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Hvordan bruger narcissistiske ledere deres magt? Læs mere i ny forskningsartikel. Foto: Shutterstock
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De videnskabelige artikler er peer-reviewed, dvs. de har været igennem flere uvildige forskere, der har anerkendt og godkendt resultater og fremgangsmåde.
I denne måned kan du læse om en forsker, der har analyseret data om 7664 børn på tværs af otte europæiske lande. Hun har fundet mønstre i, hvilken type familier der er særligt udsatte, når det gælder fedme blandt børn.
Derudover kan du læse om, at ledelsesforskere i dag studerer narcissisme, fordi vores samfund er blevet mere selvoptaget. Narcissistiske ledere er historisk årsagen til store skandaler, og derfor afdækker et forskningsprojekt, hvordan den type leder kan fanges i at misbruge sin magt.
HER ER DENNE MÅNEDS PEER-REVIEWED FORSKNING (PÅ ENGELSK) – GOD LÆSELYST:
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Abstract: Hubris and narcissism overlap, and although extant research explores relationships between them in terms of characteristics, attributes, and behaviours, we take a different view by analysing their differences in relation to power and leadership. Drawing on a psychology of power perspective, we argue that narcissistic and hubristic leaders relate to and are covetous of power for
Abstract: In a recent judgment of 9 October 2018, the Gerechtshof Den Haag (the Hague Court of Appeals) ruled that the Dutch government was liable in tort for negligence by failing to comply with the duty of care to take adequate mitigation measures against climate change.1 Climate change litigation is a designation for legal proceedings connected to climate change matters.2 The decision also has a wider bearing on public international law and constitutional and administrative law. This comment discusses the legal issues raised in the ruling. While the
Abstract: In the present work, the determinants of port choice regarding container cargoes from specific hinterland regions are analyzed, based on an empirical study of Spain. Previous work has been extended by including novel explanatory variables for the market shares of ports in hinterland locations. Discrete choice theory is the methodological approach used here. More specifically, a nested logit model is proposed. As potential explanatory variables, the model includes maritime connectivity to specific overseas regions and intermodal connectivity of the port to specific hinterland locations. The empirical analysis is based on detailed Spanish customs data. The analysis shows that all variables hypothesized to influence the market share of a port in a specific hinterland region (i.e., road distance to the hinterland region, maritime distance, maritime connectivity of the port, and intermodal connectivity of the port) indeed influence significantly its market share, with the signs as expected. The findings add to the understanding of port competitiveness in specific regions with three conclusions: First, port hinterlands are relational, in the sense that they depend on the overseas origin or destination of the cargo; Second, the analysis suggests that ports that predominantly handle transhipment cargoes may have a “transhipment orientation,” which is an impediment for reaching hinterland markets; Third, intermodal connectivity is a determinant of the market share of a port in a certain hinterland region.
Abstract: This article explores the adoption of new technology in organisations that provide senior citizen care. Inspired by Niklas Luhmann’s systems theory, we study how technology reduces complexity by identifying client needs and ensuring predictability in service delivery. However, how technologies are adopted in practice is not determined by technology since it is also structured by care-workers’ continuous decision-making. Against this backdrop, we explore how technologies alter the conditions for decision-making in two settings of elderly care, and we describe how care workers seek to adapt technologies to their practical needs as well as conception of care ethics. Developing a systems theory approach, the article eschews a priori assumptions of technological constraint on care-workers’ professional autonomy, offering a more open-ended exploration of diversified strategies for coping with new technology. Our case studies show that employees develop diversified strategies for technology adoption, including both non-usage, heated resistance, excessive embrace, and creative adaption.
Abstract: Ved udgangen af september 2019 udgjorde den samlede danske pensionsopsparing mere end 4.600 mia. kr. (Dan-marks Nationalbank, 2019), hvoraf godt 18 % er placeret i såkaldte “alternative investeringer”. Alternative investeringer består typisk af investeringer i ejendomme og infrastruktur, direkte kreditgivning til erhvervsvirksomheder samt investeringer gennem kapitalfonde, hvor værdiansættelsen foretages på baggrund af ikke-observerbare input. I 2020 skal alle pensions- og forsikringsselskaber aflægge årsregnskaber i overensstemmelse med dagsværdihierarkiet i IFRS 13, som omfatter en række nye krav til noteoplysninger om forudsætningerne for dagsværdien af selskabernes alternative investeringer. På baggrund indberettede (fortrolige) tal fra pensions- og forsikringsselskaberne til Danmarks Nationalbank i perioden januar 2013 – september 2019 gives et tidligt bud på potentielle udfordringer med og økonomiske konsekvenser af den forestående implementering af de nye notekrav. Noget kunne tyde på, at der er plads til forbedringer både fra reguleringsmæssig side såvel som i forsikrings- og pensionssektorens regnskabsmæssige håndtering af deres alternative investeringer. Problemstillingen er aktuel for os alle, da prisfastsættelsen har betydning for, 1) at værdien af den løbende pensionsopsparing opgøres korrekt, 2) det individuelle valg af pensionsprodukt, 3) fordelingen mellem nuværende og fremtidige pensionsudbetalinger, og 4) ved skift mellem pensionsselskaber.
Abstract: Clothing production has high impacts on the environment, with a reduction in the consumption of clothes providing a contribution towards urgently needed sustainable production and consumption. The present study employs the comprehensive action determination model (CADM) to identify psychological determinants associated with reduced clothing consumption across five different countries. In two studies (n=5,185) we sought to identify the constructs most strongly related to intentions to reduce clothing consumption and to reduction behavior. Results showed that normative constructs were most strongly related to intentions to reduce consumption. Intentions were only weakly negatively related to the number of items bought in a two-week period. As hypothesized, structural paths were equal across countries. Implications for intervention development are discussed.
Abstract: This paper takes its point of departure from an observation made by Norbert Elias in his book The Germans. Many (smaller) European states were confronted by Germany in various wars and conflicts and states such as Denmark suffered defeats. Following from this, Elias poses the question as to how the Danish people came to terms with this reality-shock. This paper claims that the unintended consequence of the Danish defeat was the development of a new national habitus with a strong and particular form of nationalism. This nationalism not only tied the nation to the state but went much further by defining the nation as the people and the civil society. It became a deeply sedimented form of nationalism, which provided Denmark with a very strong social cohesion. The central argument concerns this strong Danish habitus linked to this form of nationalism. This paper argues that this habitus has become more problematic during the last 30 years in the era of globalisation. The strong Danish habitus generates resistance towards immigration, acceptance of refugees, the EU, and the internationalisation of education – just to mention some problematic areas. Consequently, Denmark, as a small open economy depending on multilateralism and internationalisation, has difficulties fully embracing globalisation.
Abstract: D’un point de vue sociologique, l’architecture du droit global se caractérise par une prééminence des normes de « connectivité », qu’il convient de distinguer des normes de « possibilité » et des normes de « cohérence ». La centralité des normes de connectivité dans cette structure provient de la fonction même du droit global, qui vise à faciliter le transfert de composants sociaux condensés –tels que le capital, les produits économiques, les doctrines religieuses ou les connaissances scientifiques–, d’un environnement juridique à un autre à l’échelle planétaire. Cela se vérifie aussi bien dans le cas du colonialisme et du droit colonial que dans celui, aujourd’hui, des chaînes de valeur globales et des droits de l’homme. Le droit colonial et le droit des droits humains peuvent tous deux être compris comme des moyens de remplir une même fonction constituante de stabilisation et de facilitation de la connectivité. Cette compréhension trouve un écho significatif dans le droit international privé, qui participe de la même fonction.
Abstract: This article advocates for originality in tourism research and the quest on how to achieve it.
Abstract: Empirical aesthetics is associated with two research questions: How the mind generally assigns value to sensory stimuli and how it responds specifically to art objects. Researchers have debated whether these phenomena share enough to warrant being collapsed into a single field. To ask how these particular questions came to be associated with aesthetics, we conducted Google Ngram analyses over a corpus of books spanning two centuries. Analyses trace the frequency of “big questions” about art and beauty, and how the term aesthetic appears relative to other concepts. Results indicate the 19th century was dominated by notions of beauty and an aesthetic sense. Questions about art and aesthetic experience become more frequent during the 20th century. Results are interpreted with respect to associated affective and evaluative concepts, art movements, and scientific debates. Understanding how aesthetics is used over time can cast light on the ways current work is being conceived and pursued.
Abstract: In 1971, the organization theorist James March published "The Technology of Foolishness" (ToF). The essay can be seen as inspired by ideas of the late 1960s in California. ToF argues that wise decision making should not only focus on pursuing given goals, as is often done, but also on finding new and better goals. The present study traces the reception of ToF in the scholarly literature. It has been much praised, but little used relative to other of March's contributions. The reception has often been superficial and ritual and March's harsher ideas have to some degree been sugarcoated. ToF has inspired work regarding playfulness, improvisation, hypocrisy and not least entrepreneurship. But there is unused potential in ToF. This potential is discussed in the next to final Section of this article. One is called intelligent holes in stupid organizations and concerns how to maintain or achieve free thinking in organizations and society. Another one regards hypocrisy – how to handle and use truth and lies in and around modern organizations and political systems.
Abstract: Negotiators are routinely exhorted to prepare well, but what do they do in practice? This article draws on data collected as a team of negotiators prepared their strategy during the lengthy negotiations over a major power generation infrastructure contract. Using a framework that we developed using terms from the literature, the team’s preparation meetings were observed and then analysed for content, timing and changes in participation.
It is shown that the standard checklist notion of preparation needs to be reconsidered as a multilevel, dynamic concept that changes in character over time. Far from just a first stage, the team’s continued preparation occurred in feedback meetings after rounds of negotiation at the table, between negotiation sessions and immediately before the next round of negotiations, and progress was seen to hinge on the differentiation of the preparation. Consequently, this long-term study provides insight into a key element of any general theory of negotiation while also suggesting implications for practitioners working with negotiating teams.
Abstract: Research Summary: We explore multinational strategy formation in the context of rising economic nationalism. Specifically, we examine how firms develop strategies to capitalize on the historical and aspirational attributes of national identity. Analyzing the histories of two German multinationals in late colonial India, we find that these firms engaged in “geopolitical jockeying” to delegitimize rival multinationals and position themselves as complementary to the economic and political goals of the host nation. Toward that end they employed “aspirational political practices,” addressing the inherently future‐oriented character of nationalism, and invested in the development of political capabilities to gather information and shape perceptions of national contexts. The paper contributes to a more robust conceptualization of nations and nationalism and their role in the formation of international competition and strategy.
Managerial Summary: Rising economic nationalism can create political and economic opportunities as well as threats for multinational firms. Through a historical analysis of the emerging strategy of two German companies—Siemens and Bayer—in late colonial India, we show how firms can engage in “geopolitical jockeying” to delegitimize rival multinationals and position themselves as complementary to the economic and political goals of host nations. To do so the companies engaged in “aspirational political practices,” addressing the inherently future or goal‐oriented aspects of nations, and created political capabilities designed to both gather intelligence on and shape the nationalist movements. The paper uses history as a mirror for reflecting on the causes and consequences of economic nationalism for international strategy in our own time.
Abstract: Danmark står ligesom en række andre vestlige lande overfor en markant samfundsudfordring, da vi mangler STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics) kompetencer. Nationale fremskrivninger viser, at Danmark i 2025 vil mangle ca. 10.000 uddannede STEMkandidater, og at der må forventes en yderligere vækst i manglen på ca. 50 procent frem mod 2030 (IDA, 2018). Samtidig har kvinders repræsentation inden for STEM-feltet været lav i mange år. Tallene viser således, at kun en tredjedel af de studerende på videregående STEM-uddannelser er kvinder, og at dette tal har været stagneret siden 2012 (Puggaard & Bækgaard 2016; UVM 2016, 2017). Særligt fysik og computer sciences synes at have vanskeligt ved at tiltrække og fastholde kvinder.
Abstract: This article examines the effectiveness of out-of-court procedures, in particular in theform of online dispute resolution (ODR) mechanisms, in the settlement of business-toconsumer (B2C) disputes. It offers a comparative perspective of two public ODRinitiatives: Consumidor.gov.br, a Brazilian ODR platform, and the EU-provided ODRplatform. Focusing on the institutional and procedural design of these two platforms, wehighlight the factors and incentives that might contribute to increasing consumers’ trustand traders’ engagement in ODR procedures. The article relies on a large dataset fromConsumidor.gov.br, consisting of a sample of more than 800,000 consumer complaints.While the EU ODR platform is not yet very well known among EU consumers, theBrazilian platform is becoming widely popular among Brazilian consumers. It is putforward that this popularity could be the result of the procedural design of the Brazilianplatform, which serves as a direct communication channel between the trader and theconsumer. Furthermore, we argue that the EU ODR platform could be more effective ifthe incentives for both parties, traders and consumers, to use ODR were reinforced. Thearticle provides further policy recommendations on how the potential of ODR can bebetter exploited in light of the two ODR platforms examined.
Abstract: Forming early relationships increases entrepreneurial ventures’ chances of survival and success by allowing access to critical resources from partners. However, since not all ventures achieve their desired goals through collaboration due to uncertainty, such relationships are sometimes abandoned. This paper investigates the costs of ties that have gone awry in the context of venture capital investments. We conjecture that the adverse perceptions of signals associated with tie discontinuation reduce an investee venture’s valuation in the follow-on round of financing by partially deterring prospective investors, particularly higher-quality ones, from joining the syndicate. By examining large-sample evidence that supports our theory, we suggest that early entrepreneurial ties to venture capitalists may be a double-edged sword, especially in light of the costs of tie discontinuation.
Abstract: Empirical aesthetics and neuroaesthetics study two main issues: the valuation of sensory objects and art experience. These two issues are often treated as if they were intrinsically interrelated: Research on art experience focuses on how art elicits aesthetic pleasure, and research on valuation focuses on special categories of objects or emotional processes that determine the aesthetic experience. This entanglement hampers progress in empirical aesthetics and neuroaesthetics and limits their relevance to other domains of psychology and neuroscience. Substantial progress in these fields is possible only if research on aesthetics is disentangled from research on art. We define aesthetics as the study of how and why sensory stimuli acquire hedonic value. Under this definition, aesthetics becomes a fundamental topic for psychology and neuroscience because it links hedonics (the study of what hedonic valuation is in itself) and neuroeconomics (the study of how hedonic values are integrated into decision making and behavioral control). We also propose that this definition of aesthetics leads to concrete empirical questions, such as how perceptual information comes to engage value signals in the reward circuit or why different psychological and neurobiological factors elicit different appreciation events for identical sensory objects.
Abstract: Alexis Makin argued in a recent paper that Empirical Aesthetics is unable to properly advance our understanding of the mechanisms involved in aesthetic experience. The reason for this predicament, he claims, is an inability of current research methods to capture the psychological properties that truly characterize aesthetic experience, especially the unique perceptual and emotional processes involved in the aesthetic experience. We show that Makin’s argument rests on assumptions that are at odds with scientific knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms involved in the appreciation of sensory objects. We thereafter show that such mechanisms are rooted in shared neurobiological systems and operate according to computational principles that are common to many domains of experience. This casts doubt on the notion that aesthetic experiences constitute a distinct kind of experiences that can be defined according to a set of special and unique qualities. Finally, we discuss how attributing this specialness to “aesthetic” experiences leads Empirical Aesthetics astray from mainstream psychology and neuroscience.
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to enhance our understanding of the notions and conceptual foundations of assurance in the standard setting arena. This will facilitate an informed discussion of the challenges and the role of assurance within an increasingly complex and fragmented corporate reporting regulatory landscape. The study draws on relevant literature on sustainability assurance and an analysis of how the assurance concept has been framed by the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB) through the construction of standards. The analysis highlights that the fragility of the conceptual foundations of assurance, broad-based nature of standards and diversity in practice contribute to the persistent challenges of sustainability assurance. This paper makes an important contribution to the discussions and contemporary debates on the regulation of and through assurance as well as the complex newer concept of integrated assurance. It further contributes to a more informed policy discussion as to how it can(not) strengthen the role of nonfinancial reporting as an agent of change to encourage more sustainable companies.
Abstract: Background: There has been an increase in children growing up in non-traditional families, such as single-parent and blended families. Children from such families have a higher prevalence of obesity and poorer health outcomes, but research on the relationship with obesogenic behaviours is limited. Objectives: Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether there are associations between family structures and obesogenic behaviours and related family rules in European children and adolescents. Methods: The sample included 7664 children (mean age±SD: 10.9±2.9) from 4923 families who were participants of the multi-centre I.Family study (2013/2014) conducted in 8 European countries. Family structure was assessed by a detailed interview on kinship and household. Obesogenic behaviours (screen time, sleep duration, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs)) and family rules (rules for computer and television, bedtime routine, availability of SSBs during meals) were determined by standardized questionnaires. Multilevel mixed-effects linear and logistic regression models were used to model the associations of family structure with obesogenic behaviours and family rules. Sex, age, parental education level, number of children and adults in the household and BMI zscore were covariates in the models. Two-parent biological families were set as the reference category. Results: Children from single-parent families were less likely to have family rules regarding screen time (OR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.40–0.94, p=0.026) with higher reported hours of screen time per week (β=2.70h/week, 95% CI: 1.39– 4.00, p<0.001). The frequency of weekly SSB consumption differed by family structure in a sex-specific manner: girls from single-parent (β=3.19 frequency/week, 95% CI: 0.91–5.47, p=0.006) and boys from blended/adoptive families (β=3.01 frequency/week, 95% CI: 0.99–5.03, p=0.004) consumed more SSBs. Sleep duration, bedtime routines and availability of SSBs during meals did not differ between children from these family structures. Parental education did not modify any of these associations. Conclusions: Parents in non-traditional family structures appear to experience more difficulties in restricting screen time and the intake of SSBs in their children than parents in traditional two-parent family structures. Our findings therefore suggest that additional support and effective strategies for parents in non-traditional families may help to reduce obesogenic behaviours in children from such family types.
Abstract: The quest for having a good understanding of the key to successful open-source software (OSS) development continues to motivate research. Aligned with works that build on the notion that an OSS development is tightly interrelated with its social environment (i.e., the OSS community), this research examines the relationship between interproject structure and OSS project success. We conceive OSS project success to be reflected in two forms, namely popularity (i.e. market success) and knowledge creation (i.e. technical success). We surveyed the OSS literature and theorized a contingent role of interproject connectedness in cultivating OSS projects. We posit (1) OSS project with more structural holes achieves higher popularity; (2) OSS project with fewer structural holes yields higher knowledge creation; and (3) these two relationships are enhanced with an increase in project maturity. Using a dataset longitudinally collected from SourceForge.net, we found that OSS projects with sparse connectedness to be more popular, which was prominent for those OSS projects at the mid-mature stage. Cohesive connectedness helped the OSS project, irrespective of its maturity, achieves higher knowledge creation. Findings from the study can provide a structural purview to identify OSS projects that are more likely to be successful.
Abstract: Research Summary
We articulate the value of historical methods and reasoning in strategic entrepreneurship research and theory. We begin by introducing the papers in the special issue, contextualizing each within one of five broader methodological approaches, and elaborating on the applicability of each to other topics in entrepreneurship research. Next, we use the papers to induce a framework for integrating history into entrepreneurship theory. The framework demonstrates how historical assumptions play a formative role in operationalizing time and context in entrepreneurship research. We then show how variations in these treatments of time and context shape theoretical claims about entrepreneurial opportunities, actions, and processes of change. We conclude by discussing why this may be a particularly opportune time for strategic entrepreneurship research to develop a deeper historical sensibility.
History can serve as an especially important guide to understanding entrepreneurship during moments of change. We draw on articles from the special issue on “Historical Approaches to Entrepreneurship Research” to illustrate different forms of historical reasoning and research about entrepreneurship. Moreover, we use the articles to develop a framework for understanding how historical context and time shape entrepreneurial opportunities, actions, and processes of change. We emphasize, in particular, the value of history in understanding variations in entrepreneurial practices.
Abstract: This article reviews existing work on global sourcing and suggests a number of new theoretical directions for research in this area. We discuss how international business (IB) and supply chain management (SCM) research can benefit from increased cross-fertilization of themes and perspectives. We begin by introducing a taxonomy of global sourcing research, building on relevant insights from SCM research. We then generate recommendations for potential future research on global sourcing, particularly highlighting antecedents, processes, performance and contextual variables. SCM research employs the entire supply chain as the primary unit of analysis (rather than the individual firm), while IB research focuses primarily on international aspects, adapting to institutional contexts in a globalized world. Building on this complementarity, several specific empirical directions are proposed for future research directions.
Abstract: This study aims to shed light on how the value of home-host ties is contingent on political instability (i.e., political conflict and major institutional transitions). We hypothesize that by increasing the risk within the institutional structure, small political conflict positively moderates the relationship between home-host ties and location attractiveness, whereas full-fledged wars, in which risk to the institutional structure dominates erode the value of ties. Examining location choice decisions in Sub-Saharan Africa, we find evidence that home-host ties are not affected by small political conflict, while wars and major institutional transitions devaluate home-host ties.
Abstract: Social media is believed as a privileged vehicle affording numerous ideas with multi-faceted insights from the crowds. In addition to the entertainment resource, social media, user-generated content (UGC) there, can also empower ideation and commercialization of innovation. We have proposed a novel approach to explore the pivotal role of social media in shaping corporation innovation performance in our article in 2018. In this commentary, we extend the literature review with more recent insights and identify the new possible directions to further inspire future research. Specifically, understanding the linkage between social media and organization innovation can be enriched via advancing deep learning methods, improving multi-modal data analysis, and fostering digital innovation.
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