-classify the field of organizational analysis according to new values-based criteria such that practical relevance and ethical seriousness can be restored.

Journal: Studi di Sociologia
Published: 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Paul du Gay.


Value-in-acquisition: An Institutional View
ABSTRACT: For low-income consumers, inclusion, status, resource access and emotional relief represent key value outcomes. Important value processes shape those value outcomes, reflecting broader societal arrangements at macro, meso and micro levels. Marketing constitutes an institutional arrangement that establishes an empowered “consumer” role. Value processes are hindered if consumers sense that their agency in this role is diminished, because marketing interactions give precedence to other social roles.

Journal: European Journal of Marketing
Published: January 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Adam Lindgreen.


Divided but United: Explaining Nested Public Support for European Integration
ABSTRACT: Academic and general interest in public support for European Integration is on the rise. Theoretically, the utilitarian, identity, reference, cue-taking and signalling models have been developed to explain this perplexing phenomenon. While these models have been tested, there is no comprehensive up-to-date account of how well they perform separately, relative to each other and across levels. Empirically, this study utilises a data set with 110,873 respondents from the European Social Survey. Methodologically, a multilevel model is used to address causal heterogeneity between levels. The study shows that ‘attitudes towards multiculturalism’ at the individual level and ‘corruption’ at the country level are the strongest predictors. When interacting levels within models, it is demonstrated that individual trust in the national political establishment is being moderated by the level of corruption in a country in influencing support for European integration. On this basis, two models are proposed, named the ‘saviour model’ and the ‘anti-establishment model’.

Journal: West European Politics
Published: March 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Mads Dagnis Jensen.


Reconceptualizing the Paradox of Openness: How Solvers Navigate Sharing-protecting Tensions in Crowdsourcing
ABSTRACT: The paradox of openness describes the fundamental tension between knowledge sharing and knowledge protection in open innovation. While sharing is vital for value creation, protecting is critical for value appropriation. Prior research has examined this paradox of openness from the perspective of the seeking firm, focusing on the firm-level challenges of inbound open innovation. In this article, we complement that research by illuminating the tensions between sharing and protecting in individual-level outbound open innovation, where we argue that the paradox of openness is most prevalent, yet much less well understood. Drawing on the experience of individual participants, or solvers, in intermediated crowdsourcing contests, we analyze textual data from 2,149 answers to five open-ended narrative questions embedded in a large-scale solver survey, as well as 43 in-depth interviews of solvers. Our findings indicate that individual solvers face fundamental sharing-protecting tensions that carry considerable economic and psychological costs. We also document how solvers attempt to navigate the paradox of openness by employing three formal and four informal value appropriation practices. They build elaborate configurations of these practices, which they tailor to the idiosyncrasies of each contest. They also dynamically adjust these configurations over time, as the contest and the interaction with the seeker unfold. We end by outlining how these findings contribute to a more multifaceted conceptualization and a richer understanding of the paradox of openness.

Journal: Research Policy
Published: 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Ghita Dragsdahl Lauritzen.


Tailoring Negligence Standards to Accident Records
ABSTRACT: The standard 1-period, unilateral care accident model assumes identical injurers and perfect information of an individual’s risk type. However, these assumptions are unlikely to hold in real-world accident scenarios. This paper considers a 2-period, unilateral care accident model in which injurers differ by probabilities of accident (their risk types) and have incomplete information about their risk types. We find that courts should optimally examine an individual’s accident history to accurately infer the risk type and adjust the due level of care accordingly. We show that tailoring due levels of care in the second period affects the definition of the due level of care in the first period. When judges have access to accident records but the risk type is hidden, they should relax the due level of care for first-time offenders to generate more information about an individual’s risk type, which helps to establish more efficient differentiated standards in the subsequent period.

Journal: The Journal of Legal Studies
Published: June 2018
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Contact CBS researcher: Alice Guerra.


Sustainable Fiscal Strategies under Changing Demographics
ABSTRACT: This paper develops an overlapping generations model to evaluate, first, the steady state growth-maximizing level of public debt around which an economy needs to stabilise; second, how the optimal level of public debt varies as a function of key population parameters; third, how fiscal rules designed to stabilise the economy around that debt level need to vary with the population parameters; and, fourth, how well the model performs as a reasonable and plausible representation of the advanced economies that face fiscal strain and deteriorating demographics. The main conclusion is: despite diminished fiscal space and flexibility due to deteriorating population parameters, a relatively benign steady state is feasible and available under mild fiscal restraints. The bigger problem will be how to get there without financial or fiscal breakdowns along the way. We offer some political economy perspectives on how best to manage that risk.

Journal: European Journal of Political Economy
Published: March 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Andrew Hughes Hallett.
Contact CBS researcher: Svend E. Hougaard Jensen.
Contact CBS researcher: Filipe Vieira.


Finite Gaussian Mixture Approximations to Analytically Intractable Density Kernels
ABSTRACT: The objective of the paper is that of constructing finite Gaussian mixture approximations to analytically intractable density kernels. The proposed method is adaptive in that terms are added one at the time and the mixture is fully re-optimized at each step using a distance measure that approximates the corresponding importance sampling variance. All functions of interest are evaluated under Gaussian product rules. Since product rules suffer from an obvious curse of dimensionality, the proposed algorithm as presented is only applicable to models whose non-linear and/or non-Gaussian subspace is of dimension up to three. Extensions to higher-dimensional applications would require the use of sparse grids, as discussed in the paper. Examples include a sequential (filtering) evaluation of the likelihood function of a stochastic volatility model where all relevant densities (filtering, predictive and likelihood) are closely approximated by mixtures.

Journal: Computational Economics
Published: March 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Natalia Khorunzhina.


Købelovsudvikling - i dansk perspektiv: Den absolutte reklamationsfrist i forbrugerkøb
ABSTRACT: Den absolutte reklamationsfrist følges fra dens indførelse i begyndelsen af 1900-tallet. Efter de første ca. 70 års ro på området har reglen jævnligt givet anledning til kritik og ændringer, ikke mindst på forbrugerområdet, hvor de nordiske landes regler nu er temmelig forskelligartede. I lyset af den øvrige udvikling sættes der spørgsmålstegn ved, om der er tilstrækkelig grund til at opretholde en absolut reklamationsfrist i forbrugerkøb.

Journal: Svensk Juristtidning
Published: 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Peter Møgelvang-Hansen.


Some Insights into Nanotechnology Innovation Processes and Patterns for Advanced Materials
ABSTRACT: Nanotechnology innovation has peculiar characteristics. This paper reviews the methodology and results, drawn from cases analyzed on two EU projects: EULASUR and EULACERMAT. The cases covers both European and Latin American experiences, particularly from Mercosur countries. We analyze specifically nanotechnology innovation based on new and advanced materials. The main conclusion of this paper is that innovation in advanced materials, based on nanotechnology, relies crucially on networks of cooperative agents. It starts from the validated assumption that innovation is interactive in nature. Therefore, it is needed to co-create through the participation to obtain feasible results. The position of advanced materials within the related (new or existent) value chains explains to a great extend the border conditions for innovating in this nanotechnology field. It appeared clearly that innovation in this field is a complex problem, with the same degree as researching (nanoscience), and that the connections between them were not obvious nor simple. Concerning policy implications, it is useful to discriminate them in terms of the temporal horizon of what type of nanotechnology innovation should be promoted, particularly for developing countries’ trajectories, for ensuring that the impacts of advanced materials will be suitable for the society.

Journal: Contaduría y Administración
Published: 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Janni Nielsen.
Contact CBS researcher: Leif Bloch Rasmussen.


Sharing Economy Revisited: Towards a New Framework for Understanding Sharing Models
ABSTRACT: In recent years, several scholarly attempts have been made to conceptually outline the contours of the sharing economy. However, there is still limited consensus on fundamental characteristics of sharing models, the markets they create, and the controversies surrounding them. Based on an assessment of existing typologies of the sharing economy, this paper outlines a new theory-driven framework for describing and analyzing business-to-consumer and peer-to-peer sharing models that draws on the nascent literature of partial organization. Emphasizing the core organizational characteristics of sharing models (membership, rules, monitoring, sanctioning, and hierarchy), this new framework moves beyond existing definitions and scales used to map and analyze the fast-growing sharing economy field.

Journal: Journal of Cleaner Production
Published: 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Sarah Netter.
Contact CBS researcher: Esben Rahbek Gjerdrum Pedersen.


Unraveling the Relationship Between Trait Self-control and Subjective Well-being: The Mediating Role of Four Self-control Strategies
ABSTRACT: Although several studies provide evidence that trait self-control contributes to subjective well-being, the self-control strategies that promotes happiness and life satisfaction remains unknown. The present study aims to shed light on this relation by investigating the mediating role of four self-control strategies: situation selection, attentional deployment, reappraisal, and inhibition. To test the hypothesis that self-control strategies mediate trait self-control’s effect on well-being, an online questionnaire on trait self-control, self-control strategies, and cognitive and affective well-being was administered to 4,036 participants from four countries (ages 18–65 and 56.4% female), whose responses were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Our analysis replicates previous studies that trait self-control positively relates to subjective well-being. Moreover, our analysis provides evidence that this relation is indeed mediated by the tendency to employ particular self-control strategies. Attentional deployment and reappraisal positively relate to subjective well-being, whereas inhibition exhibits a negative relation. Situation selection was unrelated to subjective well-being. The incorporation of self-control strategies represents the first attempt to empirically disentangle the positive relation between trait self-control and subjective well-being. The heterogeneous effects of self-control strategies suggest the importance of obtaining a better understanding of which aspects of trait self-control positively contributes to subjective well-being.

Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
Published: March 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Kristian Steensen Nielsen.
Contact CBS researcher: Wencke Gwozdz.


Processes of Domination in the Contemporary Workplace: Managing Disputes in the Swedish Healthcare Sector
ABSTRACT: The aim of this article is to explain how forms of consent-driven domination are produced over actors with critical capacity to question the processes of domination to which they are subjected. Drawing on observations of meetings during which actors evaluated employee sick leave, we show how domination is locally achieved in situated interactions by (a) constructing a specific situational reality, (b) transferring responsibilities in accordance with this reality, and (c) positioning the actors within the confirmed bounds of the situation. Domination is produced by exploiting a gap between the reified instituted reality and the lived realities of embodied actors. Doing so enables critiques of the workplace to be absorbed and situational responsibility to be directed towards individual employees. Engaging with French sociologist Luc Boltanski’s recent work, we refer to these processes as ‘complex domination’: the domination appears centre-less and well-intentioned politics result in permanent asymmetrical outcomes – that is, the same people always lose.

Journal: The Sociological Review
Published: 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Christian De Cock.


Peer Adoption and Development of Health Innovations by Patients: National Representative Study of 6204 Citizens
ABSTRACT: In the population considered in this paper, an estimated 1.3% (75/6008) reported having developed a solution for own use and 3.3% reported to have adopted a solution developed by peers. The 3 groups (developers, adopters, and remaining population) have distinctive characteristics. Gender plays an important role in the solution development, as women are less likely to develop one (odds ratio [OR] 0.4, 95% CI 0.20-0.81; P<.05). Education is positively associated with the development activity (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.03-1.24; P<.05) but also with the intentions to adopt a peer-developed solution. Search for health-related information is positively associated with the development, adoption, and the intentions to adopt a solution. Interactions with peers over the internet are rare, but in-person interactions are frequent and have a positive association with the dependent variables in all 3 groups. The results also suggest that trust in doctors represents an important dimension that shapes the attitudes of the population toward peer-developed solutions.
Conclusions: This paper demonstrates the importance of the peer community, doctor-patient relationship, citizen’s search for information on innovation, and individual attitudes toward peer-to-peer adoption in health care. It stresses the need for a reliable Web-based health-related information and the necessity to deeper understand complex relationships between the need to improve health and fulfill the need and the perception of the health care system.

Journal: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Published: March 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Pedro Oliveira.


Globally Networked: Intraorganizational Boundary Spanning in the Global Organization
ABSTRACT: Multinational corporations (MNCs) need to sense, source, and mobilize knowledge when and where it arises, whether at home, or elsewhere in the world. For this reason, MNCs benefit from employee networks of relationships that span across intraorganizational barriers, allowing for the efficient mobilization of knowledge across boundaries. Yet, which organizational members are more likely to be able to develop these boundary spanning networks? We leverage a unique data set from a large multinational corporation to empirically test a comprehensive model that captures the effect of an employee’s mandate, expertise, and behavioral orientations on her likelihood to span intraorganizational boundaries that manifest themselves in the form of hierarchies, intra-functional domains, and geographic territories. We find that the employees that are more likely to be boundary spanners are those having mandates with a global impact, high levels of expertise, and a collaborative orientation in their networking behaviors. In addition, we find that these effects are stronger for those employees that have large formal workflow networks.

Journal: Journal of World Business
Published: 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Torben Pedersen.
Contact CBS researcher: Diego Stea.


The Eye in the Sky: Freight Rate Effects of Tanker Supply
ABSTRACT: We show how the evolution of crude oil tanker freight rates depends on the employment status and geographical position of the fleet of very large crude oil carriers (VLCCs). We provide a novel measure of short-term capacity in the voyage charter market which is a proxy for the percentage of vessels available for orders. We find that our capacity measure explains parts of the freight rate evolution at weekly horizons, where traditional supply measures are uninformative. The fact that freight rates directly influence shipowners’ profitability and charterers’ expenditures makes our measure particularly relevant for these groups of market participants.

Journal: Transportation Research. Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review
Published: 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Frederik Regli.


Eclipsed by the Halo: ‘Helping’ Brands through Dissociation
ABSTRACT: ‘Helping’ distant others through ‘Brand Aid’ humanitarianism may be one of the most successful dissociational branding practices of all. In this short commentary, I argue that humanitarian ‘helping’ itself can become a branded commodity, as understood by Ibert et al. (2019). I draw on the dissociational framework to reconsider the concept of ‘brand aid’ as a link between ethical consumption, international development, and the commodification of humanitarianism. In brand aid, the ‘ethical’ action proposed by a consumption choice triggers the ‘helping’ of distant and disengaged Others. This results in reshaping the real or imagined ethical obligations across networks of solidarity, where dissociational symbolic value moves from consumption back to production and is deflected onto suffering Others. In these chains of value, the conditions of production become eclipsed by the halo of helping through consumption. Ethical consumption is becoming less possible, humanitarianism is increasingly commodified, and ‘partnerships’ meant to alleviate global suffering are becoming more complicated than ever before. Cultural economic geography can deepen our knowledge of how maintaining inequalities can produce surplus value through ‘helping’, and how this is embedded in strategic and habitual forms of dissociation from global ills.

Journal: Dialogues in Human Geography
Published: 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Lisa Ann Richey.


Abuse and Avoidance: A Contemporary Analysis of Danish Tax Law
ABSTRACT: Selon une méthode juridique traditionnelle, la loi s’applique dans le respect des mesures anti-abus du droitfiscal danois. Mais la question se pose de savoir s’il existe réellement une jurisprudence tendant à lutter contrel’évasion fiscale. Le Danemark a bien adopté, en 2015, une disposition générale anti-abus (contrôle du butprincipalement fiscal), mais qui ne s’applique qu’au droit de l’Union européenne et aux conventions fiscalesinternationales. Le royaume vient de transposer dans son droit interne la règle anti-abus prévue à l’article 6de la directive ATAD. Certes, de telles normes sont en mesure d’aider l’administration à combattre l’abus dedroit et l’évasion fiscale. Mais elles rendent le droit fiscal danois plus complexe et nuisent à la sécurité desopérations projetées par le contribuable.

Journal: Revue Européenne et Internationale de Droit Fiscal
Published: 2018
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Contact CBS researcher: Peter Koerver Schmidt.


Allocation to Anchor Investors, Underpricing, and the After-market Performance of IPOs
ABSTRACT: We study bidding by anchor investors in a two-stage initial public offering (IPO) process and document a negative, causal relation between allocation to anchor investors and underpricing. We find that anchor investors are likely to invest in hard-to-place offerings characterized by valuation uncertainty. We also document a positive relation between allocation to reputed anchor investors and returns up to lock-up expiration. Our evidence provides support for information revelation and targeting specific investors' theories of book building. Anchor-backed IPOs earn superior returns mainly due to monitoring. Who bids in an IPO seems to matter just as particular types of bids do.

Journal: Financial Management
Published: 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Rama Seth.


Another Workplace Is Possible: Learning to Own and Changing Subjectivities in American Employee Owned Companies
 ABSTRACT: Work life in America, as the literature would have it at least, is pretty uniformly miserable. This article will draw on the literature on practice-based learning as well as democratic political change, in order to help show and theorize a way in which capitalist firms form employee owned trusts (an Employee Stock Ownership Plan), and develop an “ownership culture.” Employee Stock Ownership Plans with an ownership culture are fairly wide spread, tend to pay people more, and seem to create an environment in which people are happy to work. While Employee Stock Ownership Plans are not a panacea for all that troubles us, they do seem to go a fair ways towards mitigating some of the work-place-based misery and larger patterns of material inequality that comes with our contemporary moment, and they seem to have been missing from social-scientific thinking about contemporary economic organizing and its possibilities for change.

Journal: Critique of Anthropology
Published: April 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Daniel Souleles.


Datification and the Pursuit of Meaningfulness in Work
ABSTRACT: Proliferation of digital means of tracking worker activities has contributed to the rise of data‐driven approaches to managing people, with employees often required to record their activities for accountability purposes. Increased requirement for such datification work occurs at a juncture where meaningfulness is one of the most sought‐after work features. Datification work could both facilitate and hinder the pursuit of meaningfulness, yet literature provides little guidance into the nature of the connection and how it transpires. Our inductive study of academic professionals using an accountability system suggests that datification work characteristics link to meaningful work experiences in complex ways. We advance current theory on work meaningfulness by theorizing the role of a new work condition – datification – in meaningfulness experiences of professionals, outlining how system design and the institutional context become important elements influencing meaningful work experiences, and explaining how meaningfulness experiences are constructed through system appropriations.

Journal: Journal of Management Studies
Published: 2018
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Contact CBS researcher: Mari-Klara Stein.


Crossing Times: Temporal Boundary-spanning Practices in Interorganizational Projects
ABSTRACT: This paper introduces the notion of “temporal boundary spanning” and highlights the key role of project management in resolving temporal tensions among partners participating in interorganizational projects (IOPs). The present study, which is based on data from 93 IOPs undertaken within a major change program, relies on in-depth, semi-structured interviews, observations, and detailed analyses of written documents and procedures from those IOPs. Based on the data, we inductively develop a practice-based theory that identifies three main practices (framing, synchronizing, hyping) used to resolve the central temporal tensions observed in the studied IOPs. In that respect, the paper offers novel insights into the role and practice of project management in IOPs.

Journal: International Journal of Project Management
Published: 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Iben Sandal Stjerne.
Contact CBS researcher: Dana Minbaeva.


Balancing Frontliners’ Customer- and Coworker-directed Behaviors when Serving Business Customers
ABSTRACT: In this digital era, where many product-oriented business-to-business companies are shifting to a product-service systems approach, frontline employees (FLEs) are urged to complement customer-directed behaviors with coworker-directed prosocial behaviors to achieve optimal performance. Surprisingly, little is known about the relationship between FLEs’ coworker-directed and customer-directed behaviors in product-service systems settings. This research addresses this void and serves two purposes. First, drawing on role balance theory, the authors develop and test a model of an FLE’s relative emphasis on serving coworkers (i.e., helping) relative to the emphasis on serving business customers (i.e., proactive selling) as well as the antecedents and consequences of customer-coworker (im)balance. Second, the authors propose that managers can influence antecedents and consequences through an incentive system and access to information sources, respectively. Multivariate time-lagged analyses using survey and secondary performance data reveal that customer-coworker balance is beneficial for an FLE’s performance, especially when leveraging their coworkers as a prime information source. Interestingly, the increasingly damaging impact of an imbalance toward customer-directed behaviors can be countered by using the information technology (IT) system. Also of interest is that managers can correct imbalance—caused by either work group identification or expected customer demand—via individual-based incentives.

Journal: Journal of Service Research
Published: March 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Michel Van der Borgh.
Contact CBS researcher: Ad de Jong.


Regulating Cryptocurrencies: A Supervised Machine Learning Approach to De-Anonymizing the Bitcoin Blockchain
ABSTRACT: Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency whose transactions are recorded on a distributed, openly accessible ledger. On the Bitcoin Blockchain, an owning entity’s real-world identity is hidden behind a pseudonym, a so-called address. Therefore, Bitcoin is widely assumed to provide a high degree of anonymity, which is a driver for its frequent use for illicit activities. This paper presents a novel approach for de-anonymizing the Bitcoin Blockchain by using Supervised Machine Learning to predict the type of yet-unidentified entities. We utilized a sample of 957 entities (with ≈385 million transactions), whose identity and type had been revealed, as training set data and built classifiers differentiating among 12 categories. Our main finding is that we can indeed predict the type of a yet-unidentified entity. Using the Gradient Boosting algorithm with default parameters, we achieve a mean cross-validation accuracy of 80.42% and F1-score of ≈79.64%. We show two examples, one where we predict on a set of 22 clusters that are suspected to be related to cybercriminal activities, and another where we classify 153,293 clusters to provide an estimation of the activity on the Bitcoin ecosystem. We discuss the potential applications of our method for organizational regulation and compliance, societal implications, outline study limitations, and propose future research directions. A prototype implementation of our method for organizational use is included in the appendix.

Journal: Journal of Management Information Systems
Published: 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Klaus Langenheldt.
Contact CBS researcher: Raghava Rao Mukkamala.
Contact CBS researcher: Ravi Vatrapu.


Cross‐sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Psychosocial Well‐being and Sleep in European Children and Adolescents
ABSTRACT: Research on associations of positive mental health, in contrast to mental ill‐health, with sleep duration and sleep disturbances in young populations is scarce. In particular, longitudinal studies focussing on the influence of positive mental health on sleep characteristics are lacking. Therefore, we investigated cross‐sectional and longitudinal associations of psychosocial well‐being with sleep duration and sleep disturbances. For the cross‐sectional analysis, we used data of 3‐15‐year‐old children and adolescents participating in the 2013/14 examination of the European IDEFICS/I.Family cohort study (N = 6,336). The longitudinal analysis was restricted to children who also participated in the 2009/10 examination (N = 3,379). Associations between a psychosocial well‐being score created from 16 items of the KINDLR Health‐Related Quality of Life Questionnaire covering emotional well‐being, self‐esteem and social relationships, an age‐standardized nocturnal sleep duration z‐score and two sleep disturbance indicators (“trouble getting up in the morning”, “difficulties falling asleep”) were estimated using linear and logistic mixed‐effects models. Cross‐sectionally, a higher well‐being score was associated with longer sleep duration and lower odds of sleep disturbances. A positive change in the well‐being score over the 4‐year period was associated with longer sleep duration and lower odds of sleep disturbances at follow‐up. However, there was only weak evidence that higher psychosocial well‐being at baseline was associated with better sleep 4 years later. Thus, our results suggest that increases in well‐being are associated with improvements in both sleep duration and sleep disturbances, but that well‐being measured at one point in time does not predict sleep characteristics several years later.

Journal: Journal of Sleep Research
Published: April 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Wencke Gwozdz.
Contact CBS researcher: Lucia A. Reisch.


Peer Effects on Weight Status, Dietary Behaviour and Physical Activity among Adolescents in Europe: Findings from the I.Family Study
ABSTRACT: This study uses survey data from the I.Family Study to investigate the association between adolescent and peer overweight in a sample of adolescents aged 12–16 from six European countries. We find clear evidence of peer effects on body mass index, waist circumference, and body fat, which are stronger among adolescents at the upper end of overweight distribution. We also provide evidence that both consumption of less healthy foods and time spent in leisure time physical activity and audio‐visual media are positively associated with similar behaviours among friends. These observations may suggest that peer effects on adolescent overweight operate by influencing friends’ behaviour patterns, especially unhealthy food consumption and physical (in)activity.

Journal: Kyklos
Published: February 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Wencke Gwozdz.
Contact CBS researcher: Lucia A. Reisch.


Notes on Market Design and Economic Sociology
Journal: Economic Sociology
Published: 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: José Ossandón.


Gennemførelse af det nye aktionærrettighedsdirektiv - 2. del: Tilskyndelsen til aktivt ejerskab med vægt på konsekvenserne for finansielle virksomheder
Journal: Revision & Regnskabsvæsen
Published: March 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Caspar Rose.
Contact CBS researcher: Peer Schaumburg-Muller.


Pricing management: Information, koordination og kontrol
Journal: Revision & Regnskabsvæsen
Published: April 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Sof Thrane.
Contact CBS researcher: Martin Jarmatz.


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Sidst opdateret: Communications // 07/05/2019