Managing organizations at night as a 'state of exception'
Night in organizations can be seen as a paradoxical ‘state of exception’: extra-ordinary as it differs from daytime routines, practices, and norms, yet also ordinary as it occurs regularly in organizations that operate during nights. This state of exception, i.e., its difference to managing and organizing at daytime, typically includes less staff, absent management, shifting responsibilities, authorities, and control. However, despite such important differences, the night has not been well researched in organizational and management studies. To provide new theoretical insights, as well as empirical findings, we plan 3 qualitative studies in different relevant night contexts: a) a traditional context (hospital, production), b) a newly expanding context (service industry), and c) novel trends in managing night (city management). The contributions will advance our understanding of managing and organizing at night as an exceptional state when rules are partially suspended and also help us better understand other, and perhaps more unexpected, states of exception in organizations.