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Kan man forbruge tøj på en mere bæredygtig måde ved at fokusere på stil frem for mode? Og hvordan lærer vi at arbejde sammen på tværs af køn? Få svarene i vores liste over ny forskning på CBS.

 
01/08/2019

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Er du journalist, forsker eller simpelthen bare interesseret i videnskabelige artikler om business og kultur?

Så skriv dig op til denne forskningsoversigt, hvor du får overblik over de nyeste forskningspublikationer på CBS for den seneste måned – direkte i din indbakke.

Vi har ikke gennemtygget det, så du får det i et råt format, hvor du selv skal læse videre eller kontakte forskeren bag for yderligere information.

De videnskabelige artikler er peer-reviewed, dvs. de har været igennem flere uvildige forskere, der har anerkendt og godkendt resultater og fremgangsmåde.

I denne måned handler publikationerne blandt andet om, hvordan et fokus på stil frem for mode, måske kan være nøglen til et mere bæredygtigt tøjforbrug.

Derudover kan du læse om, hvordan åbenhed er en central faktor for et succesfuldt samarbejde mellem kønnene på arbejdspladsen.



HER ER DENNE MÅNEDS PEER-REVIEWED FORSKNING (PÅ ENGELSK) – GOD LÆSELYST:


The Role of Style versus Fashion Orientation on Sustainable Apparel Consumption
ABSTRACT: The fashion industry is responsible for bringing some of the worst consumption practices out of individuals by reinforcing tendencies for overconsumption throughout society. Consuming too much has led to negative economic, societal, and environmental consequences. The purpose of this paper is to understand whether promoting a style orientation among consumers (rather than a fashion orientation) will lead to more sustainable apparel consumption. Data collected from 6,386 consumers across five countries that are considered to be leaders in sustainable development (Sweden, Netherlands, Germany, the U.K., and the U.S.) suggest that promoting style can be a potential solution to attain slow fashion and, thus, improve sustainable apparel consumption. We further examine the role of hedonism and materialism in influencing sustainable practices in the industry. Based on the findings, the paper emphasizes the need for the collective effort of different actors, especially the role of government, in creating a more sustainable fashion system.

Journal: Journal of Macromarketing
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Wencke Gwozdz

The Performance of Gender Diverse Teams: What is the Relation between Diversity Attitudes and Degree of Diversity?
ABSTRACT: While gender diversity is slowly becoming an expected characteristic of teams, both academics and practitioners still need to better understand the relation between contextual characteristics and team composition for the performance of gender diverse teams. In this article, we investigate the relationship between diversity attitudes and the performance of gender diverse teams, and further, we show how numerical team gender composition is a key link in this relationship. Based on survey responses from 1,085 academic team leaders, we show that openness to diversity is strongly associated with team performance. We also find a moderating effect of the degree of gender diversity, so that the effect of openness to diversity, as positive team level diversity attitudes, is stronger when team gender composition converges towards numerical balance. These findings bridge critical mass theory and diversity and performance scholarship by establishing the joint effect of compositional and contextual characteristics on the performance of gender diverse teams.

Journal: European Management Review
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Florence Villeseche

ICT-enabled Refugee Integration: A Research Agenda
ABSTRACT: The recent phenomenon that has become known as the European refugee crisis is, in reality, a global problem. Accordingly, issues regarding refugee integration have become a central debate topic worldwide. In this paper, we examine how refugees use information and communication technology (ICT) in different regions across the world to understand how ICT supports their desperate journey to safety, their stay in temporary settlement camps, and their post-settlement inclusion in host countries. We conducted a series of interviews with Syrian refugees in Berlin, Germany, to collect preliminary insights. Then, we organized panel discussions at two key information systems conferences (ICIS 2016 and ECIS 2017) that involved participants from various countries. The panel discussions revealed seven key research themes: accessibility to information, availability of education and linguistic resources, admissibility to labor markets and entrepreneurship opportunities, communicability with home country, connectedness with local population, interactivity with host government, and volunteer coordination. We discuss how ICT might help to address issues related to each theme, present research questions relevant to each theme, and supply an illustration of how ICT has been employed to address an aspect of each theme. Insights gathered lead to theoretical implications and future opportunities for research in the information systems field, practical implications for different stakeholders interested in refugee integration to consider, and social implications related to refugee crisis that we cannot ignore.

Journal: Communications of the Association for Information Systems
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Chee-Wee Tan 

Mix Stickiness under Asymmetric Cost Information
ABSTRACT: In most organizations, the agent has superior information about the relative costs of different products or activities. This handicaps the principal when the principal seeks to adjust the product mix. Our main conceptual finding is that there is “mix stickiness.” The agent’s superior information about the relative costs of different products or activities leads to an advantage for the status quo; that is, there is inertia (or stickiness) in the mix of products or activities pursued. The historical mix has an advantage because the asymmetric information about relative costs has less of an impact when the mix does not change. If the mix changes, the producer can extract information rents by claiming high costs on the least reduced or most expanded products. Only in the case of larger shifts in the environment will the mix change. Changing the mix comes with the advantage of making rationing cheaper. Our analysis gives new insight into several business practices. It suggests, for example, that for moderate downsizing, a reinforcement approach of proportionally cutting all activities (lawn mowing) is optimal. When more dramatic downsizing is called for, a reorientation approach of eliminating certain activities (divesting) is optimal. It also suggests that outsourcing may come at the cost of reduced adaptability, and it may help explain why most, if not all, healthcare systems struggle to control cost.

Journal: Management Science
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Peter Bogetoft  

Bør udenretlig mediation reguleres ved lov?
ABSTRACT: Efter en indledende redegørelse for udenretlig mediation i dansk ret diskuteres Voldgiftsinstituttets udkast fra 2018 til en lov om mediation. Forfatteren finder det hensigtsmæssigt med en mediationslov på linje med instituttets udkast, fordi der herved skabes et lovgrundlag med centrale regler, som sikrer mediators habilitet, mediationens fortrolighed og evt. tvangsfuldbyrdelse af et opnået forlig.

Journal: Ugeskrift for retsvæsen
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Peter Arnt Nielsen  

How Does Outside-In Open Innovation Influence Innovation Performance?: Analyzing the Mediating Roles of Knowledge Sharing and Innovation Strategy
ABSTRACT: Embracing outside-in open innovation (OI) can result in a plethora of organizational advantages, including improved innovation performance. Although some studies have found that outside-in OI improves innovation performance, others have shown that it has no effect or even a negative effect. This mixed empirical evidence leads to a need to unpack the relationship between outside-in OI and innovation performance, and to examine how certain key mediating variables related to the outside-in OI process can ensure that outside-in OI turns into improved innovation performance. Thus, this paper aims to examine the influence of outside-in OI on innovation performance considering the mediating roles of knowledge sharing and innovation strategy. This paper draws on a cross-industrial sample of 112 firms. Data are analyzed using a set of ordinary-least-squares regression models and the bootstrap procedure. Results show that knowledge sharing and innovation strategy fully mediate the relationship between outside-in OI and innovation performance.

Journal: IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Stefan Markovic

Disciplinary Review and Research Agenda for Business Ethics
ABSTRACT: Although the literature on multi-stakeholder initiatives for sustainability has grown in recent years, it is scattered across several academic fields, making it hard to ascertain how individual disciplines, such as business ethics, can further contribute to the debate. Based on an extensive review of the literature on certification and principle-based MSIs for sustainability (n = 293 articles), we show that the scholarly debate rests on three broad themes (the “3Is”): the input into creating and governing MSIs; the institutionalization of MSIs; and the impact that relevant initiatives create. While our discussion reveals the theoretical underpinnings of the 3Is, it also shows that a number of research challenges related to business ethics remain unaddressed. We unpack these challenges and suggest how scholars can utilize theoretical insights in business ethics to push the boundaries of the field. Finally, we also discuss what business ethics research can gain from theory development in the MSI field.

Journal: Business Ethics Quarterly
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Andreas Rasche and Stefano Ponte 

Dependent Development at a Crossroads?: Romanian Capitalism and Its Contradictions
ABSTRACT: How has the Great Recession changed what we know about dependent market economies (DME) in Eastern Europe? To answer that question this paper looks at the case of Romania’s version of the DME and captures both understudied forms of dependence and emerging interdependence dynamics that the existing literature on dependence has hitherto neglected. Specifically, the literature does not analyse the role of transnational banks in forging a politicised public–private form of sovereign debt crisis governance. Second, the inattention of the literature to the supply side of the labour market leads to the neglect of migration as a critical factor shaping state, multinational corporation and corporate strategies. Third, the analysis highlights the centrality of industrial policy in a Janus-faced process in which neoliberal competition state has to cohabit with an incipient, wobbly but nevertheless real neo-developmentalist entrepreneurial state.

Journal: West European Politics
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Cornel Ban 

Heterogeneous Selection in the Market for Private Supplemental Dental Insurance: Evidence from Germany
ABSTRACT: This paper analyzes the German market for supplemental dental insurance to identify selection behavior based on individuals’ private information. The rather limited underwriting by German private health insurers makes this market especially prone to selection effects. Although the standard positive correlation test does not indicate asymmetric information in this market, we conjecture that this outcome may result from sample heterogeneity when adverse and advantageous selection occur simultaneously and offset each other. Examining a large set of potential sources of selection effects, we find mainly that the holding of other supplemental health insurance policies, which is related to risk preferences, contributes to an advantageous selection in this insurance market. Our results suggest that even in the absence of a positive correlation between risk and insurance coverage, the German market for supplemental dental insurance suffers from information asymmetry, which is caused by multidimensional private information.

Journal: Empirical Economics
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Jan Michael Bauer 

Setting International Public-Sector Accounting Standards: Does ‘Public’ Matter? The Case of Revenue from Non-Exchange Transactions
ABSTRACT: This paper investigates accounting for non-exchange revenue, an issue which has a strong relevance in public sector accounting, but which is rarely encountered in the private sector. The IPSASB consultation paper ‘Accounting for Revenue and Non-exchange Expenses’ is analyzed to illustrate that the specificities of the public sector are not necessarily taken into account when developing public sector accounting standards. Our analysis is informed by literature on the political nature of accrual accounting in public sector entities. The paper highlights the territorializing role of the IPSASB, the mediating role attributable to the consultation paper, and the potential adjudicating and subjectivizing roles of a future public sector accounting standard on revenue recognition.

Journal: Accounting in Europe
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Caroline Aggestam Pontoppidan

Effekten af Cornerstone-investorer ved børsnoteringer: Et empirisk studie
ABSTRACT: Forfatterne foretager en analyse af, hvad brugen af cornerstone-investorer har betydet for aktørerne på det svenske børsnoteringsmarked med det formål at udlede, hvorvidt brugen af cornerstone-investorer kan være med til at supportere en øget børsnoteringsaktivitet på de øvrige nordiske markeder. Analysen finder frem til, at cornerstone-konceptet har været en vigtig driver for det svenske børsnoteringsmarked, idet konceptet har været med til at addressere nogle af de bekymringer, der førhen herskede blandt aktørerne rundt om en børsnotering, hvor særligt en øget transaktionssikkerhed har været af betydnin gfor udstederne, mens investorerne har draget fordel af den garanterede og væsentlige allokering, der følger med en cornerstone-forpligtelse. Det vises endvidere, at det initiale afkast på første handelsdag generelt er signifikant højere, når der anvendes cornerstone-investorer, mens der på længere sigt ikke ses nogen signifikant forskel i afkastene. På baggrund af analyserne er det forfatternes vurdering, at der generelt er mange positive elementer forbundet med anvendelsen af cornerstone-investorer for de forskellige aktører, og at det derfor potentielt kan bidrage til en øget børsnoteringsaktivitet på de øvrige nordiske markeder.

Journal: Nordisk Tidsskrift for Selskabsret
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Caspar Rose 

Invasion From Within: Ideas, Power, and the Transmission of Institutional Logics Between Policy Domains
ABSTRACT: How do institutional logics travel within a political economy? Employing insights from historical and ideational institutionalist theory, this article offers a novel understanding of change dynamics as driven by actors’ creation of institutional interlinkages. It develops the causal mechanism of “invasion from within,” consisting of a three-stage process: the progressive weakening of a policy paradigm within one institutional site coinciding with a strengthening of the policy paradigm in another; the building of a coalition within the exporting field; and the use of framing strategies to “localize” adjacent logics of action and delegitimize adversarial coalitions. The analytical purchase of the argument is corroborated through process tracing of the German pension paradigm shift during the 1990s, showing that ideas about private capital formation developed in finance were redirected toward old-age provision and strategically transferred to the pension arena by a coalition of actors from the German finance domain.

Journal: Comparative Political Studies
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Martin B. Carstensen

Contested Organizational Change and Accounting in Trials of Incompatibility
ABSTRACT: This paper is about the role of accounting in making decisions about contested organizational change. We study how two strategic options emerged and were valued differently in a protracted case regarding sourcing by the Danish Defence Force. Drawing on Actor-Network Theory we show how the two strategic options emerged and were pitted against each other in what Callon describes as ‘trials of strength’. The contribution of the paper is in three actions: First, it develops the concept of ‘trial of strength’ for accounting and organizational research by showing that extant literature can be enhanced with the conceptualization of a typology of trials that distinguishes between prototype trials and trials of incompatibility. Second, it shows that accounting inscriptions may play changing roles which we label ‘versatile’ when forged in the contested circumstances and resultant pressure of a trial of incompatibility. Third, it highlights how accounting inscriptions take part in (re)formulating, evaluating and advancing mutually exclusive reform options in a series of trials of strength involving both a prototype trial and trials of incompatibility. In addition to the frequency, number and intensity of the inscriptions there appears to be an increased prospect of unfaithful behavior by some inscriptions. This work also has implications for governmentality theorization and processual views of outsourcing decision making - as well as its paradoxical outcomes.

Journal: Management Accounting Research
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Kjell Tryggestad and Peter Skærbæk

Politics, Governance, and Leadership: What Can We Learn From the Academy of Management's Response to EO13769?
ABSTRACT: Organization design seeks to balance potentially conflicting objectives while achieving a broader mission. EO13769 created a challenge for the president of the Academy of Management in leading through these conflicts, as President Anita McGahan describes: how to be true to her own moral values while leading an organization with well-established design constraints, and members with diverse opinions. This article shares the perspectives of 12 scholars on the lessons we can learn from Professor McGahan’s leadership of a constraining organization through a challenging time.

Journal: Journal of Management Inquiry
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Andreas Rasche 

Distance and the Completion of Chinese Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions
ABSTRACT: Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to the significant lower completion rate of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) by firms from emerging economies (EEs) (China in particular) compared with firms from advanced economies, and identify the country- and industry-level factors that affect the completion of cross-border M&As by Chinese firms. Design/methodology/approach: This study explores the effects of economic, cultural and institutional distances and target firms in technology- and knowledge-intensive industries on the completion of cross-border M&As by Chinese firms. It also examines the interplay between distance factors and technology- and knowledge-intensive industries on cross-border M&A completion. This study adopts a quantitative approach and is based on a sample of 768 announced cross-border M&A deals by firms in China between 2000 and 2015. Findings: The results indicate that economic distance increases the likelihood of the completion of cross-border M&As when the target is in a more developed economy than China, but decreases when the target is in a less developed economy. Cultural and institutional distances have a significant, negative impact on the completion of cross-border M&As. In addition, target technology-intensive industries have a significant direct negative effect on cross-border M&A completion and moderate the relationship between the distance factors and the likelihood of cross-border M&A completion.

Journal: Baltic Journal of Management
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Xin Li

The Faster the Better?: Innovation Speed and User Interest in Open Source Software
ABSTRACT: It is often believed that for open source software (OSS) projects the faster the release, the better for attracting user interest in the software. Whether this is true, however, is still open to question. There is considerable information asymmetry between OSS projects and potential users as project quality is unobservable to users. We suggest that innovation speed of OSS project can signal the unobservable project quality and attract users’ interest in downloading and using the software. We contextualize innovation speed of OSS projects as initial release speed and update speed and examine their impacts on user interest. Drawing on the signaling theory, we propose a signaling effect through which a higher initial release speed or update speed increases user interest, while the effect diminishes as initial release or update speed increases. Using a large-scale panel data set from 7442 OSS projects on SourceForge between 2007 and 2010, our results corroborate the inverted U-shaped relationships between initial release speed and user downloads and between update speed and user downloads.

Journal: Information & Management
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Weifang Wu

Critical and Mainstream International Business Research: Making Critical IB an Integral Part of a Societally Engaged International Business Discipline
ABSTRACT: Purpose: This paper aims to address the relationship between critical and mainstream international business (IB) research and discuss the ways forward for the former. Findings: The extant critical IB research can be broken into five main topical clusters: positioning critical IB research, postcolonial IB studies, effects of international business activities, financialization and the global financial crisis and “Black IB” and corporate social responsibility. The citation analysis demonstrates that critical IB research is rarely recognized in mainstream IB academic outlets.

Journal: Critical Perspectives on International Business
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Jens Gammelgaard

Planning and Positioning mHealth Interventions in Developing Countries
ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper is to develop a framework for the planning and positioning of mHealth interventions in developing countries. Conclusion: The framework offers support to governments, decision makers, and developers as they design an assemblage of mHealth interventions. This added clarity means the framework also helps to analyse ‘as is’ structures and behaviours. The framework further provides support for reflecting on projects, as interdependent goals in different quadrants can be assessed against specific interventions.

Journal: Health Policy and Technology
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Rob Gleasure

Designers as the Determinants of Design Innovations
ABSTRACT: Design innovations have become increasingly important appropriation mechanisms for firms. Since 2003, the number of applications for design rights (protecting design innovations) has tripled compared to a doubling in the numbers of both patent and trademark applications. However, despite the growing interest of firms in design innovations, knowledge of the determinants of design innovations is limited. Prior work on labour mobility within the innovation studies literature has focused primarily on the discussion of scientists as being crucial for the creation of technological innovations. The present paper expands on this discussion by drawing parallels with the relation between scientists and technological innovation and the relation between designers and design innovation. We explore whether a similar positive relationship exists between the labour mobility of designers and the generation of design innovations and which determinants influence this relation. We employ a unique Danish dataset containing information on firms, their hiring of designers, and their design innovation activity measured by design rights. Our findings show that hiring a designer does increase the likelihood of producing a design innovation. Hence, designers are a determinant of design innovations. However, in order for the firm to benefit fully from hiring a designer, prior experience in design innovation is required.

Journal: Creativity and Innovation Management
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Cecilie Bryld Fjællegaard and Karin Beukel

DBDS Genomic Cohort, a Prospective and Comprehensive Resource for Integrative and Temporal Analysis of Genetic, Environmental and Lifestyle Factors Affecting Health of Blood Donors
ABSTRACT: Purpose: To establish a cohort that enables identification of genomic factors that influence human health and empower increased blood donor health and safe blood transfusions. Human health is complex and involves several factors, a major one being the genomic aspect. The genomic era has resulted in many consortia encompassing large samples sizes, which has proven successful for identifying genetic factors associated with specific traits. However, it remains a big challenge to establish large cohorts that facilitate studies of the interaction between genetic factors, environmental and life-style factors as these change over the course of life. A major obstacle to such endeavours is that it is difficult to revisit participants to retrieve additional information and obtain longitudinal, consecutive measurements. Findings to date: The cohort comprises extensive phenotype data and whole genome genotyping data. Further, it is possible to retrieve additional phenotype data from national registries as well as from the donors at future visits, including consecutive measurements.

Journal: BMJ Open
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Steffen Andersen 

Board-level Employee Representation (BLER) and Firms’ Responses to Crisis
ABSTRACT: We hypothesize that companies with board‐level employee representation (BLER) experience a lower probability of crisis‐induced dismissals than other firms. Theoretically, we link this effect to the employee directors’ ability to reduce the information asymmetry and moral hazard in employee–employer contracting, thereby facilitating the implementation of labor‐cost adjustments that are an alternative to workforce dismissals. We confirm our hypotheses by analyzing the behavior of Scandinavian public corporations with/without employee directors during the Great Recession.

Journal: Industrial Relations
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Aleksandra Gregoric

How the Blockchain Enables and Constrains Supply Chain Performance
ABSTRACT: Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand the enabling and constraining roles of blockchain technology (BCT) in managerial work practices and conceptualise the technology–performance relationship in supply chain management (SCM). Findings: The analysis identifies four enabling and three constraining blockchain identities to explain how the technology either “facilitates” or “impedes” SCM and supply chain performance. Traceability, which emanates from its ability to provide data immutability, ranks highly as a core innovation of the technology. The blockchain is mainly seen as an opportunity to exploit existing supply chain resources and competencies.

Journal: International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Kim Sundtoft Hald and Aseem Kinra

When an Issue Becomes a Crisis: An Investigation of Pre-crisis Communication through Annual Reports
ABSTRACT: Drawing on the issues management approach, this study investigates the pre-crisis communication of a multinational enterprise through its annual reports. Using Toyota's global recall crisis as an example, the study examines what a crisis-ridden firm actually focused on and the extent to which the firm communicated warning signs, before a crisis. By employing a leading-edge text analytics software, Leximancer, the study explores the narratives of the annual reports. It sheds light on a less-explored dimension of crisis communication and evidences a shortfall in Toyota's issues management. The findings show that Toyota's articulation of its core values, commitment to safety and customer-orientation subsided before the global recall crisis, despite the fact that some safety issues had surfaced by that time. The analysis highlights that there is a need for the company to conduct a more rigorous self-evaluation of its priorities through the process of outlining annual reports in a non/pre-crisis period.

Journal: International Journal of Management Practice
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Faith Hatani

Exploring Student Perceptions of the Hidden Curriculum in Responsible Management Education
ABSTRACT: This exploratory study analyzes the extent of alignment between the formal and hidden curricula in responsible management education (RME). Based on case study evidence of a school that has signed the United Nations Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME), we found poor alignment between the school’s explicit RME claims and students’ lived experiences. While the formal curriculum signaled to students that RME was important, the school’s hidden curriculum sent a number of tacit messages that led students to question the relevance and applicability of responsible management. The tacit messages that students received occurred along three “message sites” related to (a) how the formal curriculum was delivered, (b) how students and lecturers interacted, and (c) how the school was governed. On the basis of these findings we develop a proposition that can guide further research in this area, i.e., the connotative level of language use is an important site of misalignments between what lecturers say in relation to RME (e.g., in a syllabus) and how students interpret the meaning of their lecturers’ words. We also discuss further implications of our findings for strengthening the alignment between schools’ formal RME claims and their hidden curriculum.

Journal: Journal of Business Ethics
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Andreas Rasche and Dennis Schoeneborn

Corporate Engagement in Humanitarian Action: Concepts, Challenges, and Areas for International Business Research
ABSTRACT: Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to open up new lines of research into the engagement of corporations during humanitarian crises. The paper provides an introduction to core concepts in the delivery of humanitarian assistance, as well as a comprehensive overview of when, why, how, and to what effect corporations engage in humanitarian action. Findings: The paper systematically reviews and describes different dimensions of corporate engagement for delivering humanitarian action and explains key complications that inspire new research questions. In particular, the paper highlights challenges associated with getting corporations to engage in humanitarian action; challenges associated with ensuring effective corporate engagement; and challenges associated with ensuring ethical engagement.

Journal: Critical Perspectives on International Business
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Jasper J. Hotho and Verena Girschik

The Sustainable Value of Open Government Data
ABSTRACT: Building on the promise of open data, government agencies support a continuously growing number of open data initiatives that are driven mainly by expectations of unprecedented value generation from an underutilized resource. Although data, in general, have undoubtedly become an essential resource for the economy, it has remained largely unclear how, or even whether, open data repositories generate any significant value. We addressed this void with a study that examines how sustainable value is generated from open data. Subsequently, we developed a model that explains how open data generate sustainable value through two underlying mechanisms. The first, the information sharing mechanism, explicates how open data are beneficial to forging informational content that creates value for society through increased transparency and improved decision-making. The second, the market mechanism, explicates how open data are beneficial as a resource in products and services offered on the market, as well as how open data are used to make processes more efficient or to satisfy previously unmet needs. We tested and validated the model using PLS with secondary quantitative data from 76 countries. The study provides empirical support to the conjecture that openness of data as well as the digital governance and digital infrastructure in a country have a positive effect on the country’s level of sustainable value. Overall, the study provides empirical evidence in favor of nurturing open data culture and insights about the conditions that support turning it into sustainable value for the benefit of citizens, business organizations, and society at large.

Journal: Journal of the Association for Information Systems
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Niels Bjørn-Andersen

A New Order of Financing Investments: Evidence from Acquisitions by India's Listed Firms
ABSTRACT: We propose a new order of financing investments based on the considerations of control and financial constraints in a market with the presence of business groups. We base our analysis on a sample of acquisitions, one of the largest forms of investments, made by India's publicly listed firms from 1997 through 2016. We test the relative propensity of group-affiliated firms, as well as that of standalone (non-affiliated) firms, to finance their investments with stock on the one hand, and either cash or debt on the other. We find that group-affiliated bidders have the greatest propensity to finance their investments with stock when taking over firms affiliated with the same business group (within-group acquisitions), followed by standalone firms making acquisitions (standalone acquisitions). Finally, group-affiliated bidders acquiring either standalone firms or firms not affiliated with their group (outside-group acquisitions) have the lowest propensity to finance their investments with stock. The evidence of higher stock-financing of within-group acquisitions is robust to alternative explanations of tunneling and propping up in business groups.

Journal: Journal of the Association for Information Systems
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Rama Seth 

Social Upgrading and Cooperative Corporate Social Responsibility in Global Value Chains: The Case of Fairphone in China
ABSTRACT: In this article, we explore how a lead firm's strategy for corporate social responsibility influences the social upgrading of a supplier in a global value chain. Based on a single case study approach, we investigate the interaction between Dutch smartphone producer Fairphone and its Chinese supplier Guohong. On the one hand, the case illustrates how a cooperative approach to corporate social responsibility can lead to progress in suppliers' social upgrading. In particular, we highlight the role of a so‐called workers' welfare fund as a mechanism not only for improving measurable labour standards but also for enabling rights. On the other hand, the case demonstrates how the limited production and technological capabilities of the suppliers, a competitive market environment and lead firms' limited strategic access to the supply chain might constrain the extent of social upgrading through a cooperative approach towards corporate social responsibility in a global value chain.

Journal: Global Networks: A Journal of Transnational Affairs
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Faith Hatani and Björn Jindra

Preschool Child Care and Child Well-Being in Germany: Does the Migrant Experience Differ?
ABSTRACT: Because the value of preschool child care is under intensive debate among both policy-makers and society in general, this paper analyzes the relation between preschool care and the well-being of children and adolescents in Germany. It specifically examines differences in outcomes based on child socioeconomic background by focusing on the heterogeneous effects for migrant children. Our findings, based on data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey of Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), suggest that children who have experienced child care have a slightly lower well-being overall. For migrant children, however, the outcomes indicate a positive relation. These results remain robust after controlling for selection into child care on observables and using an instrumental variable approach to address potential endogeneity.

Journal: Global Networks: Social Indicators Research
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Jan Michael Bauer

Assessing the Long-term Fragmentation of Information Systems Research with a Longitudinal Multi-network Analysis
ABSTRACT: Over the decades, the evolving information systems (IS) research community and its academic output has greatly expanded. This paper offers an integrated analysis of multiple dimensions of network interconnectedness of the growing IS discipline. In line with the social and intellectual dimensions of the underlying theory of science, we synthesise multiple network views on authors, institutions, journal outlets, citations, and themes into a multi-dimensional knowledge network infrastructure analysis of collaborative networks of IS researchers and their academic output. We further introduce two fragmentation types to better address the dynamics of the IS discourse discussed in previous research. Based on a corpus of all 3587 AIS basket of 8 journal articles over 20 years, we use the analytical framework to study whether the fast growth of the IS discipline resulted in a reduced coherence of the overall academic collaboration and the research themes. The analysis reveals that the sampled IS researcher community developed a large core component with influential bridging people who mitigate fragmentation and centralisation. This IS community structure constitutes a valuable asset to cope with fragmentation tendencies in the intellectual dimension (research topics) resulting from many short-term topic bursts and from centralisation of conceptual terms.

Journal: European Journal of Information Systems
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Matthias Trier

Prices, Policing and Policy: The Dynamics of Crime Booms and Busts
ABSTRACT: In many historical episodes, criminal activity displays booms and busts. One clear example is the case of metal crime in the United Kingdom (and elsewhere) where, in the face of big increases in value driven by world commodity prices, thefts rose very sharply in the 2000s, after which they fell. This paper studies the respective roles of prices, policing and policy in shaping this crime boom and bust. Separate study of each reveals metal crime being driven up via sizeable and significant metal crime–price elasticities and driven down by changes in policing and policy. A regression-based decomposition analysis confirms that all three of the hypothesised factors considered in the paper - prices, policing and policy - were empirically important in the different stages of metal theft's boom and bust.

Journal: Journal of the European Economic Association
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Tom Kirchmaier

Toward a Universal Account of Country-induced Predispositions: Integrative Framework and Measurement of Country-of-origin Images and Country Emotions
ABSTRACT: Understanding how consumers use a product’s country-of-origin (COO) cue is fundamental to explaining their behavior in a globalized marketplace. While the study of COO is one of the most popular topics in international marketing, the ambiguity regarding its conceptualization, composite nature, operationalization, and measurement deserves further scrutiny. The authors propose an integrative framework that unites two separate areas of research on the COO cue: performance-related COO images and performance-unrelated country emotions. The authors reconcile diverse existing perspectives from both areas into the overarching country-induced predispositions model. Conceptualizations and measurement approaches for the model’s five components are developed and empirically validated across three countries and with five COOs. The model offers researchers and managers with an interest in the COO cue a flexible and operational roadmap, with scales both for in-depth analyses and parsimonious additional testing.

Journal: Journal of International Marketing
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Alexander Josiassen and Florian Kock 

A Zhong-Yong Perspective on Balancing the Top-down and Bottom-up Processes in Strategy-making
ABSTRACT: Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose an alternative perspective on Zhong-Yong that is different from the notion of “Yin-Yang balancing” and apply it to understand the issue of balancing the top-down and bottom-up processes in strategy making. Findings: Applied to the issue of balancing the top-down and bottom-up processes in strategy making, the new perspective on Zhong-Yong provides us with the following prescriptive insights from the life-wisdom of eastern philosophy: first, top management (e.g. Shun as the sage-king) must listen to various views and opinions also from employees and low-level managers at the bottom of the organization to be better informed about complex issues. Second, top management must analyze the diverse elements of the various views and opinions they collect and synthesize by taking the good from the bad to find smarter solutions and make decisions with better outcomes. Third, abiding by a set of (more or less) cohesive values help top managers be open and receptive to information and insights from low-level organizational members and enhancing unbiased information.

Journal: Cross Cultural and Strategic Management
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Carina Antonia Hallin, Torben Juul Andersen and Xin Li

The Performance of Citizen’s and Organisational Authority
ABSTRACT: This article explores the interaction of two forms of authority: organisational authority and citizen’s authority. The concept of citizen’s authority derives from Pettit, and organisational authority has theoretical roots in Weber. Citizen’s authority entails the right to be the author of your own life decisions, while organisational authority is the right of an actor to speak on behalf of an organisation. With inspiration from Goffman and Austin, we take a performative ethnographic approach to the analysis of 23 video-recorded consultations with homeless individuals (23), their family members (3) and service providers (43) in three Danish shelters. While those with organisational authority (staff) can prevail over those with only citizen’s authority (clients), they typically refrain from doing so in an overt manner. We demonstrate that social actors are skilled at performing different kinds of authority simultaneously; they draw upon conflicting identities as clients, professionals and citizens in a changing front-stage and back-stage environment. The homeless and staff deploy rules and procedures as well as emotion and laughter in their encounters with each other.

Journal: Journal of Classical Sociology
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Nanna Mik-Meyer

Protecting Their Digital Assets: The Use of Formal & Informal Appropriability Strategies by App Developers
ABSTRACT: Innovators and entrepreneurs developing products and competing “on top” of digital platforms face different conditions than do those in more traditional industries. In this paper, we explore how this affects appropriability strategies in novel data on mobile app developers’ appropriability strategies. We find that the many smallest developers in the “long tail”— the vast majority of all developers – do in fact take actions to capture value and to protect their intellectual property, but do so only through informal mechanisms. By contrast, larger developers exploit a combination of both informal mechanisms and formal intellectual property rights, using copyright, patents, and trademarks. Several strategies particular to digital platforms are also documented. We link this pattern of different strategies pursued by different competitor types to the structural features of digital competition.

Journal: Research Policy
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Lars Bo Jeppesen

Platform Intermediaries in the Sharing Economy: Questions of Liability and Remedy
ABSTRACT: National and international characteristics of sharing economy imply that a platform intermediary may hold a dominant legal and economic position between a debtor and a creditor. Legally, such an agent1 will be the commercial link between the performance debtor and the performance creditor. Hence, the platform intermediary’s contractual obligations do not appertain to the performance creditor by default but to the economic and legal nexus between the committed and legitimate contractors. Yet recent legal practice in Danish substantive law, along with a series of court rulings, indicates that a platform intermediary may under certain circumstances be considered duty subject in relation to the performance creditor. In such cases, the platform intermediary—though originally deemed an agent—is contractually obliged to the performance debtor. This creates two interesting legal issues which are analysed in our article. First, we address the requirements and circumstances which may lead to the platform intermediary being directly liable to the performance creditor in case of non-performance of the sharing economy service in question. Secondly, we analyse which remedies the performance creditor can impose on the intermediary in a situation where the intermediary is considered contractually obliged to the performance debtor.

Journal: Nordic Journal of Commercial Law
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Kim Østergaard

Rewarding the Top: Citizens' Opposition to Higher Pay for Politicians
ABSTRACT: The rewards of politicians are a key part of the implicit contract between politicians and citizens, and the effect of these rewards on democratic legitimacy and political recruitment is a central concern in public debate and democratic theory. Using a survey experiment, we show how citizens respond to hypothetical changes in politicians’ pay. The results indicate that citizens express lower levels of trust in the politicians when these politicians award themselves higher pecuniary rewards. However, our results also show that a devious strategy in which the rewards for politicians are less transparent ensures lower opposition from citizens than open and transparent strategies. Based on this, we outline a reinvigoration of the research agenda on “rewards at the top.”

Journal: Scandinavian Political Studies
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Jens Olav Dahlgaard

Nu taler virksomheder om Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): Hvad er de næste skridt?
ABSTRACT: Denne artikel vil give en introduktion til FN’s verdensmål, mere kendt som ’Sustainable Development Goals’ (SDGs) og rapporteringsværktøjer, der er udviklet for at understøtte virksomheders rapportering vedrørende SDGs. De to værktøjer er Verdensmålskompasset (’SDG Compas’) og ’Future Fit Business Benchmark’.

Journal: Revision & Regnskabsvæsen
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Caroline Aggestam Pontoppidan

Equity Fund Managements Promise and Action: A Comparative Study of Nordic and US Fund's
ABSTRACT: The paper presents the differences in how fund managers in the Nordics and the US communicate towards investors. The work suggests that similarity of communicated values and actual action of the fund is a key driver to increase fund flow. It helps to sustain assets under management while uniting the picture a potential investor has of the fund. This action might lower the inherent risk in miss-communication. The analysis is building on textual statements of 80 equity funds from the Nordic countries and the US. We compare the funds of the two regions along factors which are according to recent research main drivers of investors when deciding if to invest in a fund or not. With this analysis, we aim to see the difference in the communicated values and the actual action of equity funds. By advancing the understanding of the coherence of communication in the Nordic region we aim to give implications for future research as well as advice to the practitioner.

Journal: Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Bjørn Preuss 

Permanent Establishment for Investors in Private Equity Funds: A Legal Analysis in Light of the Changes to the OECD Model (2017)
ABSTRACT: The article analyzes whether the investment in a private equity fund may create a permanent establishment (PE) for foreign investors. The analysis is divided into two main parts, as the question of creating a PE for the foreign investors is considered with respect to both the main PE rule and the agency PE rule. The amendments to the PE definition prescribed in the OECD/G20 BEPS report on Action 7, and incorporated into the 2017 version of the OECD Model with Commentary, are taken into consideration. It is concluded that the final outcome depends on the specific setup of the private equity fund at hand and that some degree of uncertainty may often remain. Moreover, the recent amendments to the PE definition do not appear to have reduced this uncertainty—rather the contrary.

Journal: Nordic Tax Journal
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Peter Koerver Schmidt

A Colloid Approach to Self-Assembling Antibodies
ABSTRACT: Concentrated solutions of monoclonal antibodies have attracted considerable attention due to their importance in pharmaceutical formulations, yet their tendency to aggregate and the resulting high solution viscosity has posed considerable problems. It remains a very difficult task to understand and predict the phase behavior and stability of such solutions. Here we present a systematic study of the concentration dependence of the structural and dynamic properties of monoclonal antibodies using a combination of different scattering methods and microrheological experiments. To interpret these data, we use a colloid-inspired approach based on a simple patchy model, which explicitly takes into account the anisotropic shape and the charge distribution of the molecules. Combining theory, simulations and experiments, we are able to disentangle self-assembly and intermolecular interactions and to quantitatively describe the concentration dependence of structural and dynamic quantities such as the osmotic compressibility, the collective diffusion coefficient and the zero shear viscosity over the entire range of investigated concentrations. This simple patchy model not only allows us to consistently describe the thermodynamic and dynamic behavior of mAb solutions, but also provides a robust estimate of the attraction between their binding sites. It will thus be an ideal starting point for future work on antibody formulations, as it provides a quantitative assessment of the effects of additional excipients or chemical modifications on antibody interactions, and a prediction of their effect on solution viscosity.

Journal: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Nicholas Skar-Gislinge 


Aesthetic Appreciation: The View from Neuroimaging
ABSTRACT: Our understanding of aesthetic appreciation has undergone a profound change during the past 20 years, as a result of the ability to study the human brain through neuroimaging. A number of findings cast into doubt important tenets of previous theories and models. Specifically, neuroscientific evidence suggests that aesthetic appreciation is not a distinct neurobiological process assessing certain objects, but a general system, centered on the mesolimbic reward circuit, for assessing the hedonic value of any sensory object. Furthermore, neuroscientific research also makes it clear that hedonic values are not determined solely by object properties, but subject to a range of object-extrinsic modulatory factors. This article reviews these findings and discusses how they demand a new experimental approach to aesthetic appreciation.

Journal: Empirical Studies of the Arts
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Martin Skov

Anti-identity Strategizing: The Dynamic Interplay of “Who We Are” and “Who We Are Not”
ABSTRACT: In this article, we investigate the strategy–identity nexus by illustrating the interaction between organizational identity, anti-identity, and strategy. While extant research illustrates the potentially constraining role of organizational identity on change trajectories, less is known about the role of organizational anti-identity. Drawing on a qualitative case study of a leading German distributor’s 32-year history, we highlight the importance of organizational anti-identity for both continuous and discontinuous change initiatives, and illustrate how organizational members can overcome identity ambiguity by referring to “who we are not as an organization” rather than to “who we are as an organization.” We further show how managers who draw on identity reservoirs may have greater leeway when exploiting anti-identity, and how ambiguity and resistance may be overcome by referring to “who we are not” as an organization. Our findings broaden our understanding of the role of anti-identity for strategy selection and contribute to the burgeoning literature on the strategy–identity nexus.

Journal: Empirical Studies of the Arts
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Madeleine Rauch

Consumers’ Purchase Decisions for Products with Nutrition and Health Claims: What Role Do Product Category and Gaze Duration on Claims Play?
ABSTRACT: Labeling food packages with nutrition and health claims is a widely used practice. This study aims to contribute to the literature by examining the gaze and purchase behavior of consumers regarding food products with nutrition and health claims. A close-to-realistic purchase situation with three-dimensional food packages with nutrition, health, and taste claims was simulated while the participants’ eye movements were measured using head-mounted eye tracking glasses. In the purchase situation, two food categories with differing perceived healthiness were offered, orange juice and milk chocolate. In total, 156 consumers participated in this study which was undertaken in Germany. The findings indicate that each claim was noticed by at least 85% of the participants and health claims were looked at longer than nutrition or taste claims. Furthermore, when compared to other participants, the longer a participant looked at a specific claim, the more likely the participant was to purchase the respective product. Even though the product category had no effect on the gaze duration on claims, it affected the purchase behavior. Nutrition claims were preferred for orange juice while taste claims were preferred for milk chocolate. Health claims were preferred for neither. Marketers can benefit from this study, as it shows the gaze duration on claims influenced the purchase likelihood. Another important finding is that there are great differences between product categories regarding the type of claim consumers prefer.

Journal: Appetite
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Meike Janssen

Seeing the Forest and not the Trees: Learning from Nature's Circular Economy
ABSTRACT: Managing for triple bottom line (TBL) by creating economic, ecological and social value is increasingly on the business agenda. However, it is challenging to address non-economic issues because businesses are designed to maximize profit and are less aligned with global ecological and social challenges. Shifting from linear supply chain thinking to interconnected, circular, ecosystem thinking could offer insights into addressing these challenges. Looking at time-tested patterns and strategies from natural ecosystems that operate using, reusing, and repurposing materials and components in a way that is sustainable, may allow for innovative and effective solutions for businesses to begin addressing these global challenges. Biomimicry, an approach to innovation that seeks solutions to human challenges by emulating nature, can inspire evolutionary and structural aspects of business ecosystems. Biomimetic insights related to mycorrhizal (root-fungus) networks are used as a foundation of this research. This research draws on network theory and complex adaptive systems (CAS) to translate the biomimetic language to the language of networked business systems. Based on literature and interview data gathered from five businesses, biomimetic principles were developed that can guide businesses as they transition from linear, wasteful chains to circular business value systems. In particular, business ecosystems require more participants in the roles of ‘scavengers’ and ‘decomposers’ and an underlying infrastructure, that helps to manage information and material flows in an integrated way.

Journal: Appetite
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Lydia Bals

Serving Multiple Masters: The Role of Micro-foundations of Dynamic Capabilities in Addressing Tensions in For-profit Hybrid Organizations
ABSTRACT: Regular for-profit companies might claim social and environmental goals, beyond their primary economic objectives, but sustainability-driven for-profit hybrids explicitly design and implement their organizational activities to pursue social, environmental and economic goals equivalently, which typically generates tensions, inherent to their hybrid nature. The ability to address these tensions is key to these organizations’ success, yet the manner in which they do so remains poorly understood. In this case-based qualitative study, the authors explicate how specific individual and collective practices contribute continuously to alleviating hybridity-related tensions among for-profit hybrids and allow them to achieve success. With a micro-foundational perspective on for-profit hybrids’ dynamic capabilities, this study’s findings identify four central, dynamic capabilities of for-profit hybrids, supported by respective sets of micro-foundations. Nine of these micro-foundations contribute specifically to addressing central tensions, to different extents. This study thus highlights how for-profit hybrids embrace hybridity-related tensions to foster the creation of sustainable value.

Journal: Organization Studies
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Adam Lindgreen

How to Study Public Negotiation of Responsibilities: A Communicative Approach to Business and Human Rights Research
ABSTRACT: This article proposes a communicative approach to business and human rights research, the key objective of which is to understand business responsibility for human rights as discursively constituted. We show that a communicative approach makes it possible to examine how the nature and bounds of business responsibility come about as a negotiation between a range of societal actors that contribute to public discourse on human rights. Given that such an approach is novel in the context of human rights research, the article provides an introduction to the methodological foundations of a communicative framework, maps out the range of applicable methods within the framework, and reviews existing studies. To illustrate, the article presents a study which exemplifies a communicative approach to business and human rights. This study investigates the development over the past 20 years of public discourse on business responsibility for human rights. The article concludes by pointing to gaps in knowledge and potential issues for further research drawing on a communicative approach to business and human rights.

Journal: Nordic Journal of Human Rights
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Michael EtterFrederik Schade and Anne Vestergaard 

(Un)Mind the Gap: How Organizational Actors Cope with an Identity–strategy Misalignment
ABSTRACT: In this article, we explore how organizational actors cope with a perceived misalignment between their organization’s identity and strategy. Based on an inductive, interpretive case study at a public broadcasting organization, we identify three cognitive tactics through which organizational members cope with an identity–strategy misalignment: contextualization, abstraction, and fatalism. Furthermore, we show that the enactment of these cognitive coping tactics coincides with specific strategy-related tasks that prioritize different aspects of an organization’s identity and, therefore, invokes different conceptions of the identity–strategy misalignment. Based on these findings, we develop a framework that conceptualizes how organizational members cope with an identity–strategy misalignment. We end the article by discussing the implications of our study for further research on the linkages between organizational identity and strategy.

Journal: Strategic Organization
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Madeleine Rauch

Value Creation through Project Risk Management
ABSTRACT: Risk management is a common and widely adopted project practice. Practitioners use risk management based on a common assumption that risk management adds value to projects. Yet, in the complex and ambiguous environment of a project, value is often subjective. If this is the case, then how do stakeholders perceive project risk management to create value? This paper presents a literature review and an empirical study of project risk management as a means of creating value. The empirical study is based on interviews, analyzed through qualitative analysis, to unravel the subjective value of project risk management. Specifically, we addressed how practitioners perceived the connection between project risk management practices and value creation. We found that stakeholders' perceptions of value played an important role in how value was created through project risk management. What a stakeholder perceives to be important, such as the prospective outcomes of a project, influences the perceived value of a given project risk management practice. The empirical findings indicate the need for a contextualized understanding of the value of project risk management, and thereby provide a more nuanced view of the variety of forms through which project risk management can create value. The findings question the “universal ideal” of PRM value creation portrayed in the academic and practitioner literature.

Journal: International Journal of Project Management
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Joana Geraldi

Effectiveness of IT Service Management Capability: Value Co-Creation and Value Facilitation Mechanisms
ABSTRACT: Information technology service management (ITSM) has become the prevalent management approach to the provision of IT services worldwide. Researchers and practitioners, however, still lack an understanding regarding through which mechanisms and in which strategic contexts an ITSM capability contributes most to information systems (IS) effectiveness. Grounded in a service-dominant logic, we hypothesize that ITSM capability contributes to IS effectiveness through sustaining the alignment of the IS function with the business and contingent upon organizational IS strategic conservativeness. Data collected from 256 organizations confirms that direct effects from ITSM capability are mediated by IS-business alignment and strengthened by IS strategic conservativeness. Our findings provide evidence for a co-occurrence of value co-creation and value facilitation mechanisms in internal IT service relationships and for a greater value of ITSM capability in stable strategic contexts. Overall, our results contribute a novel understanding to the service literature of the distinct mechanisms and the facilitating contextual contingencies of value creation in IT service relationships.

Journal: Journal of Management Information Systems
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Till J. Winkler


Accelerating Health Data Sharing: A Solution Based on the Internet of Things and Distributed Ledger Technologies
ABSTRACT: Background: Huge amounts of health-related data are generated every moment with the rapid development of Internet of Things (IoT) and wearable technologies. These big health data contain great value and can bring benefit to all stakeholders in the health care ecosystem. Currently, most of these data are siloed and fragmented in different health care systems or public and private databases. It prevents the fulfillment of intelligent health care inspired by these big data. Security and privacy concerns and the lack of ensured authenticity trails of data bring even more obstacles to health data sharing. With a decentralized and consensus-driven nature, distributed ledger technologies (DLTs) provide reliable solutions such as blockchain, Ethereum, and IOTA Tangle to facilitate the health care data sharing.Objective: This study aimed to develop a health-related data sharing system by integrating IoT and DLT to enable secure, fee-less, tamper-resistant, highly-scalable, and granularly-controllable health data exchange, as well as build a prototype and conduct experiments to verify the feasibility of the proposed solution.Methods: The health-related data are generated by 2 types of IoT devices: wearable devices and stationary air quality sensors. The data sharing mechanism is enabled by IOTA’s distributed ledger, the Tangle, which is a directed acyclic graph. Masked Authenticated Messaging (MAM) is adopted to facilitate data communications among different parties. Merkle Hash Tree is used for data encryption and verification. Conclusions: DLT integrated with IoT technologies could greatly improve the health-related data sharing. The proposed solution based on IOTA Tangle and MAM could overcome many challenges faced by other traditional blockchain-based solutions in terms of cost, efficiency, scalability, and flexibility in data access management. This study also showed the possibility of fully decentralized health data sharing by replacing the local server with edge computing devices.

Journal: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Published 2019
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Contact CBS researcher: Ravi Vatrapu and Raghava Rao Mukkamala

 

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Sidst opdateret: Communications // 01/08/2019