Executive Summaries

We strive to make research accessible, comprehensible and bring it close to practice. Below you can read executive summaries of leading research relevant for HR analytics.

Performance Appraisal and Performance Management 
Key Finding: The authors find that despite years of research in the topic area, there is no evidence that improving individual-level performance will eventually lead to improvements in firm-level performance and, thus, there is a need to further investigate that relationship in future research.

Summary of: DeNisi, A. S. & Murphy, K. R. (2017). Performance appraisal and performance management: 100 years of progress?. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(3), 421-433.

Executive Summary Full Paper

The Diversity-Valuing Behaviour for Non-White and Female Leaders
Key Finding: The authors find that ethnic minority and female leaders are discouraged from engaging in diversity-valuing behaviour because they would otherwise be penalised due to traditional negative race and sex stereotypes.

Summary of: Hekman, D.R., Johnson, S K., Foo, M.D., & Yang, W. (2017). Does diversity-valuing behavior result in diminished performance ratings for non-white and female leaders?. Academy of Management Journal, 60(2), 771-797.

Executive Summary (PDF)  Full Paper

Multisource Feedback, Human Capital, and the Financial Performance of Organisations 

Key Finding: Multisource feedback (MSF) refers to a process whereby subordinates, peers, supervisors, and/or customers provide recipients with feedback concerning their work behaviours and/or performance. Organisations that use MSF have higher levels of employee ability, knowledge sharing and workforce productivity than organisations that do not. Furthermore, the relationship between MSF and the three outcomes can be enhanced if feedback is used for both developmental and administrative purposes.

Summary of: Summary of: Kim, K.Y., Atwater, L., Patel, P.C. & Smither, J.W. (2016). Multisource feedback, human capital, and the financial performance of organisations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(11), 1569-1584.

  Executive Summary (PDF) Full Paper

Diversity Goals and the Pay Premium for High-Potential Women
Key Finding: The authors find that the gender gap reverses from a pay penalty for low-potential women into a pay premium for high-potential women due to diversity value perceptions.

Summary of: Leslie, L.M., Manchester, C.F., & Dahm, P.C. (2017). Why and when does the gender gap reverse? Diversity goals and the pay premium for high potential women. Academy of Management Journal, 60(2), 402-432

Executive Summary (PDF) Full Paper

How Turnover Affects Organizational Performance
Key Finding: The study investigates the relationship between turnover rates and organizational performance by integrating context-related moderators that can influence the relationship. The paper can help practitioners evaluate whether they are correct in their estimations of the potential costs of turnover in their firms.

Summary of: Park, T. Y., & Shaw, J. D. (2013). Turnover rates and organizational performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(2), 268-309.

Executive Summary (PDF) Full Paper
Causes and Consequences of Collective Turnover
Key Finding: The article summarizes the vast amount of research on the drivers and outcomes of organizational turnover. It shows that multiple drivers affect organizational turnover and that high turnover is associated with various negative outcomes for the firm. This knowledge is useful for managers wishing to understand the underlying causes of turnover and its effects on firm performance.

Summary of: Heavey, A. L., Holwerda, J. A., & Hausknecht, J. P. (2013). Causes and consequences of collective turnover: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(3), 412-453. 

Executive Summary (PDF) Full Paper
The Dynamic Nature of Collective Turnover 
Key Finding: The article examines dynamic properties of turnover rates from a context-emergent turnover (CET) perspective. It analyses the impact of turnover rates in terms of quantity and quality, replacement hires' quantity and quality, and turnover dispersion on unit performance over time. The results are useful for understanding how to manage "real-world" turnover, which is embedded in a certain context and in time.

Summary of: Call, M. L., Nyberg, A. J., Ployhart, R. E., & Weekley, J. (2015). The dynamic nature of collective turnover and unit performance: The impact of time, quality, and replacements. Academy of Management Journal, 58(4), 1208-1232.

 Executive Summary (PDF) Full Paper
The Relationship between Performance Ratings and Job Performance

Key Finding: The paper explains why ratings of job performance are perceived as poor measures of actual job performance. The author suggests some solutions for mitigating the harmful effects inherent in such ratings to improve the measurement of job performance.'

Summary of: Murphy, K. (2008). Explaining the Weak Relationship Between Job Performance and Ratings of Job Performance. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1(2), 148-160.

PDF iconExecutive Summary (PDF) Full Paper

The Influence of Personality on Job Performance and Career Success

Key Finding: Personality traits directly and indirectly affect work outcomes, such as career success and job performance, through their effect on positions in networks.

Summary of: Fang, R., Landis, B., Zhang, Z., Anderson, M. H., Shaw, J. D., and Kilduff, M. (2015), “Integrating Personality and Social Networks: A Meta-Analysis of Personality, Network Position, and Work Outcomes in Organizations”, Organization Science, 26, pp. 1243-1260.

PDF iconExecutive Summary (PDF) Full Paper

Does Job Satisfaction Increase with Time?

Key Finding: The paper distinguishes between two concepts of time—age and tenure—and shows that age and tenure affect job satisfaction in opposite directions (positively and negatively, respectively) after taking their effects on pay into account. 
Summary of: Riza, S. D., Ganzach, Y., and Liu, Y. (2016), Time and Job Satisfaction: A Longitudinal Study of the Differential Roles of Age and Tenure, Journal of Management, 1-22.

An Integrated Theory of Employee Engagement

Key Finding: There are different types of engagement that are affected by the psychological condition of employees, which can be regulated through job demands and resources

Summary of: Saks, Alan M., Jamie A. Gruman. (2014) “What Do We Really Know About Employee Engagement?”, Human Resource Development Quarterly 25 (2), 2014: 155-182.

PDF iconExecutive Summary (PDF)

Full Paper

Linking Working Conditions to Burnout, Engagement, and Safety

Key Finding: Improve safety in the workplace by increasing engagement and decreasing burnout through the regulation of working conditions. 

Summary of: Nahrgang, J. D., Morgeson, F. P., and Hofmann, D. A. (2011). Safety at work: A meta-analytic investigation of the link between job demands, job resources, burnout, engagement, and safety outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(1), 71-94.

PDF iconExecutive Summary (PDF)

Full Paper

Linking Job Resources and Demands to Engagement and Burnout

Key Finding: Job demands have differing natures, which affect the relationships among job demands, engagement, and burnout. 

Summary of: Crawford, E. R., LePine, J. A., and Rich, B. L. (2010). Linking Job Demands and Resources to Employee Engagement and Burnout: A Theoretical Extension and Meta-Analytics Test. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(5), 834-848.

Executive Summary (PDF) Full Paper

Modelling Teamwork Engagement

Key Finding: Teamwork engagement is not simply the aggregate of individual work engagement, but refers to a shared state that is shaped by processes specific to team work. 

Summary of: Costa, Patrícia L., Ana M. Passos, and Arnold B. Bakker. (2014) “Team Work Engagement: A Model of Emergence”. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. 87 (2), 2014, 414-436.

PDF iconExecutive Summary (PDF) Full Paper

Employee Engagement Decreases Job Burnout

Key Finding: Burnout and employee engagement, as currently measured, can be viewed as belonging to opposite ends of the same continuum. 

Summary of: Cole, M. S. et al. (2012): “Job Burnout and Employee Engagement: A Meta-Analytic Examination of Construct Proliferation”. Journal of Management 38(5), Sep. 2012, 1550-1581.

Executive Summary (PDF) Full Paper

Work Engagement and Its Relations with Task and Contextual Performance

Key Finding: Work engagement is a relatively stable state of mind and refers to the investment of one’s personal energies (physical, emotional, and cognitive) in the performance of job-related tasks. 

Summary of: Christian, M. S., Garza, A. S. & Slaughter, J. E. (2011). ” Work Engagement: A Quantitative Review and Test of its Relations with Task and Contextual Performance”, Personnel Psychology, Vol 64(1), 2011, 89-136.

Executive Summary (PDF) Full Paper

Collective Organizational Engagement: Antecedents and Connection to Firm Performance

Key FindingOrganizational-level engagement is different from individual engagement, and specific strategic managerial actions can facilitate collective organizational engagement, which increases value by enhancing firm performance

Summary of: Barrick, M. R., Thurgood, G. R., Smith, T.A. & Courtright, S.H. (2015). ”Collective organizational engagement: Linking Motivational Antecedents, Strategic Implementation, and Firm Performance”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol 58(1), 2015, 111-135.

Executive Summary (PDF) Full Paper

Building a Theory of Goal Setting and Task Motivation That is Useful in Practice

Key Finding: Specific, difficult to achieve goals affect performance positively. 

Summary of: Latham, G. P. & Locke, E. A. (2002): ”Building a Practically Useful Theory of Goal Setting and Task Motivation”, American PsychologistVol 57(9), Sep 2002, 705-717.

Executive Summary (PDF) Full Paper

Employee Engagement Leads to Financial Performance

Key Finding: Improved financial performance is achieved by linking employee engagement, satisfaction, and performance at the business unit level. The results can be compared within one or more organizations.

Summary of Harter, K. J., Scmidt, L. F., & Hayes L. T. (2002): 'Business-Unit-Level Relationship Between Employee Satisfaction, Employee Engagement, and Business Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis' Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(2):268-279.

Executive Summary (PDF) Full Paper

How to measure work engagement

Key Finding: Work engagement can be defined as a unique positive, fulfilling, work related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. It can be measured using a valid and reliable self-reporting questionnaire - the UWES (Utrecht Work Engagement Scale).

Summary of Schaufeli B. W. & Bakker, B. A. (2003): 'Utrecht Work Engagement Scale' Occupational Health Psychology Unit. Utrecht University

Executive Summary (PDF) Full Paper (PDF)

How to improve your team´s well-being and engagement with JD-R-model

Key Finding: The Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model can predict employee burnout and engagement, and consequently organizational performance. 

Summary of Schaufeli B. W. & Bakker, B. A. (2004) ‘Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: a multi-sample study' Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25:293-315.

Executive Summary (PDF) Full Paper

Tips for increasing job engagement to drive job performance

Key FindingEngagement explains the link between job performance and individual and organizational factors better than job involvement and job satisfaction. Managers should therefor invest resources in activities that assess and enhance employee engagement. 

Summary of: Rich, B., Lepine, J. & Crawford, E. (2010) 'Job Engagement: Antecedents and Effects on Job Performance' Academy of Management Journal, 53(3):617-635. 

Executive Summary (PDF) Full Paper

How to reduce conflict and turnover in diverse teams?  Create an inclusive climate!

Key FindingAn inclusive work climate can reduce levels of conflict in diverse groups. A highly inclusive climate can even eliminate the negative relationship between conflict and satisfaction. 

Summary of: Nishii, L. H. (2013). The Benefits of Climate for Inclusion for Gender-Diverse Groups. Academy of Management Journal, 56(6), 1754-1774.

Executive Summary (PDF) Full Paper

Can diversity help drive performance for your team? 

Key Finding: Whether diversity improves team performance depends on the type of team you are working with.

Summary of Bell, S., Vilado, A., Lukasik, M., Belau, L. and Briggs, A. (2011). Getting Specific about Demographic Diversity Variable and Team Performance Relationships

Executive Summary (PDF) Full Paper

The effect of line manager communication on the success of HR policies

Key Finding: Line managers’ communication quality plays a vital role in successfully implementing HR policies and procedures.  

Summary of Den Hartog, N., C. Boon, R. M. Verburg, and M. A. Croon. "HRM, Communication, Satisfaction, and Perceived Performance: A Cross-Level Test." Journal of Management 39, no. 6 (2013): 1637-1665.

Executive Summary (PDF) Full Paper

Inclusive Leaders Help to Reduce Turnover in Diverse Teams

Key Finding: Inclusive and consistent relationships between leaders and team members can help reduce turnover that is associated with diverse teams.

Summary of Nishii, L.H. & Mayer, D. (2009). Do inclusive leaders help to reduce turnover in diverse groups? The moderating role of leader-member exchange in the diversity to performance relationship. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(6), 1412-1426.

Executive Summary (PDF) Full Paper

Awareness of HR practices increases employee commitment and achievement of organizational goals

Key Finding: The more employees are aware of HR measures, the more intense their bond to the firm, and the more likely their behaviors and attitudes contribute to the achievement of organizational goals.  

Summary of: Kehoe, R. and Wright, P. (2013). The Impact of High‐Performance Human Resource Practices on Employees’ Attitudes and Behaviors. Journal of Management, 39: 366‐391.

Executive Summary (PDF) Full paper

HRM systems affect individual and firm performance

Key Finding: Strong and well-designed HRM systems and practices lead employees to adopt desired attitudes which helps the organization to achieve its strategic goals.

Summary of Bowen, D. and Ostroff, C. (2004). Understanding HRM-firm performance linkages: The role of the “strength” of the HRM system. Academy of Management Review, 29: 203–221.

Executive Summary (PDF) Full paper

Managing Age Diversity

Key Finding: Companies with employees of wide ranging ages can implement diversity friendly HR policies, and work to minmize top managers' negative age stereotypes, to counteract a climate of age‐discrimination which negatively affects company performance.  

Kunze et al. (2013). Organizational Performance Consequences of Age Diversity: Inspecting the Role of Diversity‐Friendly HR Policies and Top Managers’ Negative Age Stereotypes. Journal of Management Studies, 50: 413‐442.

Executive Summary (PDF) Full paper

HR practices are only as strong as the weakest link

Key Finding: HR practices that enhance employee skills, motivation and opportunity to contribute have an impact on business outcomes. The combined value-add of HR is only as strong as the weakest link, so it is more important to focus on getting all HR elements above a certain threshold, than it is to bring one HR element from 90% to 95%.

Jiang, K., Lepak, D., Hu, J., and Baer, J. (2012). How does human resource management influence organizational outcomes? Academy of Management Journal, 55(6): 1264-1294.

Executive Summary (PDF) Full paper

For highest performing teams, reduce gender and age diversity and increase educational background and work-experience diversity

Key Finding: Educational background and work‐experience diversity has a positive effect is much stronger than the negative effect of age and gender diversity.

Seong et al. (2012). Person‐Group Fit: Diversity Antecedents, Proximal Outcomes, and Performance at the Group Level. Journal of Management, published online 25 July 2012.

Executive Summary (PDF) Full paper


The page was last edited by: Department of Strategic Management & Globalization // 06/22/2018