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Abstract: This article argues the importance of considering wageless life and related post-wage regimes of work in the study of creative and cultural labour. Such consideration is necessary to understand how creative workers persevere in their profession, dedicating substantial amounts of time to making art in spite of prolonged precarity and low, irregular or non-existent wages. The article revisits sociological studies of creative work and finds that although such studies have tended to neglect the wageless life of creative workers they have nonetheless implicitly identified a range of alternative economic activities and ‘consumption work’ practices that go beyond wages and formal contractual employment. These activities include everyday strategies for ‘getting by’, such as barter, self-provisioning, commoning, thrift and downshifting. A systematic and sustained focus on wageless life that treats work as deeply enmeshed in everyday life is needed in order to make manifest the hidden politics of contemporary post-waged creative work.
Abstract: The ability to contain adverse effects of major risks under turbulent conditions and exploit the opportunities they present are fundamental concerns in strategic management and various institutions promote enterprise risk management (ERM) to deal with these challenges. Yet, our knowledge about how ERM affects performance and interacts with corporate strategy-making processes is limited. The ERM frameworks impose first and second lines of defense practices to integrate business operations and corporate risk oversight. Emergent strategies generate responsive initiatives and strategic planning coordinates updated actions. Hence, this study analyzes the conjoint effects of these ERM practices and strategy-making processes based on a large corporate sample and finds that ERM practices depend on strategy-making to attain effective risk outcomes. The application of ERM frameworks can, therefore, not be assessed in isolation, but must consider corporate strategy-making. This has implications for the way we conduct research on strategic risk management, how executives approach risk oversight and policy-makers impose formal risk governance requirements.
Abstract: This paper develops parameter instability and structural change tests within predictive regressions for economic systems governed by persistent vector autoregressive dynamics. Specifically, in a setting where all – or a subset – of the variables may be fractionally integrated and the predictive relation may feature cointegration, we provide sup-Wald break tests that are constructed using the Local speCtruM (LCM) approach. The new tests cover both parameter variation and multiple structural changes with unknown break dates, and the number of breaks being known or unknown. We establish asymptotic limit theory for the tests, showing that it coincides with standard testing procedures. As a consequence, existing critical values for tied-down Bessel processes may be applied, without modification. We implement the new structural change tests to explore the stability of the fractionally cointegrating relation between implied- and realized volatility (IV and RV). Moreover, we assess the relative efficiency of IV forecasts against a challenging time-series benchmark constructed from high-frequency data. Unlike existing studies, we find evidence that the IV–RV cointegrating relation is unstable, and that carefully constructed time-series forecasts are more efficient than IV in capturing low-frequency movements in RV.
Abstract: When Russia in 2012 joined the World Trade Organization (WTO), it also moved its bilateral power-oriented trade relationship with the European Union (EU) into a more rule of law-based framework. This paper addresses the WTO dispute settlement system's role in settling disputes relevant to the Russia-EU trade relationship. The rule of law-based framework can prove essential for businesses engaged in EU-Russia trade as it strengthens legal certainty. The paper addresses two dimensions where the WTO dispute settlement system has strengthened legal certainty: (1) by clarifying the legal value of the dispute settlement reports; and (2) by handling and clarifying the interface between trade law and environmental law, where the latter may have an impact on climate change law.
Abstract: Corporations have become prominent actors in responding to COVID-19. Within the context of increasing privatization of humanitarianism and marketization of social justice, corporate define the global crisis of COVID-19. Understanding corporate COVID-19 communications contributes to understanding the politics of the global pandemic. This article analyzes companies’ humanitarian communications during the early phase of COVID19 in Europe and North America to identify how their messages define COVID-19 and justified particular responses. We find that brands constructed COVID-19 as a crisis of expertise and logistics, a crisis of resources and capital, and a crisis of the self. In response to these crises, corporations provide products to “help” consumers to manage the pandemic and to manage themselves. These humanitarian narratives make the case that business has a concrete role to play in solving crises and present individual consumption as a humanitarian act.
Abstract: Many business-owning families aspire to someday transfer their firm to the next family generation. Controversy surrounds the question of how these transgenerational intentions affect risky growth strategies such as investments in innovation: some emphasize the positives of a transgenerational time horizon for investments in future growth, others highlight the negatives of a more conservative mindset with amplified concern for stability and risk avoidance. Using regulatory focus theory, we resolve this long-standing controversy about the impact of transgenerational intentions by theorizing how they can trigger a promotion focus with increased innovation spending or a prevention focus with reduced innovation spending, depending on the firm’s survival hazard. Based on a sample of around 3,900 German firms using OLS and 2SLS estimation, we find empirical support for our predictions. This study extends the mixed gamble lens on family firm decision-making with insights from regulatory focus theory to build consensus on the role of transgenerational intentions while shifting consensus on the role of family ownership in relation to the innovation spending decision.
Abstract: Scholars across disciplines increasingly hear calls for more open and collaborative approaches to scientific research. The concept of Open Innovation in Science (OIS) provides a framework that integrates dispersed research efforts aiming to understand the antecedents, contingencies, and consequences of applying open and collaborative research practices. While the OIS framework has already been taken up by science of science scholars, its conceptual underpinnings require further specification. In this essay, we critically examine the OIS concept and bring to light two key aspects: 1) how OIS builds upon Open Innovation (OI) research by adopting its attention to boundary-crossing knowledge flows and by adapting other concepts developed and researched in OI to the science context, as exemplified by two OIS cases in the area of research funding; 2) how OIS conceptualises knowledge flows across boundaries. While OI typically focuses on well-defined organisational boundaries, we argue that blurry and even invisible boundaries between communities of practice may more strongly constrain flows of knowledge related to openness and collaboration in science. Given the uptake of this concept, this essay brings needed clarity to the meaning of OIS, which has no particular normative orientation towards a close coupling between science and industry. We end by outlining the essay’s contributions to OI and the science of science, as well as to science practitioners.
Abstract: This monograph reviews the academic literature on market outcomes, reporting practices and the political economy behind the global use of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). We start with a conceptual discussion of expected benefits and costs of an international harmonization of accounting regulation and explain why predictions on possible outcomes are ambiguous. Section 3 discusses the characteristics of an “ideal” IFRS experiment that would allow to draw causal inferences on the effects of IFRS adoption. We offer a comprehensive overview of research on the impact of IFRS on capital markets, particularly around first-time adoption and during the global financial crisis. In Section 4, we describe current IFRS reporting practices, including digital reporting (XBRL), and benchmark the availability, accessibility, and processing of IFRS financial information against the information environment in the United States. We complement this discussion by evidence on the use of IFRS reporting choices such as the different fair value options. Section 5 provides information about important institutional features of IFRS standard setting and how political powers affect decisions on IFRS adoption, standard setting, and enforcement. The monograph concludes with an assessment of the impact of IFRS research and outlines emerging trends that provide opportunities for future research. Overall, this monograph offers a summary of research findings and methods that are relevant for the analysis of future regulatory innovations, such as the international standardization of sustainability (or ESG) reporting.
Abstract: Since the late 1990s endeavours in American discourse were undertaken to differentiate between genuinely conservative narratives explaining and/or justifying socioeconomic inequality from neoliberal patterns of explanation and make the case for the superiority of the former. Prominently, Lawrence Mead and Christopher Beem in ther Welfare Reform and Political Theory or Government Matter argue with regard to the results of the workfare reforms of the mid 1990s in the United States, that inequality cannot be adequately accounted for by a lack of equality of opportunity that could be ameliorated by social democratic recipies, nor could it be effectively curtailed by setting the right incentives, which would be the crucial neoliberal technique in tackling this problem. Rather, the origin of poverty and entrenched socioeconomic inequality in most cases lay in the fact that the poor simply lost control of their lives, lacking indispensable values such as motivation, discipline, responsibility etc. Effective social policy therefore would be ill-advised in appealing to the homo oeconomicus that neoliberal thought assumes to be found even in the most deprived members of the underclass. Instead it must opt for a paternalist approach of ‘tough love’ in order to restore basic value orientations and motivational patterns.
This diagnosis is the starting point and the working hypothesis of this essay focussing on the German contexts of the 1980s and 1990s in order to explore whether and to what extent there is a similar differentiation taking place, what the key characteristics of the neoconservative narrative are and how it relates to its neoliberal counterpart.
In a first step of the argument that diagnosis of Mead and Beem are discussed and located in the context of the neocoservative discourse in the United States. In a second step neoconservative perspectives in the Germany of the 1980s and 1990s are discussed with reference to some of the key protagonists – not the least regarding their relation to neoliberal discourse. The conclusion will identify similarities and differences between the discursive formations on both sides of the Atlantic and offer various interpretations of these findings
Abstract: In most countries, the established churches constitute an important component of heritage and culture, both material and immaterial. While the financing of arts and culture in general is heavily researched, the literature on church economy and the financing of established (national) churches is limited. How wealthy are the churches today? How much do they receive in income per annum? How are they financed? How does public expenditure on churches compare with public expenditure on the cultural sector in general? The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the economy of the established churches in the Nordic countries: Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland and Iceland. Furthermore, these Nordic church economies will be compared with the established churches in Scotland and England, which operate with a different model of financing (based on private donations). The study is based on an extensive empirical work and a comprehensive data collection drawing on a variety of available sources. This is a truly novel contribution, being the first study of its kind. The results of our study show significant differences in the level of income in the seven national churches. This is interesting, as levels of religiosity do not differ greatly between the seven countries, and any differences are not correlated with the level of income. It is beyond the scope of this article to explain the difference we have found in the level of income of the established churches. However, the results show that level of income of the churches in the Nordic countries is quite high – also compared with the total public expenditure on arts and culture in general.
Abstract: Når en immaterialret krænkes, er det svært at fastsætte rettighedshavers tab. I denne artikel bruger jeg simple økonomiske modeller til at analysere dansk retspraksis på netop dette område. Det gør jeg ved at fokusere på den omfattende praksis, hvor domstolene ser på krænkers salg og vurderer, hvor stor en del heraf rettighedshaver ville have haft. Hvor domstolene – med andre ord – fastsætter en substitutionsfaktor. Jeg gennemgår de parametre, som danske domstole inddrager, og viser, at de juridiske parametre i overvejende grad passer med simple økonomiske modeller. Samtidig viser jeg, hvordan de økonomiske modeller kan bidrage til mere sofistikerede analyser af de faktorer, der inddrages i erstatningsudmålingen. Herved viser jeg sammenhængen mellem gældende ret og økonomisk teori på området.
Abstract: We examine, using aggregate and sectoral U.S. data for the period 2008–2020, the predictive power of disentangled oil-price shocks for Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) realized market variance via the heterogeneous auto-regressive realized variance (HAR-RV) model. In-sample tests show that demand and financial-market-risk shocks contribute to a larger extent to the overall fit of the model than supply shocks, where the in-sample transmission of the impact of the shocks mainly operates through their significant effects on realized upward (“good”) variance. Out-of-sample tests corroborate the significant predictive value of demand and financial-market-risk shocks for realized variance and its upward counterpart at a short, medium, and long forecast horizon, for various recursive-estimation windows, for realized volatility (that is, the square root of realized variance), for a shorter sub-sample period that excludes the recent phase of exceptionally intense oil-market turbulence, and for an extended benchmark model that features realized higher-order moments, realized jumps, and a leverage effect as control variables. We also study a quantiles-based extension of the HAR-RV model, and we analyze the economic benefits of using shocks for realized-variance forecasting.
Abstract: We examine the effects of real-time pricing on welfare and consumer surplus in
electricity markets. We model consumers on real-time pricing who purchase electricity on the wholesale market. A second group of consumers contracts with retailers and pays time-invariant retail prices. Electricity generating firms compete in supply functions.
Increasing the number of consumers on real-time pricing increases welfare and consumer surplus of both types of consumers. Yet, risk-averse consumers on traditional timeinvariant retail prices are always better off. Collectively, our results point to a public good nature of demand response in power markets when consumers are risk-averse.
Abstract: This article examines what the rise in machine learning (ML) systems might mean for social theory. Focusing on financial markets, in which algorithmic securities trading founded on ML-based decision-making is gaining traction, I discuss the extent to which established sociological notions remain relevant or demand a reconsideration when applied to an ML context. I argue that ML systems have some capacity for agency and for engaging in forms of collective machine behaviour, in which ML systems interact with other machines. However, ML-based collective machine behaviour is irreducible to human decision-making and thereby challenges established sociological notions of financial markets (including that of embeddedness). I argue that such behaviour can nonetheless be analysed through an adaptation of sociological theories of interaction and collective behaviour.
Abstract: “Freemium” product strategies—where a free basic version of a product is offered alongside a full “premium” paid version—are often used by companies to attempt to increase the size of their user base and benefit from network effects. However, there is limited empirical evidence of how this strategy impacts company performance. We investigate empirically how the strengthening of network effects on the Apple App Store influenced the revenues generated by market leaders and followers, contrasting firms that use paid only versus freemium strategies. We find that stronger network effects did not on their own lead to greater revenue for market leaders w.r.t. followers. However, in settings where freemium strategies were used, network effects greatly amplified the advantage of leaders over followers.
Abstract: This study addresses the growing calls among international business and international entrepreneurship scholars for greater research attention to the effect of leaders’ characteristics on their firms’ risky internationalization choices. Focusing on the fundamental leader characteristic identified in the international entrepreneurship literature, i.e., risk propensity, we develop and test an original framework for analysis, which suggests that CEOs with greater risk propensity will tend to steer their firms towards greater degrees of internationalization and towards more risky venues/locations (countries at a greater cultural distance) and vehicles/entry modes (acquisitions versus alliances). We also more precisely assess our underlying assumption of agentic CEOs affecting firms’ internationalization decisions by positing and testing additional moderator relationships, in which we suggest that the effect of CEO risk propensity on the riskiness of firms’ internationalization choices will be (1) amplified when CEOs enjoy greater power, and (2) attenuated for firms with greater internationalization experience. Empirically, our analyses show significant and robust support for both our main effect and moderator hypotheses. Our study has implications for the burgeoning literature on the micro-foundations of internationalization, as well as the upper echelons and international entrepreneurship literatures.
Abstract: We compare the implications of speculation versus hedging channels for bond markets in heterogeneous agents’ economies. Treasuries command a significant risk premium when optimistic agents speculate by leveraging their positions using bonds. Disagreement drives a wedge between marginal agent versus econometrician beliefs (sentiment). When speculative demands dominate, the interaction between belief heterogeneity and sentiment helps rationalize several puzzling characteristics of Treasury markets. Empirically, we test model predictions and find that larger disagreement (i) lowers the risk-free rate, (ii) raises the slope of the yield curve, and (iii) with positive sentiment increases bond risk premia and makes its dynamics countercyclical.
Abstract: We investigate the adoption of operational management “best practices” in multinational cor-poration (MNC) subsidiary plants in the Western Balkans. Building on the Practice-Based View (PBV), we suggest that subsidiary plants are more likely to operate according to widely recog-nized best practices, if these practices are already common in the MNC home country. We also examine the degree to which the MNC can facilitate best practices in their plants by allocating organizational and human resources. We test our hypotheses using survey data from subsidiary managers and secondary company data (n =129), supplemented with manager interviews (n =14), collected from European, U.S., and Asian MNCs with subsidiary plants in Bosnia and Her-zegovina, Croatia, Serbia, and North Macedonia. Results indicate that the subsidiary plants adopt practices that are common in the MNC home country. They do so to a greater extent when the MNC commits organizational resources to the plants, such as codified written procedures and trainings. Contrary to our expectations, there is no benefit to allocating human resources, such as expatriates and business travelers. We provide insights into the transfer and implementation of best practices in the Western Balkan context, enhance our understanding of the PBV by presenting a specific application of this theoretical perspective, and provide practically relevant results for managers and policymakers.
Abstract: Fresh food supply chains in Europe’s transnational agribusinesses depend on cheap, non-unionised, and privately managed labour from low-wage eastern European countries. The costs versus benefits of this phenomenon are under-studied. By examining seasonal farm migration from Romania to Germany, we argue that the Covid-19 pandemic is, for farmworkers, a Janus-faced event. On the one hand, it has worsened the precarity of migrant farmworkers. Changes in the German state’s pay legislation that excluded workers from social benefits, and the reluctance of the German state to enforce labour legislation to the full in the early stages of the pandemic sharpened what we have termed the structural disempowerment of migrant farmworkers. Romanian seasonal workers have had little choice but to implicitly subsidise the costs of German farm products. At the same time, the health crisis has made their work visible and led to processes that challenge the perception of migrant workers as passive agents. In this regard we refer specifically to (i) the supportive media coverage in Romania, Germany, and beyond and (ii) the assertion of union-affiliated farm and abattoir labour activism in Germany. These planted seeds of contestation, and collective action against abuses sprang up in several farms. Combined with a flare-up of Covid-19 in German abattoirs in the summer of 2020, these campaigns for visibility and improved working conditions led the German government to alter legislation so as to better protect seasonal labour in the fresh vegetable and meat sectors. Going forward, the tension between these two opposing sociopolitical drivers may shape the governance of seasonal labour in Europe.
Abstract: Mitigation solutions are often evaluated in terms of costs and greenhouse gas reduction potentials, missing out on the consideration of direct effects on human well-being. Here, we systematically assess the mitigation potential of demand-side options categorized into avoid, shift and improve, and their human well-being links. We show that these options, bridging socio-behavioural, infrastructural and technological domains, can reduce counterfactual sectoral emissions by 40–80% in end-use sectors. Based on expert judgement and an extensive literature database, we evaluate 306 combinations of well-being outcomes and demand-side options, finding largely beneficial effects in improvement in well-being (79% positive, 18% neutral and 3% negative), even though we find low confidence on the social dimensions of well-being. Implementing such nuanced solutions is based axiomatically on an understanding of malleable rather than fixed preferences, and procedurally on changing infrastructures and choice architectures. Results demonstrate the high mitigation potential of demand-side mitigation options that are synergistic with well-being.
Abstract: Knowing the extent to which mental well-being and stressful life events during adolescence contribute to personality characteristics related to risk-taking behaviors, such as emotion-driven impulsiveness, is highly relevant for the development of health promotion measures. This study examined whether psychosocial well-being and different stressful life events are associated with emotion-driven impulsiveness. In total, 3,031 adolescents (52% girls; Mage = 13.6 years) were included from the I. Family Study, a cross-sectional examination on lifestyle-related behaviors conducted across eight European countries in 2013/14. Linear mixed-effects regression models showed that higher psychosocial well-being was associated with lower emotion-driven impulsiveness independent of socio-demographic, health-related, and parental variables. A higher number of stressful life events was associated with higher emotion-driven impulsiveness. Psychosocial well-being and stressful life events need to be further considered in the development and tailoring of health promotion strategies that aim to reduce emotion-driven impulsiveness.
Abstract: The UN COP26 2021 conference on climate change offers the chance for world leaders to take action and make urgent and meaningful commitments to reducing emissions and limit global temperatures to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels by 2050. Whilst the political aspects and subsequent ramifications of these fundamental and critical decisions cannot be underestimated, there exists a technical perspective where digital and IS technology has a role to play in the monitoring of potential solutions, but also an integral element of climate change solutions. We explore these aspects in this editorial article, offering a comprehensive opinion based insight to a multitude of diverse viewpoints that look at the many challenges through a technology lens. It is widely recognized that technology in all its forms, is an important and integral element of the solution, but industry and wider society also view technology as being part of the problem. Increasingly, researchers are referencing the importance of responsible digitalization to eliminate the significant levels of e-waste. The reality is that technology is an integral component of the global efforts to get to net zero, however, its adoption requires pragmatic tradeoffs as we transition from current behaviors to a more climate friendly society.
Abstract: With increasing socioeconomic precarity and ecological threat, resilience has become the individual responsibility and moral obligation of the neoliberal subject. Digital labor platforms are a clear expression and beneficiary of this development, offering hustling as a way to gain resilience as a micro-entrepreneur. However, we present evidence to the contrary, demonstrating how hustling in the digital economy erodes resilience on a systemic level. For this purpose, we draw on an in-depth, ecological ethnography about Poshmark, a social commerce platform for predominantly female hustlers to sell clothes. We tell the story of a pattern set in motion by the rapid scaling of the platform, which requires hustlers to do more and more click-work to yield smaller and smaller sales. As a result, they are caught up in a runaway dynamic that erodes the resilience of the ecology as a whole.
Abstract: Creative leadership has been studied in different collaborative contexts that can be summarized as facilitating employees' creativity, directing the realization of the creative vision of a leader and integrating different and diverse creative contributions. In this paper, we present the findings from a qualitative meta-analysis of literature-based accounts of chefs' creative leadership practices from the context of haute cuisine. We bring together both the leader-chefs' and academic authors' understandings of practices available in scholarly papers to achieve a credible picture of creative leadership practices in haute cuisine. We present our findings as a meta-vignette introducing nine prototypical characters representing patterns of practices that leader-chefs perform as they are fostering creativity. We further demonstrate when and how leader-chefs employ practices that are more typical of facilitating and integrating contexts. The nine characters afford an immediate intuitive understanding of the creative leadership practices in haute cuisine, helping scholars to look for and analyse creative leadership and support creative leaders to understand better and be more mindful of their practices.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the implementation of value-based care principles in the context of frailty in the perioperative process, highlighting the importance of an integrative perspective considering medical and patient-centric outcomes as well as costs.
Subject and methods
This mixed-methods study employs a sequential design. Qualitative observational data were used to identify needs and barriers for implementing value-based principles, and quantitative methods were subsequently used to demonstrate the value of employing such an approach using data gathered from n = 952 patients. Propensity score matching was applied to identify the frailty-associated costs of the inpatient setting for n = 381 non-frail and n = 381 (pre-)frail patients, in particular considering patient-centric outcomes.
The qualitative analysis identified three main challenges when implementing value-based principles in the context of perioperative care and frailty, namely challenges related to the cost, patient-centric, and integrative perspectives. In addressing these shortcomings, a quantitative analysis of a propensity score-matched sample of patients undergoing surgery shows additional frailty-associated costs of 3583.01 [1654.92; 5511.04] EUR for (pre-)frail patients and the influence of individual patient-centric attributes. Effect size Cohen’s d was 0.26.
The results demonstrate that frailty should be considered from an integrative perspective, taking cost, patient-centered outcomes, and medical outcomes into account simultaneously. The results also show the value of a research design which uses qualitative data for the identification of needs and barriers, as well as quantitative data for demonstrating the usefulness of the conceived value-based approach to perioperative care delivery.
Abstract: In credit systems, purportedly sustainable activities are undertaken in one place to compensate for unsustainable activities elsewhere. These mechanisms originated in pollution abatement systems but now are found in many sustainability programs, including supply chain certification. Credit programs are used in various sustainability certification programs to lower transaction costs, boost uptake, and direct more resources to small producers, but they are also controversial. The relational values framework argues that one way to motivate people to support sustainability efforts is to emphasize what behaviors are appropriate to specific relationships. We ask whether changing the way we think and talk about credits may be a way to direct more resources to producers or places willing to engage in sustainability certification. Using an embedded survey experiment, we test this reframing with a sample of representatives of member organizations of the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO). We find that the relational values reframing of the RSPO's crediting mechanism is perceived to be less confusing and potentially damaging to the standard's reputation than the existing framing. This evidence suggests that relational values frames might be helpful tools as part of efforts to improve sustainability in global value chains.
Abstract: Recent empirical studies have shown that innovative firms heavily rely on debt financing. Debt overhang implies that debt hampers innovation by incumbents. A second effect of debt is that it stimulates innovation by entrants. Using a Schumpeterian growth model with endogenous R&D and financing choices, we demonstrate that this second effect always dominates, so that debt fosters innovation and growth at the aggregate level. Our analysis suggests that the relation between debt and investment is more complex than previously acknowledged and highlights potential limitations of empirical work that solely focuses on incumbents when measuring the effects of debt on investment.
Abstract: We explore coevolution in the growth of technological knowledge and international scope in multinational corporations (MNCs). We focus on technological knowledge and international scope because they are core to the performance of MNCs and because research has found that technological knowledge stimulates international growth, while internationalization stimulates technological growth. We address this seeming paradox by consolidating arguments about their growth under the coevolutionary umbrella. In so doing, we advance a novel coevolutionary argument: technological knowledge and international scope are both outcomes of interdependent, long-term strategic decisions aimed at optimizing the complementary effects of both dimensions on MNC performance. Accordingly, we develop a formal model of the dynamic processes by which technological knowledge and international scope coevolve. Our dynamic optimization model identifies four coevolutionary trajectories: (1) a trajectory in which growth in technological knowledge and international scope occur simultaneously; (2) a trajectory that has simultaneous reductions in both; (3) a trajectory in which technologically rich but domestically oriented firms expand international scope but reduce technological knowledge; and (4) a trajectory in which highly internationalized but technologically lagging firms expand technological knowledge but reduce international scope.
Abstract: Firms can use legal and spatial scaling to increase their control and capacity to exploit assets. Here we examine how platform firms, like AirBnB, Uber, and Bird, scale their operations through global wealth chains. Their use of law is to maximize wealth creation and protection, while their services use local spaces to extract value from established property, labor, and public thoroughfares. We examine how such ‘networked accumulation’ platform firms use legal and spatial scaling through legal affordances. This includes opportunities for absences, ambiguities and arbitrage that are realized via multi and inter-scalar strategies and produce variegation. Our analysis draws on legal documents, as well as interviews, from Barcelona and San Francisco. The article contributes with a model of how platform firms use legal and spatial scaling, as well as how activists can challenge their operations.
Abstract: Research funding organizations routinely encourage SMEs to collaborate with organizations of different institutional backgrounds, such as other firms, universities, or research organizations. These collaborations are supposed to involve SMEs in knowledge flows across boundaries and generate innovative solutions to complex problems. However, we know little about how the project partners determine the priorities of their joint research in the first place and how the institutional composition influences priority setting. In this paper, we study attention coordination among SMEs and their partners for the emergence of priorities in joint research grant proposals. Applying content analysis to 207 grant proposals of innovation consortia that have received funding in the EU’s Horizon 2020 program, we find that increasingly diverse consortia shift attention away from technological novelty and market creation towards more consideration for the innovation ecosystem.
Abstract: We study how domestic firms adapt to increased import competition from China. Using a Danish employer-employee matched dataset covering firms over the 1995–2007 period, we find that import competition significantly increases manufacturing firms' expansion of their business activities in the service industry (partial servitization); their probability of offshoring production activities abroad and of exiting the market. Import competition, however, does not induce firms to cease all of their involvement in manufacturing production by completely switching into service sector (complete servitization). These findings are confirmed using various robustness tests as well as an analogous analysis of a Portuguese employer-employee matched dataset.
The role of telemedicine in intensive care has been increasing steadily. Tele–intensive care unit (ICU) interventions are varied and can be used in different levels of treatment, often with direct implications for the intensive care processes. Although a substantial body of primary and secondary literature has been published on the topic, there is a need for broadening the understanding of the organizational factors influencing the effectiveness of telemedical interventions in the ICU.
This scoping review aims to provide a map of existing evidence on tele-ICU interventions, focusing on the analysis of the implementation context and identifying areas for further technological research.
A research protocol outlining the method has been published in JMIR Research Protocols. This review follows the PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews). A core research team was assembled to provide feedback and discuss findings.
A total of 3019 results were retrieved. After screening, 25 studies were included in the final analysis. We were able to characterize the context of tele-ICU studies and identify three use cases for tele-ICU interventions. The first use case is extending coverage, which describes interventions aimed at extending the availability of intensive care capabilities. The second use case is improving compliance, which includes interventions targeted at improving patient safety, intensive care best practices, and quality of care. The third use case, facilitating transfer, describes telemedicine interventions targeted toward the management of patient transfers to or from the ICU.
The benefits of tele-ICU interventions have been well documented for centralized systems aimed at extending critical care capabilities in a community setting and improving care compliance in tertiary hospitals. No strong evidence has been found on the reduction of patient transfers following tele-ICU intervention.
Abstract: I denne artikel diskuterer jeg, hvordan man fra et historisk perspektiv kan forstå Danske Banks to livstruende kriser siden etableringen i 1871. Kriserne i hhv. 1920erne og under og efter finanskrisen i 2008 udspillede sig på baggrund af en forudgående succesrig periode, der gjorde den næste generation af bankdirektører for ekspansions- og risikovillige. Samtidig trådte de nye ledere, Emil Glückstadt og Peter Straarup, til mens betingelserne for at drive bank var under stærk forandring, og hvor erhvervslivets ledere i stigende grad blev fremstillet som ”superstar CEOs”. Da bankens bestyrelser ikke ønskede eller magtede at lægge en dæmper på ekspansionstrangen, fik kombinationen af de nævnte faktorer fatale konsekvenser for banken.
Abstract: This essay highlights why entrepreneurship is a terrible idea for most people, most of the time.
Abstract: Reinterpreting the rise of contemporary macroeconomics, this article argues that what mattered most in the shift away from postwar Keynesianism was a new form of modeling called Real Business Cycles (RBC) – variations of which still dominate mainstream macroeconomics. But how could this form of modeling, championed by a handful of junior economists, affect a disciplinary coup in the face of strong opposition from Keynesian disciplinary powerbrokers? Content analysis, network mapping and deep reading of 197 articles by 331 authors suggest that RBC had a competitive edge as a tool of individual professional advancement, allowing it to rewire pre-existing networks of expertise in the face of strong opposition. Elaborating on the interdependence between individual professional appeal and the rise of new forms of formalized expertise, this article identifies three facets of RBC that made it a ‘super-model’, enabling its improbable takeover of macroeconomics: the ability to bond together a set of disparate ideas into a simple and workable whole (‘glue’), deflect known criticism (‘rubber’), and incorporate modified assumptions (‘putty’).
Abstract: We study the optimal management of evolving hierarchies of revenue-generating agents. The initiator invests into expanding the hierarchy by adding another agent, who will bring revenues to the joint venture and who will invest herself into expanding the hierarchy further, and so on. The higher the investments (which are private information), the higher the probability of expanding the hierarchy. An allocation scheme specifies how revenues are distributed, as the hierarchy evolves. We obtain schemes that are socially optimal and initiator-optimal, respectively. Our results have potential applications for blockchain, cryptocurrencies, social mobilization, and multilevel marketing.
Abstract: Det Systemiske Risikoråd er en forholdsvis ny aktør i rollen som rådgiver for regeringen i spørgsmål vedrørende finansiel stabilitet i Danmark. Rådets virke er indtil nu især kommet til udtryk i form af henstillinger til regeringen inden for to områder, nemlig den kontracykliske kapitalbuffer og begrænsning af risikable boliglån. I denne artikel redegøres først for Rådets etablering, dets juridiske rammer, instrumentarium samt organisering. Dernæst diskuteres behovet for ændringer i Rådets ressort, beføjelser på det makroprudentielle område, governance samt kommunikation med offentligheden.
Abstract: The ‘Africa rising’ narrative sparked a lively discussion of the powers of orthodox economic policies to ensure good economic governance and attract private investments to further stimulate economic growth. The 2014 commodity bust and the Covid-19 pandemic effectively ended this discussion and triggered a critical examination of the fundamentals of the narrative. This study investigates how orthodox economic policies have affected the strive for structural transformation in a resource-rich economy like Zambia. It argues that there is a mismatch between the mostly orthodox policies that have driven policy formulation and the needs of the domestic private sector. Therefore, it makes a case for setting domestic market formation as a guiding principle for future economic policies, specifically by focusing industrial policy on business climate, rather than investment climate, and by focusing on capacity building, upgrading, and growth in consumer and inter-sectoral demand, rather than only liberalisation and good economic governance.
Abstract: We are living in a world which is severely crisis-ridden and faces some major challenges. The fact that we are currently facing a genuine global pandemic (COVID-19) brings about even more uncertainty. The social and political institutions, which emerged and consolidated during the 20th century, and which created stability, have become fragile. The young generation born in the 1990s and onwards have experienced 9/11 and the ‘war against terrorism’, the financial crisis of 2008, changes to climate, environmental degradation, and most recently the COVID-19 pandemic. The generation born between 1960 and 1990 have had the same experiences along with severe economic crises in the 1970s and 1980s and the Cold War. Some of these challenges are in different ways intertwined with capitalism and its crises, while others are linked to the rapid development of new technologies, in particular innovations within communication and information technologies. This introduction lists the most important grand challenges facing the world as they have emerged more recently. The five articles following this introduction address some of these challenges, with particular attention to the problems of capitalism and democracy and the relation between these two areas. Most authors agree that climate change and the destruction of the environment are the biggest and most pertinent problems to address, but it is their stance that we can only meet these challenges if democracy is functioning well.
Abstract: We develop and estimate a dynamic model of female labor supply, fertility and transition from renting to first homeownership with panel data, to investigate declining U.S. homeownership over the past decades. Higher house prices and increased female wage rates (that is the opportunity cost of leisure), cause households to postpone their first-home purchase, because leisure and fertility are complementary to homeownership. Education and female workforce participation are reinforcing factors that raise the value of owning a home. Our estimates show the effects of rising house prices and wage rates more than offset the effects of greater education and workforce participation
Abstract: We seek to complement and extend the article by Welch, Piekkari, Plakoyiannaki, and Paavilainen-Mäntymäki (J Int Bus Stud 42:740–762, 2011), winner of the 2021 JIBS Decade Award, which advanced knowledge on case-based theory development in international business (IB). Similarly, we examine dimensions of scholarly inquiry across qualitative and quantitative research, using inductive and deductive approaches. Recent years have featured unprecedented growth in the volume and availability of data from diverse national contexts, offering novel opportunities for innovative research. Accordingly, we build on the logic of Welch et al. (2011) not only to elaborate on but also to call for a more pluralistic view of data and methodology. We advocate using a wider range of data and advanced methods in IB research, framed at the appropriate stage of theory development. We examine the interplay among theory, research design, data, and analytical technique, highlighting the role of data in methodological pluralism. While IB scholars have favored confirmatory approaches in deductive theory building, we argue for more exploratory research using both qualitative and quantitative data. We develop a contingency framework that highlights the stages of theory development, across the nexus of exploratory/confirmatory and qualitative/quantitative approaches, to guide empirical scholarship. We conclude by calling for triangulation and adopting the most appropriate combination of theory, research design, data, and analytical technique, to develop theory in IB research.
Abstract: Mainstream economic theories of the firm argue that the boundary between firm and market is determined by efficiency-enhancing logics which optimise coordination or bargaining outcomes. Drawing on social anthropological work, this paper critiques these accounts, arguing instead that firms are socially embedded and that firm boundary formation should therefore be understood as an attempt to fix the limits of certain relational rights and obligations that are moral in their conception. Consequently, boundaries are often contested and subject to renegotiation. We employ the parsimonious concepts of ‘dams and flows’ to examine how attempts to curtail the claims of some stakeholders and extend the claims of others at any one historical moment produce boundaries of different kinds. To illustrate this, we first trace the moral arguments used to advance limited liability rights to shareholders during the Companies Act in the mid-nineteenth century, which cut or ‘dammed’ obligations at a particular point and moment, directing new flows of obligation and wealth. We then explore the different moral reasoning of agency theory—the foundation of the financialised firm—which foregrounds the property rights of shareholder principles and obligations of managerial agents to them. We argue that this moral reasoning led to new dams and flows that have changed corporate governance and accounting practice, producing—counterintuitively—a reinvigorated form of managerialism, leaving the firm financially and morally unstable; its boundaries increasingly unable to contain its relational tensions.
Abstract: On September 27, 2018, Professor James G. March, a giant in our field, passed away at the age of 90 (1928–2018), just one month after his wife and high school sweetheart, Jayne, passed away. March's impact on the field of organization studies and beyond is profound and long-lasting. The advancement of the field is truly indebted to March's brilliance and dedication to the search of truth as a great scholar. March wrote the inaugural article for Management and Organization Review (MOR) (2005), ‘Parochialism in the Evolution of a Research Community: The Case of Organization Studies’. This article not only provided a critical foundation underlying the editorial structure and philosophy of MOR but also argued eloquently for the salience of indigenous Chinese management studies as a necessary condition for building both contextualized and universal knowledge.
To remember, celebrate, and advance March's rich ideas on organizations, MOR and the IACMR held, in June 17–18, 2019, a special paper development workshop at the University of Nottingham Ningbo, China for a special issue of MOR. Following the workshop, invitations to submit revised manuscripts based on the feedback provided at the workshop were sent out for the final submissions before the due date of October 30, 2019. In total, we received eleven well-developed submissions, out of which five articles were accepted for publication in this special issue. Next, we will present synopses of the five articles, and then discuss critical implications for future research.
Abstract: This Article focuses on environmental taxes, specifically aviation taxes, and the challenges and limitations EU law imposes on individual EU Member States when they attempt to enforce both national and international environmental policy goals. Both the former Irish and the recently implemented Swedish aviation tax are used as comparative examples when chartering and discussing what (legal) obstacles are posed by EU law and, subsequently, the options available to individual Member States when attempting to design and implement environmental taxes.
Abstract: This paper provides a legal analysis of how barriers for increased gender equality in the labor market can be mitigated through the inclusion of childcare infrastructure, primarily paid parental leave, regulation of maternal and paternal leave, and universal childcare. The five Nordic countries of Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland, and Iceland are used as case studies.
Abstract: Voluntary carbon offset (VCO) programs give air travelers opportunities to neutralize their carbon footprint. Despite its potential, few existing studies have explained how to present VCOs that can effectively appeal to the sensibilities of travelers in different conditions. We designed three online experiments with strategies to motivate travelers to opt-in. We found travelers who receive concrete messages that emphasize specific actions are more likely to opt-in to VCOs when flying in the near future. In contrast, travelers receiving abstract messages that emphasize general initiatives are more likely to opt-in to VCOs when flying in the distant future. When travelers are allowed to choose their preferred carbon offset method, they are more likely to opt in, especially when they receive concrete messages that indicate specific actions but not general initiatives. These findings contribute to the aviation carbon offset literature and offer useful new insights for airline companies.
Abstract: Revolutionary advances in machine and deep learning techniques within the field of computer field have dramatically expanded our opportunities to decipher the merits of digital imagery in the business world. Although extant literature on computer vision has yielded a myriad of approaches for extracting core attributes from images, the esotericism of the advocated techniques hinders scholars from delving into the role of visual rhetoric in driving business performance. Consequently, this tutorial aims to consolidate resources for extracting visual features via conventional machine and/or deep learning techniques. We describe resources and techniques based on three visual feature extraction methods, namely calculation-, recognition-, and simulation-based. Additionally, we offer practical examples to illustrate how image features can be accessed via open-sourced python packages such as OpenCV and TensorFlow.
This study examines the relationship between telecommuting and gender inequalities in parents' time use at home and on the job before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Telecommuting is a potential strategy for addressing the competing demands of work and home and the gendered ways in which they play out. Limited evidence is mixed, however, on the implications of telecommuting for mothers' and fathers' time in paid and unpaid work. The massive increase in telecommuting due to COVID-19 underscores the critical need to address this gap in the literature.
Data from the 2003–2018 American Time Use Survey (N = 12,519) and the 2020 Current Population Survey (N = 83,676) were used to estimate the relationship between telecommuting and gender gaps in parents' time in paid and unpaid work before and during the pandemic. Matching and quasi-experimental methods better approximate causal relationships than prior studies.
Before the pandemic, telecommuting was associated with larger gender gaps in housework and work disruptions but smaller gender gaps in childcare, particularly among couples with two full-time earners. During the pandemic, telecommuting mothers maintained paid work to a greater extent than mothers working on-site, whereas fathers' work hours did not differ by work location.
In the context of weak institutional support for parenting, telecommuting may offer mothers a mechanism for maintaining work hours and reducing gender gaps in childcare, while exacerbating inequalities in housework and disruptions to paid work.
Abstract: Customers are increasingly talking positively about brands that are socially responsible and authentic. However, little empirical research has related corporate social responsibility (CSR) to brand authenticity and brand authenticity to customers’ positive word-of-mouth. Moreover, although highly attractive alternative brands are increasingly appearing in the marketplace, there is a lack of research examining the role of alternative attractiveness in the relationship between CSR and brand authenticity. We address these shortcomings in the literature drawing on data from 1,101 customers of insurance services brands and analyze them using structural equation modeling. The findings show that CSR is positively related to customers’ positive word-of-mouth, both directly and indirectly, through brand authenticity. Moreover, alternative attractiveness positively moderates the effect of CSR on brand authenticity. This implies that CSR can act as a differentiation mechanism to further enhance the focal brand’s authenticity, when an alternative brand is perceived as highly attractive.
Abstract: The notion of digital ecosystems has become a fruitful metaphor for examining the effects of digitalization across boundaries of organization, industry, lifeworld, mind, and body. In business-economic terms, the metaphor has inspired IS research into new business models, while in engineering terms, it has led to important insights into the design and governance of digital platforms. Studying digital ecosystems in these terms, however, makes it difficult to trace and explain those effects of digitalization, which do not materialize predominantly in economic and engineering patterns. Important relationships and their effects may therefore go unnoticed. In response, I draw on the ecological epistemology of Gregory Bateson and others to contribute an ecological approach to digital ecosystems. Such an understanding, I argue, expands the possibilities for tracing and explaining the wide-reaching, boundary-crossing effects of digitalization and the runaway dynamics they may lead to. I suggest to do this based on three principles: (1) part-of-ness—phenomena are to be observed as always part of a larger ecosystem; (2) systemic wisdom—ecosystems have limits, which need to be respected; and (3) information ecology—ecosystems are not mechanical but informed, cognitive systems. As my contribution, I propose six avenues for future IS research into digital ecology.
Abstract: Digital platforms radically alter socio-economic and organizational patterns. In an ecological sense, they enable the rapid extension of tolerance limits by digitally scaling variables such as the availability of accommodation or labour. However, such maximization of specific variables in a complex ecology bears the danger of pathological runaway patterns. In our paper we draw on the work of Gregory Bateson to outline an analytical approach for the study of digital platforms as ecological phenomena, focussing on the effects of digitalization on the context in which platforms operate. To study such meta-patterns, we elaborate three interrelated concepts: stress, adaptation and budgets of flexibility. We exemplify these ideas through a longitudinal study of the early digital platform Couchsurfing and develop implications for our understanding of technology and organization.
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to elaborate on the concept of prefiguration by outlining the necessity of its contribution to a progressive public philosophy for the 2020s. In the introduction, I explain how the object of critique for many social theorists has shifted over the course of the last decade from neoliberal globalization to capitalism understood as an encompassing form of life. In light of this, I enumerate the features that should define a progressive public philosophy: radical, emancipatory, and decolonized. The introduction is followed by an overview of the academic debates emerging after the North Atlantic financial crisis of 2007–8. Among these, accelerationism fundamentally rejects the incorporation of prefigurative politics in any emancipatory political agenda. To better understand this position, I examine the origin and meaning of prefiguration and prefigurative practices in more detail in Section III. In it, I argue that prefigurative politics entails a holistic approach to social change that digs its roots in feminist and ecological thought and focuses on social reproduction and the preservation of life rather than solely economic production. Subsequently, I deploy the case of Occupy Wall Street to show that a growing number of contemporary social movements are implementing a dualistic strategy that simultaneously combines repertoires of action typical of protest movements with prefigurative practices focused on the embodiment of alternatives. This dualism, along with the limited success of Occupy Wall Street in concretizing its claims and goals, has led prefigurative politics to being labelled as incompatible with, if not even hindering, any emancipatory strategy. My argument instead is that prefigurative politics constitutes a fundamental and necessary component of any political strategy aimed at transcending contemporary capitalism since it conceives progressive social change in an ontologically and epistemologically different way with respect to political parties and protest movements. Taking this into consideration, I conclude that conventional politics and prefigurative politics can be seen as having the potential to mutually reinforce each other and that prefigurative politics should be acknowledged as a pivotal concept in establishing a progressive public philosophy for the 2020s. Only by doing so, will this philosophy be truly radical, emancipatory, and decolonial.
Abstract: The political significance of masses is more obvious than ever. The aim of this article is to develop a conceptualization capable of capturing the dangerous (totalitarian) as well as promising (potentially emancipatory) aspects of masses. It argues that, intricately, the dangers and fruitful potentials of masses are born out of the same fundamental structural features. We may differentiate analytically between different kinds of masses, but all masses contain elements of ambiguity. The mass conceptualization developed builds on a critical, deconstructing interpretation of selected Bataille texts centering on ontological features of individuality and collectivity. Especially, Bataille’s concepts of ‘myth’ and ‘sacrifice’ are accentuated and critically transformed. Contemporary examples of masses – right-wing anti-establishment movements, Occupy Wall Street and Black Lives Matter – are presented and reflected through the prism of sacrifice, with the aim of highlighting the multifaceted and complex nature of the dynamics of masses.
Abstract: This article addresses two great global challenges of the 2020s. On one hand, the accelerating climate crisis and, on the other, the deepening crisis of representation within liberal democracies. As temperatures and water levels rise, rates of popular confidence in existing democratic institutions decline. So, what is to be done? This article discusses whether sortition – the ancient Greek practice of selecting individuals for political office through lottery – could serve to mitigate both crises simultaneously. Since the 2000s, sortition has attracted growing interest among activists and academics. Recently it has been identified in countries like the UK and France as a mechanism for producing legitimate political answers to the climate challenge. However, few theoretical reflections on the potentials and perils of sortition-based climate governance have yet emerged. This article contributes to filling the gap. Based on a critique of the first successful case of sortition used to enhance national environmental policy – in Ireland in 2017–18 – we argue that sortition-based deliberation could indeed speed up meaningful climate action whilst improving the health of democratic systems. However, this positive outcome is not preordained. Success depends not only on green social movements getting behind climate sortition but also on developing flexible, context-specific designs that identify adequate solutions to a number of problems, including those of power (providing citizens’ assemblies with clear agenda-setting prerogatives beyond non-binding consultation); expertise (allowing assembly participants to influence which stakeholders and experts to solicit inputs from); and participation (engaging wider parts of the citizenry in the deliberative process).
The purpose of this paper is to give an updated overview of the research on employee ownership. What does the scientific literature reveal about advantages and disadvantages? What can be learned from different models used in Italy, France, Mondragon (Spain), UK and US with many employee-owned firms in contrast to Denmark.
A structured review of the literature on employee. The paper identifies different mechanisms leading to effects on productivity, job stability, distribution, investment etc., and reviews the empirical evidence. The main barriers and drivers are identified and different models for employee ownership in Italy, France, Mondragon (Spain), UK and US are reviewed to identify potential models for a country like Denmark with few employee-owned firms.
The article gives an overview over the theoretical predictions and the main empirical evidence of the effects of employee ownership. The pros are greater employee identification with the firm and increased productivity reinforced by increased participation. Employee-owned firms have more equal distribution of wages and more stable employment, and they have greater mutual control between employees and fewer middle managers. The motivation effects may be smaller for large firms and lack of capital may lead to lower levels of investments and capital per employee.
Comprehensive and updated literature review on the effects and successful formats of employee ownership to identify models for implementation in countries with few employee-owned firms.
Abstract: The sustainable development goals (SDGs) address multifaceted problems that lie at the intersection between natural and socio-economic systems. While scholars agree that interdisciplinary research is needed to advance the SDGs, the concept of interdisciplinarity itself has been given limited attention. This article explores the interdisciplinarity of research published in the Journal of Sustainable Tourism using references cited by the journal’s articles. We use structural topic modeling to analyze research trends. The findings suggest that the research has become more interdisciplinary, however, knowledge is defined primarily by tourism studies and the business management discipline. To advance the SDGs, researchers should engage with disciplines such as anthropology and the humanities that can bring critical issues such as power relations and socio-cultural values to the forefront of sustainability discourses. Research should also conceptualize the SDGs as a network of targets to facilitate the integration of sustainable tourism outcomes with broader development goals.
Journal: Journal of Sustainable Tourism
Published: November 2021
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Abstract: Diversity management efforts often turn diversity issues into a business case, thereby depoliticizing these issues and shying away from more political concerns of inequality and discriminating norms of difference. In this study, we explore the performative potential of activist practices to promote the repoliticization of organizational diversity work. To do so, we draw on interviews with three explicitly norm-critical activists, discussing how insigths from their practices can inspire diversity work in formal organizational contexts. The three activists are (1) a twerk dancer, psychologist, radio host, and co-founder of a popular fourth-wave feminist group; (2) a project manager and co-founder of a non-governmental organization for minority ethnic lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender + people; and (3) an anarchist activist, gender educator, and founder of a gender network for educators. Showing how their norm-critical practices work through discursive tensions of personal↔public issues, safe↔unsafe spaces, and creative↔conventional methods, we discuss how these practices may perform in organizational settings, enabling the repoliticization of diversity work in and as the constant negotiation and recognition of norms of difference.
Abstract: Prior research has focused on how firms use a variety of organizational mechanisms to protect their R&D in-vestments from misappropriation risks in foreign countries. Little is known, however, about how firms can rely on non-market factors to induce preferential treatment by host government authorities, thereby protecting their intellectual property overseas. In this paper, we investigate two such non-market factors, one at the country level, the other at the firm level, that are likely to influence the choice of where firms locate their innovation activities: host country inclination towards the firm’s home country and the firm’s political capabilities, respectively. We thus examine how IPR policies and non-market factors interact in protecting firm innovation from misappropriation and in making countries more attractive for innovation-related activities. We find support for our predictions in a sample of 1,341 foreign R&D investments made by 163 firms from 14 home countries over the period 2003–2016
Abstract: To mitigate climate change due to international shipping, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) requires shipowners and ship technical managers to improve the energy efficiency of ships’ operations. This paper studies how voyage planning and execution decisions affect energy efficiency and distinguishes between the commercial and nautical components of energy efficiency. Commercial decisions for voyage planning depend on dynamic market conditions and matter more for energy efficiency than nautical decisions do for voyage execution. The paper identifies the people involved in decision-making processes and advances the energy-efficiency literature by revealing the highly networked nature of agency for energy efficiency. The IMO’s current energy efficiency regulations fail to distinguish between the commercial and nautical aspects of energy efficiency, which limits the ability to mitigate climate change through regulatory measures. Policymakers should expand their regulatory focus beyond shipowners and technical managers to cargo owners to improve energy efficiency and reduce maritime transport emissions.
Abstract: As a part of John Broome’s stated aim to establish a clear distinction between rationality and normativity, Broome suggests a novel definition of normativity as a property term that applies to persons. Since this construal of normativity diverges significantly from most prominent renderings of the concept within contemporary philosophical discussions, it merits critical scrutiny. In response to Broome, I thus examine the technical advantage of Broome’s approach, while also indicating some drawbacks of Broome’s novel conceptualization of ‘normative’ and ‘normativity’.
Abstract: Innovations affect urban and rural areas differently. Although the supply chain management (SCM) literature recognises the interaction between urban and rural areas in terms of flow of products, people and communication, the rural perspective is clearly missing. An inductive approach was applied using an interdisciplinary panel of international experts to explore challenges and opportunities in the integral fields of rural development and SCM. Four key dimensions emerged that deal with rural logistics, policy, community and innovation. The results characterise rural SCM as multidimensional and classify the research field according to these four key dimensions. The resulting holistic framework brings the wide-ranging character of the research field together. The study provides foundations for the future research and theory building in this emerging research field. It also supports the development of rural markets and businesses in their efforts to cope with challenges that are particularly relevant to retail and service industries.
Abstract: Afkastforventningerne, der angiver, hvilke fremtidige afkast der skal bruges ved pensionsprognoser, er over de sidste 10 år kun delvist blevet justeret i nedadgående retning. Specielt antagelsen om det langsigtede obligationsafkast er kun reduceret beskedent, selvom det faktiske rentefald har været betydeligt større. Denne artikel ser på, om der er behov for at revurdere størrelsen af gældende pensionsbidrag i lyset af lave fremtidige afkast. Mange af pensionsbidragene er fastsat historisk, da afkastforventningerne var væsentligt højere, og hvor længere levetider og højere pensionsalder ikke var i fokus. Artiklen viser, at afhængigt af antagelser om pensionsalder og fremtidige afkast kan der være behov for at øge pensionsbidragene med 2-5% af lønnen.
Abstract: Technologies are known to alter social structures in the workplace, reconfigure roles and relationships, and disrupt status hierarchies. However, less attention has been given to how an emerging technology disrupts the meaning and moral values that tether people to their work and render it meaningful. To understand how workers respond to such an emerging technology, we undertook an inductive, qualitative study of military personnel working in unmanned aerial vehicles, or drone operations, for the U.S. Air Force. We draw on multiple data sources, including personal diaries kept by personnel involved in drone operations. We identified three characteristics of drone technology: remote-split operations, remote piloting of unmanned vehicles, and interaction through iconic representations. Our analysis suggests that drone technology has revolutionized warfare by (1) creating distanciated intimacy, (2) dissolving traditional spatio-temporal boundaries between work and personal life, and (3) redefining the legal and moral parameters of work. Drone program workers identified with these changes to their working environment in contradictory ways, which evoked emotional ambivalence about right and wrong. However, their organization gave them little help in alleviating their conflicting feelings. We illuminate how workers cope with such ambivalence when a technology transforms the meaning and morality of their work. We extend theory by showing that workers’ responses to a changed working environment as a result of a remote technology are not just based on how the technology changes workers’ tasks, roles, and status but also on how it affects their moral values.
Abstract: This article investigates several well-known social network applications such as Last.fm, Flickr and identifies social data portability as one of the main technical issues that need to be addressed in the future. We argue that this issue can be addressed by building social networks as Semantic Web applications with FOAF, SIOC, and Linked Data technologies, and prove it by implementing a prototype application using Java and core Semantic Web standards. Furthermore, the developed prototype shows how features from semantic websites such as Freebase and DBpedia can be reused in social applications and lead to more relevant content and stronger social connections.
Abstract: The purpose of this work is to investigate the influence of performance feedback on decisions about R&D—more specifically R&D intensity and R&D direction, ranging from exploitation to exploration—and how this varies depending on top management team orientation. Using panel data collected from a large sample of technology-based firms over nine years, hypotheses about how the relationship between performance feedback and decisions about R&D are moderated by the technology orientation of top management teams are tested. Overall, the findings support the basic premises put forth, namely that top management team orientation influences decisions about R&D in response to performance feedback. This sheds new light on our understanding of the relationship between performance feedback and decisions about R&D in technology-based firms
Abstract: Background: Artificial intelligence (AI) holds the promise of supporting nurses’ clinical decision-making in complex care situations or conducting tasks that are remote from direct patient interaction, such as documentation processes. There has been an increase in the research and development of AI applications for nursing care, but there is a persistent lack of an extensive overview covering the evidence base for promising application scenarios. Objective: This study synthesizes literature on application scenarios for AI in nursing care settings as well as highlights adjacent aspects in the ethical, legal, and social discourse surrounding the application of AI in nursing care. Methods: Following a rapid review design, PubMed, CINAHL, Association for Computing Machinery Digital Library, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Xplore, Digital Bibliography & Library Project, and Association for Information Systems Library, as well as the libraries of leading AI conferences, were searched in June 2020. Publications of original quantitative and qualitative research, systematic reviews, discussion papers, and essays on the ethical, legal, and social implications published in English were included. Eligible studies were analyzed on the basis of predetermined selection criteria. Results: The titles and abstracts of 7016 publications and 704 full texts were screened, and 292 publications were included. Hospitals were the most prominent study setting, followed by independent living at home; fewer application scenarios were identified for nursing homes or home care. Most studies used machine learning algorithms, whereas expert or hybrid systems were entailed in less than every 10th publication. The application context of focusing on image and signal processing with tracking, monitoring, or the classification of activity and health followed by care coordination and communication, as well as fall detection, was the main purpose of AI applications. Few studies have reported the effects of AI applications on clinical or organizational outcomes, lacking particularly in data gathered outside laboratory conditions. In addition to technological requirements, the reporting and inclusion of certain requirements capture more overarching topics, such as data privacy, safety, and technology acceptance. Ethical, legal, and social implications reflect the discourse on technology use in health care but have mostly not been discussed in meaningful and potentially encompassing detail. Conclusions: The results highlight the potential for the application of AI systems in different nursing care settings. Considering the lack of findings on the effectiveness and application of AI systems in real-world scenarios, future research should reflect on a more nursing care–specific perspective toward objectives, outcomes, and benefits. We identify that, crucially, an advancement in technological-societal discourse that surrounds the ethical and legal implications of AI applications in nursing care is a necessary next step. Further, we outline the need for greater participation among all of the stakeholders involved.
Abstract: Although the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in healthcare is still in its early stages, it is important to understand the factors influencing its adoption. Using a qualitative multi-case study of three hospitals in China, we explored the research of factors affecting AI adoption from a social power perspective with consideration of the learning algorithm abilities of AI systems. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, participative observations, and document analysis, and analyzed using NVivo 11. We classified six social powers into knowledge-based and non-knowledge-based power structures, revealing a social power pattern related to the learning algorithm ability of AI.
Abstract: Purpose: For decades, there has been a call for the public sector to be more innovative, and there is widespread agreement that managers play a crucial role in meeting this goal. Most studies of innovation management focus on top-level managers, despite the fact that most innovation activities take place on the frontlines, deeply embedded in professional practice. Meanwhile, micro-level studies of innovation tend to focus on the agency of employees, which leaves a knowledge gap regarding the mobilizing role of frontline managers. This is unfortunate because frontline managers are in a unique position to advance the state of the art of their professions, in scaling public innovation and in implementing public reform.
Design/methodology/approach: To explore how frontline managers approach innovation, a case study has been constructed based on in-depth interviews with 20 purposely selected frontline managers, all working within the Danish public childcare sector.
Findings: The article explores how frontline managers perceive their role in public innovation and finds three distinct approaches to innovation leadership: a responsive, a strategic and a facilitating approach.
Originality/value: This paper contributes to the research on public management by applying existing research on leadership styles in order to discuss the implications of how frontline managers perceive their role in relation to public innovation.
Abstract: This article aims to substantiate how processes of valuation translate between different registers of value. We develop an analytical framework of how valuation is intertwined with geographic origination and the geographies of association and dissociation, which establish how commodities and consumer products are either associated with, or dissociated from, matters that are beneficial or damaging for sales and brand reputation. The article focuses on the rather unexplored gemstone and jewelry sector, and shows how the analysis of value is not reducible to Marxist notions of exchange and use value but needs to take into account symbolic and sign value, and embrace dis/association dialectics. It develops a novel conceptual framework that draws upon the early work of Baudrillard on symbolic value, together with Marxian value theory, and mobilizes it for the analysis of association–dissociation dialectics and practices in global value chains. We are particularly concerned with the role of origination and provenance to highlight the intrinsically geographic dimensions of gemstones that are enacted by traders and retailers in the valuation process. The article shows how valuation and consumption of gemstone and jewelry play out through complex and multiscalar, relational associative and dissociative practices, which intertwine with revealed sustainability problems in the diamond industry. It also shows how a current rise in the value and popularity of colored stones interrelate with a corporate refocusing away from mined diamonds, and entails even more in-transparent supply networks.
Abstract: The study of consumer responses to advertising has recently expanded to include the use of eye-tracking to track the gaze of consumers. The calibration and validation of eye-gaze have typically been measured on large screens in static, controlled settings. However, little is known about how precise gaze localizations and eye fixations are on smaller screens, such as smartphones, and in moving feed-based conditions, such as those found on social media websites. We tested the precision of eye-tracking fixation detection algorithms relative to raw gaze mapping in natural scrolling conditions. Our results demonstrate that default fixation detection algorithms normally employed by hardware providers exhibit suboptimal performance on mobile phones. In this paper, we provide a detailed account of how different parameters in eye-tracking software can affect the validity and reliability of critical metrics, such as Percent Seen and Total Fixation Duration. We provide recommendations for producing improved eye-tracking metrics for content on small screens, such as smartphones, and vertically moving environments, such as a social media feed. The adjustments to the fixation detection algorithm we propose improves the accuracy of Percent Seen by 19% compared to a leading eye-tracking provider’s default fixation filter settings. The methodological approach provided in this paper could additionally serve as a framework for assessing the validity of applied neuroscience methods and metrics beyond mobile eye-tracking.
Abstract: Efforts to combat global money laundering have established a transnational administrative regime that provides peer review mutual evaluations that are coordinated among national public administrations. Led by the Financial Action Task Force, this regime encourages compliance with anti-money laundering (AML) standards to detect “effectiveness” in administrative capacity despite an absence of reliable data on money laundering activity. This article examines how national administrations engage different types of consultants in the preparation of mutual evaluations. I distinguish between the use of bespoke consultants who actively interpret effectiveness by wealthier countries, and “box-ticking” consultants from global professional service firms which developing countries are more reliant on. As such, the transnational administration of AML governance and its links to consultants reflects and reinforces global power asymmetries. Wealthy countries can positively use consultants to manage their policy horizons, while developing countries are left with short-term compliance that is not aimed at building administrative capacity.
Abstract: Building on a model of the biological, socio-psychological, and structural drivers of luxury consumption, this article explores when and why luxury consumers consider ethics in their luxury consumption practices, to identify differences in their ethical and ethical luxury consumption. The variables proposed to explain these differences derive from biological, socio-psychological, and structural drivers, namely, consumers’ (1) age, (2) ethicality, (3) human values, (4) motivations, and (5) assumptive world. A cluster analysis of a sample of 706 U.S. adult luxury consumers reveals five segments of luxury consumers, each reflecting a specific persona, that engage in both ethical and ethical luxury consumption to varying extents. The five segments differ in the extent to which they exhibit features related to four discriminant functions (immorality, ego-orientation, and strain; altruistic-orientation; conservation, in control, and positivity; and youth and luxury savvy), which vary across the biological, socio-psychological, and structural drivers. The findings thus indicate which segments of luxury consumers are most relevant for luxury firms pursuing a long-term sustainability agenda and suggest practical actions to reach those goals
Abstract: This article aims to extend existing work on bias and leadership aspirations by investigating whether there are signifi cant differences in self-evaluations when jointly considering gender and parental status. With a data subset from a survey of 866 women and 1372 men who are members of the leading Danish union for managers and leaders, we examine the relationship of gender and parental status with leadership aspirations. Contra theory-based expectations, our exploratory study’s fi ndings show little difference between mothers and women without children, whereas fathers report signifi cantly higher leadership aspirations than men without children. Supplementary analysis indicates that lower aspirations are accompanied by lower self-evaluations of competence. Our fi ndings thus suggest that men and women are differentially affected by combined gender and parenthood biases and that gendered social expectations for parents affect self-evaluations even in a national context characterized by high levels of gender equality before the law.
Abstract: Rewards-based crowdfunding presents an information asymmetry for participants due to the funding mechanism used. Campaign-backers trust creators to complete projects and deliver rewards as outlined 10 prior to the fundraising process, but creators may discover better opportunities as they progress with a project. Despite this, the all-ornothing (AON) mechanism on crowdfunding platforms incentivizes creators to set meager funding-targets that are easier to achieve but may offer limited slack when creators wish to simultaneously pursue 15 emerging opportunities later in the project. We explore the related issues of how funding targets seem to be selected by the creators, and how dissatisfaction with the rewards outcomes may arise for the backers. We constructed a quasi-experimental (QE) research design based on an extensive dataset from Kickstarter with nearly 390,000 campaigns. 20 Our findings show that creators who set particularly meager funding targets for their campaigns are more likely to receive sufficient funds but are less likely to satisfy backers with the project outcomes they deliver. We also test the moderating roles of creator and campaign characteristics. Overall, this study provides evidence that the funding 25 mechanism used in rewards-based crowdfunding may be unsustainable in its current form, unless new mechanisms are introduced to realign the diverging incentives for creators and backers.
Abstract: Standard-setting organizations (SSOs) establish goal-directed networks for innovators to jointly shape technology and markets through standards. The degree to which this can succeed depends to a large extent on network characteristics, which may differ substantially between SSOs. Many technological fields face intense competition between SSOs. Choosing the right one is thus a key strategic decision for innovators. Simultaneously, SSOs must reflect members’ preferences in their network set-ups and governance. Yet, little is known about these preferences. Based on extant literature, we derive hypotheses about how three themes of network attributes (membership base, rules, transaction costs) and contextual factors drive decision makers’ preferences. We conduct a comprehensive choice experiment with 141 standardization professionals in the Internet of Things field. Based on our data, we provide a more realistic indication of what firms value in SSOs than has been previously available. We also discuss our results’ implications for studying networks in other contexts.