Center for Leisure and Culture Services



Our research focuses on trans-disciplinary issues in various businesses in the leisure and cultural industries, such as the fine arts, transportation, hospitality, sustainability, destination management and heritage sites. CLCS aims to be a leading research center, with emphasis on global contemporary and emerging issues relevant to practice communities.


Many members of CLCS are engaged in tourism research. We look at a number of tourism issues, including impact of tourism in society, tourism experiences, tourism strategies, destination branding and new technologies in tourism. We cover a number of countries, including Denmark, Singapore, Spain, Malaysia, China, Rumania and Hawaii.

Examples of publications

Munar, A. M. (2013). Paradoxical Digital Worlds. In A. M. Munar, S. Gyimóthy & L. Cai (eds.) Tourism Social Media: Transformations in Identity, Community and Culture. Tourism Social Science Series, 19. Bingley: Emerald.(forthcoming)

Munar, A. M., Montaño, J. J. (2009).”Generic Competences and Tourism Graduates”. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education.8 (1): 70-84 .

Ooi, Can-Seng. (2013).”Tourism policy challenges: Balancing acts, co-operative stakeholders and maintaining authenticity”. In M. Smith and G. Richards (eds). Routledge Handbook of Cultural Tourism. New York: Routledge: 67-74.

Art worlds

In taking an art world approach, researchers at CLCS examines the nature of value in the arts. Some of the issues we look at include cultural policies, career in the arts, art education, arts in the creative industries and globalization of art tastes. Denmark, Singapore, India, Hong Kong and China are some geographical places we examine. Can-Seng Ooi, Nina Poulsen and Marianne Bertelsen do research on art worlds.

Examples of publications

Ooi, Can-Seng. (2011).” Subjugated in the creative industries: The fine arts in Singapore”, Culture Unbound: Journal of Current Cultural Research, 3: 119-137.

Ooi,Can-Seng.( 2010). “Political pragmatism and the creative economy: Singapore as a City for the Arts”, International Journal of Cultural Policy, 16 (4): 403-417.

Ooi, Can-Seng. (2012).”Education and becoming an artist: Experiences from Singapore”. In Mathieu, C. (ed). Careers in Creative Industries. New York: Routledge: 254-269.

Poulsen, Nina, (2010). “Creative Tensions: Contemporary Fine Art in the “New” India”. In: D´Costa, A. P. (ed) A new India? Critical reflections in the Long Twentieth Century. London and New York, Anthem Press

Place branding

Places are being branded today to attract investments, tourists and talented workers. A good place brands will also assist in the export of products and services. Can Seng Ooi, Ana Maria Munar and Shevren Lai do work on the poetics and politics of branding, UNESCO accreditation and social engineering through place branding.

Examples of publications

Ooi, Can-Seng. (2011). “Branding and the accreditation approach: Singapore”. In Morgan, N., Pritchard, A., and Pride, R. (eds). Destination Brands: Managing Place Reputation, 3rd edition. Oxford: Elsevier: 185-196.

Ooi, Can-Seng and Strandgaard Pedersen, Jesper. (2010).”City branding and film festivals: Re-evaluating stakeholders' relations”, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 6 (4): 316-332.

Ooi,Can-Seng. (2008). “Reimagining Singapore as a creative nation: The politics of place branding”, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 4: 287-302.

Cai, L. A., Gartner, W. C. & Munar, A. M. (eds.) (2009). Tourism Branding: Communities in Action. Bingley: Emerald. 265 pp. (Bridging Tourism Theory and Practice).

Social media

The social web, also known as the Web 2.0, is increasingly transforming production and consumption. CLCS researchers analyze the impacts that these technologies have on leisure, tourism and cultural industries. They study the relationship between the evolution of new media and socio-economic change, and examine the consequences of the use and adoption of social media by organizations and individuals.

Examples of publications

Munar, A. M. & Jacobsen, J. K.,(2013). ”Trust and Involvement in Tourism Social Media and Web-based Travel Information Sources”, Scandinavian Journal of Tourism and Hospitality, 13 (1) (forthcomming)

Hvass, K. (2013). “Tourism Social Media and Crisis Communication: An erupting trend” in:. Munar, A. M., Gyimothy, S. & Cai L. (eds.) Tourism Social Media: Transformations in Identity, Community and Culture. 19, Tourism Social Science Series. Emerald: Bingley. IN-PRINT

Hvass, K., and Munar A.M. (2011). "The takeoff of social media in tourism.” Journal of Vacation Marketing, 18: 93-103.


Members of CLCS are engaged in hospitality research. Researchers examine the implications of knowledge management, knowledge sharing, knowledge aggregation and employee prediction markets for strategic decision making processes and financial firm performance in different sub-industries of the hospitality sector (i.e. hotels, the cruise ship industry).  

Examples of publications

Hallin, C.A. (2012). ”An Organizational Prediction Market : Turning Frontline Employees into Visionaries”. Current Research in Hospitality and Tourism. Bergen: Fagbokforlaget Vigmostad og Bjørke: 109-117.

Hallin, C.A. (2012). ”The State of Knowledge (KM) Research and Practices in the Hospitality Industry. Current Research in Hospitality and Tourism, Bergen: Fagbokforlaget Vigmostad og Bjørke: 95-107.

Hallin, C.A., Øgaard, T. and Marnburg, E. (2009). “Exploring Qualitative Differences in Knowledge Sources: A Study of Hierarchical Effects of Judgmental Confidence and Accuracy Performance”. International Journal of Knowledge Management, 5 ( 4): 1-25.


Transportation is a multi-disciplinary field and CLCS researchers are engaged in various aspects. Firm-level actions, such as strategy and management, have an impact on service levels, financial success, and regional impact and are studied from several angles. Marketing, for example, through social media and CSR are also topics that infiltrate the study of transportation at the center. The research has a global perspective with a focus on air transport; however, other modes are not neglected.

Examples of publications

Hvass, K. and Teilmann, K. (2012). “Shop Characteristics that Determine UCC Interest.”  In: Carlsson, C.M., Emtairah, T., Gammelgaard, B., Jensen, A., Thidell, Å. (eds.) Rethinking Transport in the Øresund Region: Policies, Strategies and Behaviors. Lund University: Lund, Sweden

Hvass, K. ( 2008). “A Boolean Analysis Predicting Industry Change: Innovation, Imitation & Business Models”. The Doctoral School of Marketing, Copenhagen Business School. Samfundslitteratur Publishers: Frederiksberg, Denmark.

Sustainable development of tourism

Sustainability is a guiding principle for economic development that does not come at the expense of humans or nature. At CLCS, researchers study the practical application of this principle in tourism, focusing on mobility, hospitality management and tourist consumption. Adriana has worked with sustainability aspects at destination and company levels, examining the efficiency and effectiveness of tourism operations in Europe. Recently, Adriana and Kristian did research aspects of sustainable mobility in Öresund region. Can-Seng and Adriana are currently preparing special issues in two academic journals focusing on sustainability and tourism.

Examples of publications

Budeanu, A., Støle, E. (2012). “Strategic dimensions of hosting sustainable events”. In: Pernecky, T., Lück, M. (eds.), Events, Society and Sustainability, New York: Routledge.

Budeanu, A. (2009). “Environmental Supply Chain Management in tourism: the case of large tour operators”. Journal for Cleaner Production 17(16): 1385-1392.

Budeanu, A. (2007). “Sustainable tourist behaviour”. International Journal of Consumer Studies. 31 (5).

The page was last edited by: Department of International Economics and Management // 06/14/2017


Research funding initiated by Carina Antonia Hallin, 2013:

1.5 million DKK. Industrial Ph.D. Candidate Carsten Pedersen, funded by TDC A/S and Ministry of Science, Innovation and Higher Education. Project (with Torben Juul Andersen): Corporate Social Predictions: Using the Collective Sensing of Key Stakeholders for Firm Innovation.

1.5 million DKK. Industrial Ph.D. Candidate Lasse Peter Laursen, funded by DFDS Seaways, The Danish Maritime Fond and Ministry of Science, Innovation and Higher Education. Project (with Torben Juul Andersen): Prediction Markets: Aggregating the Sensing of Key Stakeholders for Strategic Decision Making.

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Link to ESOC 2017:


Center for Leisure and Culture Services
Copenhagen Business School
Porcelænshaven 24A, 3. floor
2000 Frederiksberg
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Telephone: +45 3815 2501
Director of the center: Ana Maria Munar

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