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ABSTRACT: This study explores the relationship between special economic zones and regional integration in ASEAN countries, and identifies how to leverage the attributes of SEZs to deepen regional integration for regional development. The key argument is that SEZs can play a vital role in promoting regional integration if ASEAN member nations join hands to craft a visionary strategy.
ABSTRACT: Artiklen redegør for nogle af de centrale antagelser, som Rådet for Pensionsprognoser har gjort i forbindelse med udarbejdelsen af Samfundsforudsætningerne for pensionsprognoser for 2019. Rådet har med udgangspunkt i markedsforventninger fra internationale finanshuse lagt vægt på, at der skulle være en forståelig sammenhæng ml. afkast og risiko. Det har medført, at risikoen på enkelte aktivklasser i isolation, især globale aktier, forekommer lav. Artiklen viser, at den typiske kundes prognose er robust overfor justeringer i enkelte risikomål.
ABSTRACT: Although the core concepts underlying IB and IHRM provide a common lexicon and epistemology, this commonality is often more implicit than explicit. We highlight not only the common ground but also the lack of critical dialogue between the two fields. This paper asks: What can each field learn from the other? What do scholars from IB learn from IHRM and vice versa? We identify a possible agenda and concerns regarding theory building as a basis for dialogue between the two fields.
ABSTRACT: The author explains the reasons for Denmark’s reservation from1992 towards EU cooperation in civil and commercial mattersand its “opt-out” nature as well as the failed attempt in 2015to change it to an opt-in mechanism identical to the Britishand Irish reservations. Furthermore, the author examines theexisting parallel agreements from 2005 between the EU andDenmark in respect of originally the Brussels I Regulation andthe Service Regulation and gives an account of which EUinstruments Denmark is bound by.
ABSTRACT: Forfatteren redegør for den nye Haagerdomskonvention af 2. juli 2019. Den supplerer Værnetingskonventionen fra 2005, som EU og Danmark er med i. Den nye konvention skal på globalt plan sikre anerkendelse og fuldbyrdelse af domme i alle de civile og kommercielle sager, som ikke omfattes af Værnetingsaftalekonventionen. I modsætning til Værnetingsaftalekonventionen regulerer den nye konvention ikke direkte staternes kompetenceregler. Det konkluderes, at konventionen med dens fleksible struktur kan blive en global succes.
ABSTRACT: In a research note in this issue, Strange and Humphrey discuss how a global value chain (GVC) approach serves to usefully move internalization theory towards a better understanding of the increasingly important ‘middle ground’ between markets and hierarchies in the contemporary highly globalized international business scene. After a brief recount of their main arguments, we argue that their discussion needs to the extended, as it does not adequately recognize important differences between internalization theory and the GVC approach. Specifically, the approaches differ on the notions of efficiency, opportunism, and level of analysis. We then argue that internalization theory can benefit from the systemic view implied in the GVC approach, and discuss the role of trust as a coordinating mechanism in international business. This leads to a more general discussion of internalization theory and the difficulty of encompassing dynamic considerations such as learning and foreign operation mode combinations and flexibility within value chain interdependencies. We conclude with a research agenda that flows from our discussion.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to study the phenomenon of organizational change failure through an emic approach. Grounded in empirical examples, the paper unfolds why the phenomenon seems to be missing from the literature of the becoming view (e.g. Tsoukas and Chia, 2002).The paper finds that organizational changes drift away, either by slipping into the everyday practices of the organization, or by drifting away in time when history is reinterpreted. The paper concludes that organizational change failures suffer the same fate as organizational changes more generally and drift away in space and time.
ABSTRACT: Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) is a widely used statistical technique to discover the structure of latent unobserved variables, called factors, from a set of observed variables. EFA exploits the property of rotation invariance of the factor model to enhance factors’ interpretability by building a sparse loading matrix. In this paper, we propose an optimization-based procedure to give meaning to the factors arising in EFA by means of an additional set of variables, called explanatory variables, which may include in particular the set of observed variables. A goodness-of-fit criterion is introduced which quantifies the quality of the interpretation given this way. Our methodology also exploits the rotational invariance of EFA to obtain the best orthogonal rotation of the factors, in terms of the goodness-of-fit, but making them match to some of the explanatory variables, thus going beyond traditional rotation methods. Therefore, our approach allows the analyst to interpret the factors not only in terms of the observed variables, but in terms of a broader set of variables. Our experimental results demonstrate how our approach enhances interpretability in EFA, first in an empirical dataset, concerning volumes of reservoirs in California, and second in a synthetic data example.
ABSTRACT: Both soft, noncontractible, and hard, contractible, information are informative about managerial ability and future firm performance. If a manager's future compensation depends on expectations of ability or future performance, then the manager has implicit incentives to affect the information. We examine the real incentive effects of soft information in a dynamic agency with limited commitment. When long‐term contracts are renegotiated, the rewards for future performance inherent in long‐term contracts allow the principal partial control over the implicit incentives. This is because the soft information affects the basis for contract renegotiation. With short‐term contracts, the principal has no control over the basis for contract negotiation, and thus long‐term contracts generally dominate short‐term contracts. With long‐term contracts, the principal's control over implicit incentives is characterized in terms of effective contracting on an implicit aggregation of the soft information that arises from predicting (forming expectations of) future performance. We provide sufficient conditions for soft information to have no real incentive effects. In general, implicit incentives not controllable by the principal include fixed effects, such as career concerns driven by labor markets external to the agency. When controllable incentives span the fixed effects of career concerns, the latter have no real effects with regard to total managerial incentives—they would optimally be the same with or without career concerns. Our analysis suggests empirical tests for estimating career concerns that should explicitly incorporate noncontractible information.
ABSTRACT: Most nonexperimental studies of voter turnout rely on survey data. However, surveys overestimate turnout because of (1) nonresponse bias and (2) overreporting. We investigate this possibility using a rich dataset of Danish voters, which includes validated turnout indicators from administrative data for both respondents and nonrespondents, as well as respondents’ self-reported voting from the Danish National Election Studies. We show that both nonresponse bias and overreporting contribute significantly to overestimations of turnout. Further, we use covariates from the administrative data available for both respondents and nonrespondents to demonstrate that both factors also significantly bias the predictors of turnout. In our case, we find that nonresponse bias and overreporting masks a gender gap of two and a half percentage points in women’s favor as well as a gap of 25 percentage points in ethnic Danes’ favor compared with Danes of immigrant heritage.
ABSTRACT: Considering the worsening climate crisis, we argue that our present conditions require a particular approach to the past in order to disrupt current intellectual trajectories. We enrol Walter Benjamin’s concept of history, via the writings of Svetlana Alexievich and Margaret Atwood, with the aim of bringing a criticality to the present to make us reconsider the ways we think about and act in our present world. Based on Alexievich and Atwood’s work, we develop research conceptualizations of forgotten and alternative histories to open up a space to consider a future climate-changed world beyond the dominant tropes of inevitable dystopian apocalypse and clever technological adaptation. We offer the concept of ‘hope without optimism’ in encouraging management and organization studies scholars to develop a discipline fit for the Anthropocene.
ABSTRACT: The concept of legitimacy—i.e., being regarded as “lawful, admissible, and justified” (Edwards in NGO rights and responsibilities: a new deal for global governance, The Foreign Policy Center, London, 2000)—is pivotal within civil society research. Recently, the concept has applied to wider notions concerning the civil sphere and civic action. The introductory article of this special issue aims to provide an overview of conceptualizations of legitimacy within civil society research and to point at new avenues for future research. We depart from Suddaby et al.’s (Acad Manag Ann 11(1):451–478, 2017) configurations of legitimacy within management literature: as property, perception, and process. While these configurations are also reflected in civil society literature, with legitimacy as property being prominent, they do not capture the full scope of civil society literature on legitimacy, given its multidisciplinary nature, its inclusion of multiple levels of analysis, and the presence of complementary conceptualizations of legitimacy. We posit that the legitimacy-as-relations-in-processes perspective is valuable for advancing research in civil society organizations.
ABSTRACT: The role of the producer (i.e., heritage manager) in shaping the meaning of authenticity is conceptually underdeveloped. We adopt the position that tourists' perceptions of cultural heritage authenticity are greatly influenced by the core attributes of the cultural heritage object and how it is produced. Building on existing research and our analysis, we contend that the Cultural Heritage Object contains three core and overlapping attributes: physical form (Form), links to what is culturally and historically significant (Links), and vitality to actively transmit meaning (Vitality). Using this tripartite conceptualization, we approach Heritage Production Authenticity in terms of the object's Indexical and Iconic cues. In doing so we provide a powerful basis to develop our understanding of heritage production authenticity.
ABSTRACT: This paper analyzes the strong comovement between real stock and nominal bond yields at generational frequencies. Using a stochastic overlapping generations model with cash-in-advance constraints, we show that the simulated life-cycle patterns in savings behavior make both real stock and nominal bond yields comove with the changing population age structure. These persistent comovements account for the equilibrium relation between stock and bond markets. A stochastic Fisher decomposition of nominal bond yields reveals that, while having a moderate effect on both the inflation risk premium and expected inflation, demographic changes affect nominal yields mainly through real bond yields. Using both U.S. data and a cross-country panel, we find empirical support for these theoretical predictions. Finally, we show that the strength of the demographic effect on real yields explains cross-country differences in the comovement between stock and bond markets, while alternative demographic channels fail to explain such cross-country heterogeneity.
ABSTRACT: Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the links between employee attitudes, customer loyalty and business results. Methodology/approach: From a conceptual point of view, this employee–customer–business results chain is well founded and generally accepted, also in the European Excellence Model. But for many companies, it seems difficult to demonstrate such links, and several issues must be addressed to uncover the links. To investigate these links empirically, a hotel chain provided data matching employee and customer measures with measures of profit, and a modelling approach is developed. Findings: The model is successfully applied. As it is possible to estimate and test the links, we have demonstrated the effects of employee attitudes on customer loyalty and further on business results. The findings provide strong empirical evidence for the developed model, and the study provides evidence of the employee–customer–business results chain. Research limitations: The study is limited to four hotels in Copenhagen, Denmark. Practical implications: The research findings provide a better understanding of the employee–customer–business results chain and may help practitioners in improving company financial performance. Originality/value: This paper provides new insights into the relationships between employee attitudes, customer loyalty, and business results.
ABSTRACT: This paper explores how to push the field of regional studies beyond its present institutional, conceptual and methodological borders. It does this from five perspectives: innovation and competitiveness; globalization and urbanization; social and environmental justice; local and regional development; and industrial policy. It argues that the future of regional studies requires approaches that, in combination, result in the pushing on (by creating), pushing off (by consolidating), pushing back (by critiquing) and pushing forward (by collectively constructing) the field.
ABSTRACT: We examine the manner in which the population prevalence of disordered gambling has usually been estimated, on the basis of surveys that suffer from a potential sample selection bias. General population surveys screen respondents using seemingly innocuous “trigger,” “gateway” or “diagnostic stem” questions, applied before they ask the actual questions about gambling behavior and attitudes. Modeling the latent sample selection behavior generated by these trigger questions using up-to-date econometrics for sample selection bias correction leads to dramatically different inferences about population prevalence and comorbidities with other psychiatric disorders. The population prevalence of problem or pathological gambling in the United States is inferred to be 7.7%, rather than 1.3% when this behavioral response is ignored. Comorbidities are inferred to be much smaller than the received wisdom, particularly when considering the marginal association with other mental health problems rather than the total association. The issues identified here apply, in principle, to every psychiatric disorder covered by standard mental health surveys, and not just gambling disorder. We discuss ways in which these behavioral biases can be mitigated in future surveys.
ABSTRACT: We evaluate the temporal stability of risk preferences using a remarkable data set that combines socio-demographic information from the Danish Civil Registry with information on risk attitudes from a longitudinal field experiment. Our econometric model accounts for endogenous sample selection and attrition processes that may confound inferences about temporal stability. Our experimental design builds in randomization on the incentives for participation that facilitates empirical identification of the model. In general, we find evidence consistent with temporal stability after correcting for the effects of selection and attrition. When neglected, these effects change our inferences in an economically and statistically significant manner.
ABSTRACT: Across cultures, people associate colours with emotions. Here, we test the hypothesis that one driver of this cross-modal correspondence is the physical environment we live in. We focus on a prime example – the association of yellow with joy, – which conceivably arises because yellow is reminiscent of life-sustaining sunshine and pleasant weather. If so, this association should be especially strong in countries where sunny weather is a rare occurrence. We analysed yellow-joy associations of 6625 participants from 55 countries to investigate how yellow-joy associations varied geographically, climatologically, and seasonally. We assessed the distance to the equator, sunshine, precipitation, and daytime hours. Consistent with our hypotheses, participants who live further away from the equator and in rainier countries are more likely to associate yellow with joy. We did not find associations with seasonal variations. Our findings support a role for the physical environment in shaping the affective meaning of colour.
ABSTRACT: In Kenya, as in many other countries in the Global South, there is a growing population of so-called middle-income consumers that buy products from supermarkets. The increasing number of supermarkets in Kenya that serve these customers have become a potentially important market channel for domestic food processors. This paper identifies the barriers that domestic food processors encounter to accessing supermarkets within Kenya. It is based on survey data from 48 food processing firms that was collected in 2013–2014 and a set of two in-depth interviews conducted among selected firms in 2015 and 2016.
The findings indicate that it is difficult for processed food products from Kenyan-owned firms to enter the domestic ‘modern’ retail sector. A combination of stringent entry and markets barriers such as strict legal requirements and licenses, unfair competition, and lack of capital means it is an onerous task to survive in the presence of cutthroat competition from imported food products. The food processing firms interviewed often view the emerging supermarket sector as offering promising new outlets for their products but also point to a number of entry barriers, typically concerning resources and the qualification requirements of domestically owned supermarkets. These requirements are primarily related to pricing and payment terms that are difficult for most interviewed food processors to comply with. Other barriers include standardisation, regulations and infrastructure. An overreliance on the largest supermarket chains has led to harsh competition among Kenyan food processors. While some struggle for mere survival, others have to refocus on smaller supermarkets and convenience stores.
ABSTRACT: Cause‐specific mortality forecasting is often based on predicting cause‐specific death rates independently. Only a few methods have been suggested that incorporate dependence between causes. An attractive alternative is to model and forecast cause‐specific death distributions, rather than mortality rates, as dependence between the causes can be incorporated directly. We follow this idea and propose two new models which extend the current research on mortality forecasting using death distributions. We find that adding age, time and cause‐specific weights and decomposing both joint and individual variation between different causes of death increased the forecast accuracy of cancer deaths by using data for French and Dutch populations.
ABSTRACT: Spørgsmålet om, hvornår skattemyndighederne er berettigede til at foretage skønsmæssige ansættelser af den skattepligtige indkomst i transfer pricing sager er af stor betydning, idet bevisbyrden overgår til skatteyder, ligesom resultatet kan være signifikante indkomstforhøjelser og bøder. På baggrund af en de seneste års praksis samt lovændringer, redegøres der i artiklen, for hvornår skattemyndighederne er berettiget til at foretage en skønsmæssig ansættelse, samt hvilke muligheder skatteyder herefter har for at udfordre den skønsmæssige ansættelse. Endvidere redegøres der for bøder ved manglende efterlevelse af TP-reglerne og endeligt fremsættes konkrete anbefalinger til hvorledes skatteyder ved udarbejdelse af TP-dokumentationen kan mindste risikoen for skønsmæssige ansættelser.
ABSTRACT: Guanxi is one of the most popular topics in Chinese and Western scholarship concerning social ties in China. However, several problems in research on guanxi persist, and multiple debates are still ongoing without much consensus in sight. This study has two goals. First, we offer a systematic review of the current literature on guanxi, especially by differentiating guan dyads from xi networks. This reconceptualization of guanxi enables us to clarify the concept of guanxi by differentiating its two dimensions. Second, based on this literature review, we propose a redirection of future research on guanxi such that guan dyads and xi networks are not examined in isolation; rather, their holistic and dynamic interaction is the most fruitful avenue for future research, especially the four mechanisms of their interaction. The proposed reconceptualization and redirection are our two contributions to the literature.
ABSTRACT: This article addresses the question of how the emergence of a cluster in a global innovation system is influenced by early entrants. It does so by presenting an explorative study of the emerging digital creative industries cluster in Bangalore. I find that MNE entrants develop production and technological capabilities comparatively fast within a narrow range of value chain activities with limited spillovers to the cluster. In comparison, local entrants develop such capabilities more slowly, but within a broader range of value chain activities and with higher spillovers of skills and knowledge, as well as higher participation to building a local entrepreneurial ecosystem. I propose that these effects are moderated by the size of national consumer markets as well as industry context in the guise of project lengths and technological modularity. I also point to the role of global connectivity, proposing that local entrants, in particular, leverage international personal relationships for development of not only relational, but also production capabilities.
ABSTRACT: Mange mennesker har formue i et selskab med finansielle aktiver og ingen gæld. De skal overveje, hvordan og hvor meget de skal have udbetalt fra selskabet hvert år. I artiklen analyseres optimal udlodningspolitik fra et gældfrit selskab med finansiel formue til en hovedaktionær med privat gæld. Konklusionen er, at det ikke altid er lige oplagt, hvad den optimale udlodningspolitik er, og en del hovedaktionærer træffer sandsynligvis fejlagtige beslutninger ud fra fornemmelser. I artiklen argumenteres blandt andet for, at det nuværende lave renteniveau sandsynligvis giver en del hovedaktionærer den opfattelse, at realkreditlån er billige, og at der derfor skal optages privat gæld, men et lavt renteniveau er tværtimod et argument for at udlodde mere fra selskabet for at nedbringe privat gæld.
ABSTRACT: Individuals have demonstrated an attraction toward foreignness, which, arguably, constitutes a central reason to travel. Drawing on research from social and evolutionary psychology, the authors provide the first investigation of tourism xenophilia (TXI), which we define as individuals’ attraction toward the perceived foreignness of destinations. Across three studies, the authors conceptualize, develop, and apply a reliable, valid, and parsimonious TXI scale. The results show that TXI explains several important tourist and resident behaviors, such as willingness to engage with locals, willingness to stay at a bed-and-breakfast, intention to try local food, resident hospitality, support for immigration policies, and travel to foreign destinations. The authors also empirically investigate three key antecedents of TXI: promotion focus, boredom proneness, and mind-wandering. Finally, implications for academics and practitioners are discussed.
ABSTRACT: We argue that the attention parties devote to a topic contributes to expanding the opportunity structure to acquire information that party supporters have. We evaluate this proposition in a comparative manner by focusing on an elite-driven new topic, namely the Spitzenkandidaten system in European Parliament elections. We link candidate recognition survey data from 28 countries with over 175 party electoral programs, press releases, and Twitter communication before the 2014 European Parliament elections. Our results show that especially what parties emphasize or decide to talk about on Twitter contributes to what their supporters will know. As proposed, this is an indirect effect through a general contribution to the information environment in election campaigns. However, party communication portfolios should not discount traditional tools given that these can also contribute to the opportunity structures available to party supporters.
ABSTRACT: Businesses and governments in postcolonial countries frame investments in wind energy as efforts to address climate change and sustainable development. However, when wind energy projects encroach on indigenous peoples’ lives and land, there is often a lack of recognition and participation of these peoples and an unequal distribution of cost and benefits of such projects toward them, which leads to opposition against wind energy projects and often triggers conflicts for justice. Worryingly, such conditions have repeatedly resulted in the assassination of human rights defenders, which further inflames the conflict. Herein, I discuss these concepts based on a longitudinal study centered on a wind energy project in Oaxaca, Mexico, with the aim of exploring and understanding the conditions under which wind energy investments fail to respect current laws and norms, as well as the consequences of such negligence. My in-depth analysis of the actions of the government, businesses, and indigenous peoples revealed a phenomenon that is less discussed in environmental (in)justice research: the gradual and continuous transformation of indigenous peoples’ norms and behaviors away from their traditional economic and cultural livelihoods. This phenomenon helps to extend the conceptual understanding of environmental (in)justice with regard to social turbulence, which is defined as the unpredictable behavior of political and social systems in contexts in which existing laws, regulations, and norms regarding environmental justice are not observed. The concept of social turbulence of environmental (in)justice helps to explain how indigenous peoples sacrifice their territories, norms, and traditions to a technical solution to climate change and sustainable development.
ABSTRACT: Artiklen analyserer risikotagningen i ATP’s investeringsportefølje i lyset af ATP’s struktur og forretningsmodel. Det konkluderes, at gearingen er høj. Det konkluderes også, at ATP med det nuværende set-up er tvunget til at geare meget, hvis ATP skal gøre sig håb om også fremover at kunne være et solidt bidrag til folkepensionen. Artiklen stiller spørgsmålstegn ved, om risikotagningen er for stor, og om der reelt er behov for en grundlæggende revurdering af ATP’s struktur og risikotagning med henblik på at fremtidssikre ATP-ordningen. Til sidst kommenteres forslag til justeringer i ATP’s risikotagning og struktur.
ABSTRACT: Celebrity humanitarianism has been transformed in its scope, scale, and organization in the last thirty years. Its flourishing has generated considerable academic interest from a wide variety of disciplines that share two characteristics. First, these studies are—unusually—well connected, which means that different disciplines have not tended to develop their own separate literatures, but learn from each other’s approaches. This makes it useful and important to identify ways different disciplinary approaches can complement each other. Second, most of this attention has focused on politics of celebrity humanitarianism in the global North. Yet focusing also on the South and on North/South relations will move the field forward. We argue that celebrity humanitarianism must be interpreted through the broader systems of which it is a part. We offer a heuristic typology of celebrity humanitarianism that continues to bridge between different disciplines and which identifies ways in which political science can complement existing studies. We also use this typology to refocus work on the politics of celebrity humanitarian relations away from merely Northern politics. This approach allows us to identify what sorts of politics and political solutions are being advocated by current forms of celebrity humanitarianism.
ABSTRACT: This article focuses on the importance of quantifying Bourdieu’s “research programme”, linked with the concepts of field, habitus, and capital. It presents possible ways of doing statistics within this framework and argues that continuous methodological development should be pursued. To support this argument, the article highlights the methodology and empirical results of a doctoral dissertation on the Swiss field of economic sciences. It stresses the relevance of using a prosopographical strategy and advocates further development of multiple correspondence analysis, and the use of sequence analysis and social network analysis. The main contributions of these methods concern the investigation of subgroup profiles in fields, the trajectories of accumulation and conversion of capitals and the structure of social capital. When asking whether or not we should think with or beyond Bourdieu when suggesting new methodological developments to his programme, this article argues that we ought to think beyond his strict written work, but still within his theoretical framework, which proves particularly relevant to the study of power relations among individuals.
ABSTRACT: Gambling regulators in several European jurisdictions use website blocking as enforcement tool against illegal online gambling websites. Users trying to access blocked gambling websites are redirected to a landing page provided by the regulator. We analyse how insights from legal design could improve the effectiveness of landing pages as communication channel between regulators and players.
ABSTRACT: Healing architecture is a defining feature of contemporary hospital design in many parts of the world, with psychiatric in‐patient facilities in Denmark at the forefront of this innovation. The approach rests on the contention that designed clinical spaces and the particular dispositions they express may promote patient recovery. Although the idea that health may be spatially mediated is well‐established, the means of this mediation are far from settled. This article contributes to this debate by analysing medical encounters in the context of a new purpose‐built psychiatric hospital opened in Slagelse, Denmark in late 2015 as an example of healing architecture for the region. Grounded in qualitative research conducted in two wards between 2016 and 2017, we explore the key material and social effects of the hospital's healing architecture, and the spaces and practices it enacts. Following the work of Michael Lynch, we consider both the designed ‘spatial order’ of the in‐patient wards and the ‘spatial orderings’ unfolding therein with a particular interest in how order is accomplished in psychiatric work. With much of the existing discussion of healing architectures focusing on their impacts on patient wellbeing, we consider how healing architectures may also be transforming psychiatric work.
ABSTRACT: This paper provides a comprehensive literature review of preliminary publications on green and sustainable public procurement from the year 2000 until now. The aim of the review is to organise, evaluate and identify patterns and clusters in published articles, providing an overview of the state of the art in green and sustainable public procurement. Classification of the data identified three overall themes: organisational aspects, individual behaviour and operational tools, which comprise nine sub-categories: three organisational, two behavioural and four operational. The review shows how awareness and knowledge of circular public procurement attributes, based on circular policy and strategy implementation, are essential to conduct circular public procurement. The procurer’s beliefs and values are of high relevance in a transformation towards circular public procurement, simply not going for the lowest price, but finding an optimum combination that includes risk, timeliness and cost for the public institution on a life-cycle basis. Eco-labels, standards, life cycle assessments and life cycle costing are core parts of the process. Outlining the present knowledge as a foundation for future research in circular public procurement process development, this paper holds implications for both academics and procurement practitioners.
ABSTRACT: Scholars debate whether diversity is beneficial for team effectiveness, and empirical evidence reveals positive, negative, and insignificant effects. We argue that this is partly because “diversity” is multifaceted, representing different sources (e.g., demographic, human capital, and social capital) and operating at different levels of analysis. We propose a theoretical model of diversity at the team level (team diversity) and within individuals (personal range) to predict how various sources of diversity influence team effectiveness. We argue that the effects of individual-level diversity (personal range) and team-level diversity may not be independent. Specifically, we propose that their interaction may be the missing link explaining how and why diversity impacts team outcomes. We distinguish between tasks with high and low levels of interdependence and suggest that for some sources of diversity, individual- and team-level diversity are complementary, whereas for others they are substitutes. We further explain how an overlap in personal range may influence the complementary effects of personal range and team diversity. The implications of our model are important for further work on diversity, team effectiveness, and public policy efforts to promote organizational and upper echelons diversity.
ABSTRACT: It has become increasingly common to talk about “digital traces”. The idea that we leak, drop and leave traces wherever we go has given rise to a culture of traceability, and this culture of traceability, I argue, is intimately entangled with a socio-economics of data disposability and recycling. While the culture of traceability has often been theorised in terms of, and in relation to, privacy, I offer another approach, framing digital traces instead as a question of waste. This perspective, I argue, allows us to connect to, extend and nuance existing discussions of digital traces. It shows us that data traces raise questions about not only how data capitalism tracks individual and multiple data behaviours, but also how it links to social and environmental toxicities in the form of abuse and environmental pollution, which follow gendered and colonial structures of violence.
ABSTRACT: Few studies have explored how line managers respond to employees’ use of voice in interaction and the challenges facing the line managers in relation to voice. While some scholars have argued that managers’ reactions to voice are generally shaped by personal dispositions, such as the managers’ degree of “openness,” this study draws on the approach of discursive psychology to demonstrate that line managers’ responses are closely fitted to the organizational context and the unfolding interactional context. Through detailed analysis of a single episode from a voice activity in an industrial setting, the study exemplifies various rhetorical strategies used by the line managers and how these strategies may change as discussions proceed. The study also shows that psychological concepts such as openness should not be seen only as stable features of managers, but also as actively enacted in interaction. Various practical steps are suggested for improving both line managers’ and employees’ experiences with participating in formal voice activities.
ABSTRACT: In 2008, a case of intentional food poisoning involving Chinese imported dumplings resulted in mass panic in Japan. Within a context of sensitive bilateral relations and Japanese agriculture in decline, the media were key to the enhanced risk perception among the public. To shed light on the concrete ways of risk recalibration by the media, the article compares the incident’s coverage to a strikingly similar event in 2014 involving domestic produce. Drawing on the social amplification of risk framework, a qualitative content analysis shows how the specific discursive construction of both incidents led to two different levels of risk, primarily through the framing of the incidents by references to former experiences and symbolic connotations. At the intersection of food, media and risk, the article also contributes to the understanding of perceptions of domestic as opposed to foreign or imported risks, and those in power to label these as such.
ABSTRACT: Environmental pollution has become a serious challenge in emerging markets. Using a unique survey of privately owned enterprises in China, this paper investigates how polluting firms respond to institutional pressures. We find that polluting firms conform to external pressures by combining relational activities and clean technology investments. However, some polluting firms alleviate regulative pressures by bribing government officials, which represents an unethical relational strategy to manage political relationship. We further analyze the contingency on firm-level political connection and local institutional conditions. Political connection buffers firms from institutional demand and demotivates firms’ willingness to respond to institutional pressures; stronger local civic activism and better bureaucratic governance curb the pollution-driven bribery, but they are not strong enough to enhance environmentally friendly practices. Collectively, our study demonstrates how polluting firms navigate institutional pressures in emerging markets, and it particularly highlights the pollution-driven bribery as an obstacle to sustainability.