Asia Research Community


The China research unit carries out research within international economics, international business and management, with perspectives from sociology, anthropology, and political science. The research focus on China with a cross-national, regional or global perspective.

China research unit CBS

China is now entering a new stage of development, where political, structural, and demographic factors are gradually reshaping the character of the economy and the society at large. Instead of relying on foreign markets and technologies, competitive advantages based on low wages, and savings and investment rather than consumption, the Chinese economy is expected to increasingly rely on the domestic market, with human capital and innovation driving development. China’s New Normal will also exert far-reaching economic impacts on the rest of the world, including Danish economic interests. To capture these dynamics ARC’s China program aims to be forward-looking, and includes research projects both on China’s domestic developments and on the international repercussions of China’s transformation. Ongoing research projects are listed below.

Compulsory auctions and Hold up in Real Estate: Evidence from Hong Kong

In 1999, Hong Kong introduced a law to assist private real estate developers.  Once the developers had purchased 90% of the property required for a development, they could force the hold outs to sell -- essentially eminent domain for the private sector.  We show that before the reform, the last properties purchased by developers sold at a premium.  After the reform, the last properties sell at a discount.

Previous theoretical literature predicts that with a policy like compulsory auction, the price of property should be constant.  In this project we aim to develop a model to explain why the prices after the reform fall as the developers buy more and more properties.  While the model has yet to be formalized, we suspect it is because there are exogenous reasons why the project might fall through, so the last hold outs will never be forced to sell. We aim to test other predictions of our model.

Contact person: David Jinkins

Technology upgrading in China

This project explores technology upgrading of China. We define technology upgrading based on a three-pronged approach, which distinguishes between the intensity of technology upgrading, structural change and global interaction. We use a statistical framework based on patent indicators to measure technological upgrading along these dimension. A first investigation considers technology upgrading of China in comparison to other BRICS economies (1980–2015). We find several unique paths of technology upgrading with different trade-offs between intensity, structural change and the nature of the global interaction. We also find that with increasing intensity of technology upgrading the relative importance of foreign actors and international collaboration declines. A follow-up investigation scrutinizes the role of global interaction for technology upgrading at the level industries for China.


Björn Jindra
Ari Kokko
Guowei Dong

Contact person: Björn Jindra

Related Publication
Governing responsible business conduct in Chinese mineral supply chains and investment in the natural resources: a global and an Arctic perspective

My current research takes point of departure in guidance issued by the Chinese Chamber of Commerce for Minerals and Chemicals (CCCMC) relating to responsible supply chains for minerals sourced from outside China, and investments in mining, as well as potentially other natural resources, e.g. rubber, bio-fuel crops etc. My research into this area has considered the Chinese and international political and normative foundations for the guidelines and the application and relevance of the guidelines in specific regional contexts. As part of this I have analysed and discussed the relevance of the guidelines in regard to Chinese interests in mining and minerals in Greenland. Future research plans into this area include an analysis and assessment of the application of the Guidelines, motivations in terms of access to the US and EU markets that require transparency around sourcing for potential ‘conflict minerals’, the uptake by Chinese companies and investors of risk-based due diligence as an emergent risk-management approach seeking to identify and reduce adverse impacts on society, and a potential expansion of the CCCMC guidance to other products.

This research combines my long-term interest in governance modalities and human rights in an East Asian context and a more recent interest business responsibilities for their impacts on human rights

Publications on this topic:
Buhmann, K. (2017). 'Chinese Human Rights Guidance on Minerals Sourcing: Building Soft Power'. Journal of Current Chinese Affairs 46(2) 135-154

Buhmann, K. (2018). 'Chinese mineral sourcing interests and Greenland’s potential as a source of ‘conflict-free’ minerals', Arctic Yearbook, Vol 6/7 (special issue on China seeking Arctic resources – the Arctic seeking resources in China, ed. Jesper W. Zeuthen), available here

Contact Karin Buhmann
Corporate Social Responsibility as public governance of business conduct: The case of China

Displaying a strong state-driven character, China’s approach to corporate social responsibility (CSR) stands out from that in many other states, in particular in the West. This is due in part to a close institutional connection between the state and the market, but it goes beyond what may be perceived as a logical connection in view of China’s socialist market-structure. CSR in China is marked by an explicit deployment by the government at central and some regional levels of CSR as a modality to govern business conduct. Governmental regulation of CSR is arguably more common in some Asian and generally emerging economies than in much of the West. This research explores China’s approach from the perspective of governmental interests in shaping business conduct within and outside the nations’ borders. As part of this, the research explores CSR governance in China at the national and sub-national level the as an example of general relevance to governments concerned with a ‘smart mix’ of regulatory measures, that is, a mixture of soft and hard regulatory modalities comprising policy, incentives, guidance, mandatory requirements and enforcement to enhance business action to reduce adverse impact on society and an increase positive impact in accordance with public policy goals. Currently, labour issues in textile sector and social impacts of minerals imports and minerals supply chains form the key cases.

Publications on this topic:
Buhmann, K. (2018). 'Social transformation and normative change through CSR standards? China’s engagement with international labour law in domestic guidance for the textile sector'. Navein Reet: Nordic Journal of Law and Social Research 19-34. available online here

Buhmann, K. (2017). 'Chinese Human Rights Guidance on Minerals Sourcing: Building Soft Power'. Journal of Current Chinese Affairs 46(2) 135-154

Contact Karin Buhmann
Studies in Cultural Intelligence of Chinese expatriates

Xiaojun Xu and Verner Worm

In this study, we investigate 366 expatriate–supervisor dyads in 51 Chinese multinational companies and reveal the mutual relationship between cognition-based CQ and behavioral CQ, and discover the underlying mechanism of the common effect of the interrelated components of CQ on domain-relevant knowledge acquisition and subsequent task performance. Our findings indicate that behavioral CQ erect a bridge between cognition-based CQ and domain-relevant knowledge acquisition, as well as task performance. The influence of an expatriate’s cognition-based CQ on domain-relevant knowledge acquisition, as well as task performance, is fully or partially mediated by behavioral CQ. Behavioral CQ powerfully facilitates expatriates’ domain-relevant knowledge acquisition and subsequent task performance, especially when knowledge is highly tacit. The findings have theoretical and practical implications in the context of expatriate management.
Keywords: cognition-based CQ; behavioral CQ; domain-relevant knowledge acquisition; knowledge tacitness; task performance.

Contact person Verner Worm
Dealing with a Resurgent China (DWARC)

The EU Horizon project 'Dealing with a Resurgent China' recognises that the reemergence of China is changing the world, and that EU needs to develop a long-term approach based on research-based knowledge in order to engage strategically with an increasingly assertive China. The consortium brings together some of the best researchers across seven European countries to establish a world class independent knowledge base on China. The network aims to create connections between European knowledge nodes on China and to create an enduring collaborative network. The key subjects to be covered include society and culture, politics, economy, and foreign policy. The network will also support younger researchers, providing perspectives that can assist the corporate world, and the wider EU public.


The CBS project team consists of Kjeld Erik Brødsgaard ( and Kasper Ingeman Beck ( They coordinate and co-lead a consortium consisting of nine European universities and think tanks across seven countries, including, University of Madrid, Sciences Po, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Bochum, Asia Centre (Paris), Bruegel, MERICS, and CBS. The project has received a total grant of 4 million EUR and runs from Nov 2022 – October 2025.  


(Disclaimer: This project has received funding from the European Union’s HORIZON Research and Innovation Actions under grant agreement No. 101061700)



Coordinator: Kjeld Erik Brødsgaard

Contact person: Kasper Ingeman Beck

The Political Economy of China’s Strategic Emerging Industries

Looking into China’s Strategic Emerging Industries under the initiative ‘Made in China 2025’, my research seeks to cover the relationship between new regulations and the fostering of state-targeted innovation. Empirically I look at the strategic emerging sectors of New Energy Vehicles, Industry 4.0 and Next Generation Information Communication Technology. The goal is to uncover where policies align and where they divert along with discovering what kind of impact they have on varying stages of innovation and industry formation. Moving from the theoretical paradigm of Political Economy, the latter part of the project looks into the corresponding impacts on industry level. Inquiries will be made into the governing of the knowledge economy along with the creation of new cluster dynamics and the reconfiguration of state and market under China’s State Capitalist System.

Contact person Benjamin Cedric Larsen
The Chinese Model of State-led Development of Artificial Intelligence Technologies

When the Chinese government elevated artificial intelligence (AI) to one of the key issues on its national agenda, it also pledged its full support towards achieving an ambitious objective. With China’s 2017 "New Generation Artificial Intelligence Development Plan", the country has set its sights on being a world leader in AI theory, technology and application, and becoming the world's largest AI innovation center by 2030. A cornerstone to achieving this goal is a unique institutional framework that enables, for example, the collection of enormous amounts of data. This will yield extraordinary aggregations of training data for areas such as computer vision and natural language processing – subfields of AI in which China already excels. Some of these aspects could be linked to the emergence of a distinct state-led “Chinese model” for the development of AI technologies, which is the focus of this research project. Within the scope of the project “Artificial Intelligence in China – Data, Methods and Sector Applications” with the Sino-Danish Center (SDC), Armin Scheer's research aims to decipher the particular patterns, dynamics, drivers and effects of AI development in China. Moreover, he looks at the nature of Chinese innovation policies related to the governance of AI, as well as the role played by the private sector enterprises in establishing AI ecosystems that stimulate the diffusion of AI technologies.

Contact person: Armin Scheer
Moving Ahead in China: State-Owned Enterprises and Elite Circulation

The SOE (state-owned enterprise) sector provides an important avenue to political power in China. A number of SOE executives are members of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and often they change career tracks to become leading government and Party officials. In the past, the oil and gas sector was a significant recruitment basis for government and Party leaders.However, in recent years, the aerospace sector has become more dominant. This is a result of the anti-corruption campaign which has, in particular, targeted the oil sector, and also reflects the emergence of new sectors and social groups due to changing political and socio-economic conditions of Chinese society. The oil and gas industry is an old industry associated with China’s heavy-industrial growth model of the past, whereas aerospace represents China’s technological future.

Contact person: Kjeld Erik Brødsgaard

China’s local state owned enterprises: varieties of state capitalism, corporate governance and mixed ownership

Key sectors of the Chinese economy are dominated by state owned enterprises (SOEs) owned by central and local governments. They are important tools in advancing industrial policy goals, controlling pillar and key industries domestically, and conducting strategic investments abroad. However, Chinese SOEs are far from being a homogenous group of companies due to different levels of constraints, government ownership and local institutional embeddedness. The purpose of this PhD project is to contribute to the limited literature on diversity within Chinese state ownership by studying local SOEs. Local SOEs are the backbone of provincial economies, and controls the majority of state assets in China today. However, they are embedded in very different sub-national institutional environments, or what can be termed “local varieties of state capitalism”, which shape their corporate governance, ownership structures, and subsequent performance. Through a series of papers, the project will shed light on their institutional embeddedness, mixed ownership reforms, and corporate governance structures including the role of the Party organization in enterprise management. The project positions itself in comparative political economy, and argues that a sub-national analysis highlighting provincial and city level institutional differences is necessary for understanding contemporary state-market relations.

Contact person Kasper Ingeman Beck



EGB is currently hosting Lawroence Kho, Assistant Dean of Undergraduate Studies at CUHK-Shenzhen. He is visiting CBS the 2nd time to discuss how to advance the structured exchange(s) between CUHK-Shenzhen and CBS.

Read and listen to The Center for Business and Development studies blog and podcast series

The PDF icon annual ARC Research Workshop in December 2022 focused on Vietnam as well as a session on work-in-progress

In 2022, the "Emerging Markets and Rise of Asia" cluster became coordinators of the 30 million DKK EU Horizon project, “Dealing with a resurgent China” (DWARC), Nov. 2022 – Nov. 2025

In May 2022, Prof. Frank Pieke gave a guest lecture on “CCP Party Building Outside of China and Impact in Europe”, investigating China’s presence abroad from the perspective of the Chinese Communist Party

Bruce McKern, University of Technology Sydney conducted a talk on “China’s technological capacity”

Kjeld Erik Brødsgaard spoke at  DCBF’s annual signature event “China Outlook – Political, Economic and Business Update Update”, and took part in a DCBF-Danske Bank event evaluating the CCP’s 20th Party Congress

Amid the global biodiversity crisis, China can lead with alternative meat' Mathias Lund Larsen in South China Morning Post

The 7th Copenhagen Conference on Emerging Market Multinationals: Outward Investment from Emerging Economies, 14-15 October 2021

A delegation from Communist Party of China International Department visited EGB on 20 September.

ARC's Björn Jindra has started a new research project on AI in China funded by Sino Danish Center.


ARC researchers in the China Research Unit

Kasper Ingeman Beck

Kjeld Erik Brødsgaard

Guowei Dong

Peter Gammeltoft

Stine Haakonsson

Ari Kokko

Benjamin Cedric Larsen

Xin Li

Verner Worm

Max von Zedtwitz

Mathias Lund Larsen

Xuan Li

Federico Jensen


Publications on China


Beck, K. (2023). China's Contained Resource Curse: How Minerals Shape State-Capital-Labor Relations, by Jing Vivian Zhan. China Journal, 89(1), p. 129-131. doi:10.1086/722876

Beck, K. (2023). Reforming the Chinese State Sector: Mixed Ownership Reforms and State-Business Relations. Journal of Contemporary China, 32(140), p. 264-279. doi:10.1080/10670564.2022.2071901

Beck, K. (2023). The 14th NPC Meeting : Work Report, New Government, and Institutional Reform. Copenhagen Business School, CBS 2023, 15 p. doi:10.22439/101061700_2

Beck, K. (2023). The 20th Congress of the CCP: Personnel Appointments and Policy Directions. 2023, 11 p. doi:10.22439/101061700_1

Beck, K. (2023). The Political Economy of State Sector Restructuring in China: Cross-provincial Evidence 2008–2017. Journal of Chinese Political Science, 28(2), p. 273-299. doi:10.1007/s11366-022-09835-x

Buhmann, K. (2023). Addressing a human rights paradox in the green transition: Guidance for invested mining operations to benefit local communities. Journal of Cleaner Production. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2023.137903

Larsen, M. (2023). Adding ‘origination’ to diffusion theory: contrasting the roles of China and the EU in green finance. Review  of  international  Political  economy.

Larsen, M. L., Voituriez, T. & Nedopil, C. (2023). Chinese overseas development funds: An assessment of their sustainability approaches. Journal of International Development. 


Ashbee, E. (2022). China, the American Jobs Plan, and the Impact of ‘Strategic Competition.’ Jadavpur Journal of International Relationsdoi:10.1177/09735984221086157

Beck, K.(2022). The Political Economy of State Sector Restructuring in China: Cross-Provincial Evidence 2008–2017. Journal of Chinese Political Science. doi: 10.1007/s11366-022-09835-x

Beck, K. (2022) Reforming the Chinese State Sector: Mixed Ownership Reforms and State-Business Relations. Journal of Contemporary China. doi:10.1080/10670564.2022.2071901

Beck, K., & Brødsgaard, K. (2022). Corporate Governance with Chinese Characteristics: Party Organization in State-owned Enterprises. The China Quarterly, 1-23. doi:10.1017/S0305741021001351

Dong, G., Kokko, A. & Zhou, H. (2022)  Innovation and Export Performance of Emerging Market Enterprises : The Roles of State and Foreign Ownership in China. In: International Business Review, Vol. 31, No. 6, 12.2022.

Dong, G., Jindra, B. & Kokko, A. Technology Upgrading in Chinese Manufacturing A cross-industry perspective, International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development, 2022, in press.

Fuller, D. B. (2022). Biden's United Front Targets China's Fight for Silicon Supremacy In: East Asia Forum Quarterly, Vol. 14, No. 2, 23.6.2022, p. 13-15

Larsen, M. L. & Oehler, L. (2022) Clean at home, polluting abroad: the role of the Chinese financial system’s differential treatment of state-owned and private enterprises, Climate Policy, DOI: 10.1080/14693062.2022.2040409

Petersen, B. & Ueta, T. (2022). “Maersk’s Non-Market Strategy towards State-Owned Chinese Rivals”. Teaching case, published by Ivey Publishing (product number W25258)


Ashbee, E. (2021). First mover advantage: the United Kingdom and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank. Asia Europe Journal.

Brødsgaard, K. E., & Beck, K. I. (2021). Big Business and Cadre Management in China. The Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies (Vol. 39, Issue 2, pp. 53–76). Copenhagen Business School.

Frost, A. K. (2021) "Reframing Chinese Business History." Business History Review, pp. 1-43.

Frost, A. K. & Frost, S. L. (2021) "Taxi Shanghai: Entrepreneurship in Semi-Colonial Context." Business History, pp. 1-30. 

Gammeltoft, P., & Von Zedtwitz, M. (2021). The Political Economy of China’s R&D Internationalization: Policy-Led Innovation and Changes in China’s Growth Model. In F. Cahen, L. Casanova, & A. Miroux (Eds.), Innovation from Emerging Markets: From Copycats to Leaders (pp. 185-221). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781108764407.011

Li, Xin (2021). ‘The diversity of Chinese management research: Four approaches and eight patterns (中国管理研究的多样性:四种取向和八种模), Chinese Culture and Management (中国文化与管理), accepted for publication in 2021.

von Zedtwitz, M., & Quan, X. I. (2021). Internationalization of Chinese Research and Development. In X. Fu, B. McKern, & J. Chen (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of China Innovation (pp. 485–501). Oxford University Press.


Ashbee, E. (2020). ‘We Don’t Drown our Partners in a Sea of Debt’: U.S. Policy Responses to China’s Belt and Road Initiative, Journal of American-East Asian Relations, 27(4), 374-400.

Li, Xin & Ma, L. (2020). Chinese management research needs self-confidence but not over-confidence. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, vol 37, no. 2, pp. 481-498.

Li, Xin (2020). ‘Transcendent intelligence and quan(tum)-xin leadership: A Xin-Philosophy perspective on quantum management’ (慧商与全心领导力: 心学化的量子管理理论初探), Chinese Culture and Management (中国文化与管理), vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 135-153.

Li, Xin (2020). ‘The quan(tum)-xin philosophy: A solution to the ‘Hwang Kwang-Kuo puzzle’ of Chinese indigenous social science’ (全心学:试解华人本土社会科学的‘黄光国难题’), Chinese Culture and Management (中国文化与管理), vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 34-56.

Li, Xuan. (2020). Investigating youth policies through the Lens of public narratives – Comparing China and Europe. Journal of Youth Studies (Vol. 24, Issue 5, pp. 614–633). Informa UK Limited.

Walravens, T. (2020, Aug 6). What’s in a Name? The Role of Gastronationalism in the Recent EU-China Agreement on Geographical Indications. Queen Mary University of London.

Zheng, Y. & Aggarwal, A. (2020). Special Economic Zones in China and India: A Comparative Analysis. In Oqubay, A. & Lin, J.Y., The Oxford Handbook of Industrial Hubs and Economic Development (pp. 607-622). Oxford: Oxford UP, 2020.


Brødsgaard, K. E. (2019). Kina i moderne tid: Samfund, økonomi og politik. København: Hans Reitzels Forlag.

Brødsgaard, K. E. (2019). Red Swan: How Unorthodox Policy Making Facilitated China's Rise by Sebastian Heilmann. China Quarterly, 237, 261-263.

Brødsgaard, K. E. (2019). Social and Political Mobility of State-owned Enterprise Executives in the Reform Era: The Rise of China's Supermanagers. I W. Shan, & L. Yang (red.), Reform and Development in China: After 40 Years (s. 31–49). Singapore: World Scientific. Series on Contemporary China, Bind. 44

Lacasa, I. D., Jindra, B., Radosevic, S., & Shubbak, M. (2019). Paths of Technology Upgrading in the BRICS economies. Research Policy, 48(1), 262-280.

Jindra, B., Hatani, F., Steger, T., & Hiemer, J. (2019). Social Upgrading and Cooperative Corporate Social Responsibility in Global Value Chains: The Case of Fairphone in China. Global Networks: A Journal of Transnational Affairs, 19(3), 371-393.

Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik and Grünberg, Nis 2018. ‘Structural Reforms and CPC Power after the Third CPC Plenum, and the 1st Session of the 13th NPC’, Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies vol. 36 Issue 1. p. 106-125.

Christensen, Nis H. (Forthcoming). Institutional Entrepreneurship in China’s Authoritarian Setting: How Biomass  Became a Source of Renewable Energy. Paper in review for Management and Organization Review
 (Special issue).

Christensen, Nis Høyrup and Ari Kokko 2018. ‘Chinese FDI in the Nordic and Baltic Countries’. Baltic Rim Economies Review No. 1, p. 51.

Grünberg, Nis 2018. The Party-state Order: Essays on China’s Political Organization and Political Economic Institutions. PhD Thesis, CBS, Frederiksberg.

Stine Jessen Haakonsson; Dmitrij Slepniov 2018. ‘Technology Transmission Across National Innovation Systems : The Role of Danish Suppliers in Upgrading the Wind Energy Industry in China. European Journal of Development Research,

Li, Xin, Li Ma 2018. ‘Chinese Management Research Needs Self-Confidence but not Over-confidence.’ Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 28.2.

Li, Xin 2018. ‘How Emerging Market Resource-poor Firms Compete and Outcompete Advanced Country Resource-Rich Rivals: An Asymmetry Reversing Theory’  Cross Cultural and Strategic Management, 17.1.

Li, Xin 2018. ‘Is "Yin-Yang Balancing" Superior to Ambidexterity as an Approach to Paradox Management?’ Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 19.4.

Li, Xin; Verner Worm; Peihong Xie 2018. ‘Towards an Integrative Framework of Conflict-handling Behaviour: Integrating Western and Chinese Perspectives’. Asia Pacific Business Review, Vol. 24, No. 1, p. 22-36.

Li, Xin 2018. ‘Zhong-Yong as Dynamic Balancing Between Yin-Yang Opposites’ Cross Cultural and Strategic Management, Vol. 25, No. 2, p. 375-379.

Christensen, Nis H., Forthcoming . Institutional Entrepreneurship in China’s Authoritarian Setting: How Biomass  Became a Source of Renewable Energy. Paper in review for Management and Organization Review  (Special issue).

Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik and Christensen, Nis H 2017. ‘The 19th Party Congress: Personnel Changes and Policy Guidelines’. Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 35, issue 2.

Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik 2017. ‘Pushing Against Fragmenation: Party Control of SOEs,’ East Asia Forum Quarterly, Issue 9.4.

Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik 2017. ‘China’s SOE Executives: Drivers or Obstacles to Reform?’ (with Paul Hubbard, Guilong Cai, and Linlin Zhang), The Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies, Vo. 35, Issue 1, pp. 52-75,

Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik and Rutten, Koen 2017. From Accelerated Accumulation to the Socialist Market Economy in China: Economic Discourse and Development From 1953 to the Present. Leiden/Boston: Brill

Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik (ed.) 2017. Critical Readings on the Communist Party of China, 4 vols. Leiden/Boston: Brill

Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik (ed.) 2017. Chinese Politics as Fragmented Authoritarianism: Earthquakes, Energy, and Environment. Abingdon and New York: Routledge.

Gammeltoft, Peter; Kirsten Fasshauer 2017. ‘Characteristics and Host Country Drivers of Chinese FDI in Europe : A Company-level Analysis’. In: International Journal of Technology Management, Vol. 74, No. 1-4, 2017, p. 140-166

Li, Xin, Verner Worm, and Peihong Xie. 2017. ‘Towards an Integrative Framework of Conflict-handling Behaviour: Integrating Western and Chinese Perspectives’. Asia Pacific Business Review, published online on 31.7.2017

Li, Xin; Xie, Peihong and Xianzhong Meng 2017. ‘真实与虚假竞争力 : 企业战略研究新视角’, Waiguo Jingji yu Guanli, 39 (2): 3-16, 35

Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik 2016. ‘China’s 13th Five-Year Plan: A Draft Proposal’ Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 33, No. 2 (2015), pp. 97-105.

Christensen, Nis Høyrup 2016. Kinas autoritære statskapitalisme og dens forudsætninger: Med industripolitikken som omdrejningspunkt. Samfundsoekonomen, No. 1, 4. p. 24-29.

Gammeltoft, Peter (accepted), ‘Characteristics and host country drivers of Chinese FDI in Europe: a company-level analysis’, International Journal of Technology Management.

Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt 2016. ‘Bargaining science: Negotiating Earthquakes’. In K.E. Brødsgaard (ed.) Chinese Politics as Fragmented Authoritarianism: Earthquakes, energy and environment. London and New York: Routledge 2016: 120-134.

Haakonsson, Stine Jessen; Kirkegaard, Julia Kirch (2016) ‘Configuration of Technology Networks in the Wind Turbine Industry: A Comparative Study of Technology Management Models in European and Chinese Lead Firms’. In: International Journal of Technology Management, 70 (4), 2016, p. 281–299.

Li, Xin, 2016. ‘Modesty or overconfidence: On the attitude of Chinese indigenous management research’ 谦虚谨慎或者骄傲自负:中国本土管理研究的心态问题., Chinese Journal of Management 管理学报 Guanli Xuebao., (13) 1: 40-48

Li, Xin, 2016. ‘Letter to the Editor: The Danger of Chinese Exceptionalism’, Management and Organization Review, (12) 4: xxx-xxx

Xin Li, Verner Worm and Peihong, Xie. (2016) Is Yin-Yang Superior for Paradox Research? Submitted revised edition. Under 2nd review in Cross Cultural & Strategic Management.

Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik 2015. ‘Assessing the Fourth Plenum of the Chinese Communist Party: Personnel Management and Corruption,’ Asia Policy, Number 20, pp. 30-38.
Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik 2015. ‘Gaige shiqi guoqi gaoguan de shehui yu zhengzhi liudong: Zhongguo chaoji jingli ren de jueqi’ (Social and Political Mobility of SOE Executives in the Reform Era: The Rise of China’s Supermanagers), in Zheng Yongnian (ed.), Gaige: Kunjing yu chulu (Reform: Predicament and Future) (Beijing: Dongfang chubanshe), pp. 111-125.

Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt 2015. ‘Rachel E. Stern, Environmental litigation in China: A Study in Political Ambivalence’. Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies, 33(1): 125-127.

Christensen, Nis Høyrup 2015. Subsidization in China's Renewable Energy Sector: Negotiability as the Norm. Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 33, No. 1, p. 107-124

Christensen, Nis Høyrup; Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt 2015. ’China's Road to Sustainability: Energy Policies and the Dynamics of State Capitalism’. Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies,33(1): 5-12.

Haakonsson, S. J., & Ujjual, V. (2015). ‘Internationalisation of R&D: New insights into multinational enterprises' R&D strategies in emerging markets’. Management Revue, 26(2).

Jakobsen, Michael 2015. Ethnic Chinese Entrepreneurship in Malaysia. On Contextualisation in International Business Studies’. London and New York: Routledge (Chinese Worlds Series).

Kokko, Ari 2015. ‘The imbalances between the European Union and China’. In A. Bakardieva, M. Mårtensson, L. Oxelheim, and T. Persson (Eds.) The EU’s Role in Fighting Global Imbalances. Cheltenham and Northampton MA: Edward Elgar, 165-204.

Li, Xin, and L. Ma 2015. ‘Management practices across countries: Converging in some aspects but diverging in others’, Management and Organization Review, (11) 4: 795-805

Li, Xin, 2015. ‘X-integrationism: A philosophical perspective of Chinese indigenous management research’ 中国本土管理研究的X整合主义., Chinese Journal of Management 管理学报 Guanli Xuebao., (12) 2: 157-166

Slepniov, D., Lassen, A.H., Haakonsson, S. & McKelvey, M. (2015). ‘Understanding innovation spaces through emerging multinational enterprises in China: an explorative case study of a Chinese wind turbine manufacturer’ in M. McKelvey & S. Baghi-Sen Innovation Spaces in Asia, Entrepreneurs, Multinational Enterprises and Policy. Edward Elgar.

Z. Cheng and Xin Li 2015. ‘Cross-border mergers and acquisitions: What you need to do right’,    国并购,你需要做对什么., Business Review 商业评论, 10: 88-102.
Business Review is China’s top 1 management practice-oriented journal.

Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik (ed.) 2014. Globalization and Public Sector Reform in China (London: Routledge, 2014).

Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik 2014. ‘The Fourth Plenum of the CCP Makes an Important Decision on Law Reform in China (with Nis Grünberg),’ The Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies , Vol. 32, Issue 2, pp. 122-130.

Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik 2014 ‘Key Points of China’s Economic Programme after the Third Plenum of the CPC’(with Nis Grünberg), China Report, Vol. 50, No. 4: pp. 343-359.
Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik 2014 ‘Chinese Studies and Beyond,’ Asian Studies, Vol. 59, Nos. 3-4.

Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik 2014 ‘Globalization and Public Sector Reform in China: Introduction’  in Globalization and Public Sector Reform in China London: Routledge, pp. 1-22.

Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik 2014 ‘Public Sector Reform in China: Who is Losing Out?’ (with Chen Gang),  Globalization and Public Sector Reform in China, London: Routledge, pp. 77-99.

Xie, Peihong, Xianzhong Meng, and Xin Li 2014. ‘Spurious and genuine competitiveness: New perspective on enterprise competitiveness’ 虚假与真实竞争力:企业竞争力研究的新视角., Management World 管理世界 Guanli Shijie., supplementary issue: 67-75

Li, Xin, and Jens Gammelgaard 2014. ‘An integrative model of internationalization strategies: The corporate entrepreneurship – institutional environment – regulatory focus EIR. framework’, Critical Perspectives on International Business, (10) 3, pp.152-171

Li, Xin, 2014. ‘Can Yin-Yang Guide Chinese Indigenous Management Research?’, Management and Organization Review, (10) 1: 7-27

Liu, Yingqi, Jinguy Wang, and Ari 2014. ‘EV Demonstration Policies and Business Model Innovation: Global Experiences and Chinese Practices’. China Soft Science 288: 1-16.

Y. Cao and Xin Li 2014. ‘Huawei: Conquering Europe’, 华为: 攻克欧洲., Business Review 商业评论, 5: 126-139.
Business Review is China’s top 1 management practice-oriented journal.

Wang, Jingyu, Yingqi Liu, and Ari Kokko 2014. ‘Electric Vehicle Development: Experiences Aboard and Enlightenment to China’. Applied Mechanics and Materials 541-542: 1549-1555.

Pragmatism versus Idealism: Understanding the Negotiating Practices in China and India.(2014) With R. Kumar. Thunderbird International Business Review, Vol. 56 (6): 519–530

Understanding the Indigenous Chinese Concept of Suzhi (素质) from an HRM Perspective : A Conceptual Analysis. (2014) With G. Wang; D. Lamond; W. Gao; S. Yang. Journal of Chinese Human Resources Management, Vol. 5 (2).

Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik 2013. ‘The Chinese Communist Party Since 1949’ in Tim Wright (ed.), Oxford Bibliographies in Chinese Studies, New York: Oxford University Press.

Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik 2013. ’Kina som sikkerhedspolitisk aktør: beslutningsprocesserne og partiets rolle’ i Bertel Heurlin (ed.), Kina som sikkerhedspolitisk aktør, København: Jurist- og Økonomforbundets Forlag, pp. 79-96.

Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik 2013. ‘State-Owned National Champions Dominate China’s Nomenklatura Capitalism’ EAI Background Brief No. 857.

Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik 2013. ‘SOEs and Elite Circulation in China’ EAI  Background Brief No. 858

Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik 2013. ‘SOE Reform in China: Past, Present and Future’ (with Xin Li), The Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 31, No.2, pp. 54-78.

Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik 2013. ‘Leadership Changes and Structural Reform of the 18th Party Congress in China’ (with Nis Grunberg), The Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 81-94.

Christensen, Nis Høyrup 2013. Shaping Markets: A Neoinstitutional Analysis of the Emerging Organizational Field of Renewable Energy in China. Frederiksberg : Copenhagen Business School, 227 p. (PhD Series, No. 3.2013)

Gammeltoft, Peter and Lepi T. Tarmidi (2013), ’Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in Indonesia: Trends, Drivers and Impacts’, International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development, 6(1-2): 136-160.

Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt 2013. ‘Hydropower Sustainability in China’ CBS Sustainability Quarterly 4(03): 30-31.

Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt 2013. ‘Judith Shapiro: China's Environmental Challenges’. Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies, 31(1): 99-101.

Kirkegaard, Julia Kirch, Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt 2013. ’Conference Report: Politics of Sustainable Energy Transition in China’. Available from

Kirkegaard, Julia Kirch, Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt 2013. ’Rapid Sustainable Energy Transition: Chinese Style’. Conference abstract 4S annual meeting, San Diego, California.

Kokko, Ari 2014. Review of John Lee (2013), China’s Economic Engagement with Southeast Asia: Indonesia, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, in Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 50 (3): 505-506.

Xie, Peihong, Xin Li, and X. Xie 2014. ‘The Integration of Corporate Non-Market and Market Strategies: Why, What and How’, Nankai Business Review International, (5) 1: 115-132
This article is winner of the Journal’s one of three Highly commended Papers, an Emerald Award for Excellence 2015
Li, Xin, 2013. ‘Chinese Traditional Philosophy and Indigenous Management Research: Discussion and Reflection’, Chinese Journal of Management 管理学报Guanli Xuebao., (10) 10: 1425-1433 in Chinese.
Li, Xin, and K.E. Brødsgaard 2013. ‘SOE Reform in China: Past, Present and Future’, Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies, (31) 2: 54-78

Liu, Yingqi and Ari Kokko 2013. ‘Who Does What in China’s New Energy Vehicle Industry?’ Energy Policy 57: 21-29.

Wang, Yingyu, Yongqi Liu, and Ari Kokko 2013. ‘New Energy Buses in China: Policy and Development’. In F. Chen, Y. Liu, and G. Hua (Eds.) LTLGB 2012: Proceedings of International Conference on Low-carbon Transportation and Logistics, and Green Buildings Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer, 379-385.

Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik 2012. ‘Note on the 18th Party Congress: Personnel Changes and Factional Alliances’ The Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 61-73.

Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik 2012. ‘China and the EU: Will China Come to the Rescue of Troubled Economies?’ in Wang Gungwu and Zheng Yongnian (eds.), China: Development and Governance, Singapore: World Scientific, pp. 455-468.

Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik 2012. ‘Murder, Sex, Corruption: Will China Continue to Hold Together?’ Copenhagen Discussion Paper, No. 39.

Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik 2012. ‘The Politics of Business Group Formation in China: The Party in Control?’ The China Quarterly, No. 211, pp. 624-648.

Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik 2012. ‘Cadre and Personnel Management in the CPC’ China: An International Journal, Vol. 10, No. 2 (August 2012), pp 69-83.

Di Minin, Alberto, Jieyin Zhang and Peter Gammeltoft (2012), ‘Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in R&D in Europe: A New Model of R&D Internationalization?’, European Management Journal, 30(3): 189-203.

Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt 2012. ‘Contested Rivers: Dam(n) Policymaking in China.’ Abstract from 4S/EASST Joint Conference 2012, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

Haakonsson, S.J., Jensen, P.Ø. and Mudambi, S. (2012) ‘A Co-Evolutionary Perspective on the Drivers and Dynamics of the International Sourcing of Pharmaceutical R&D’ Journal of Economic Geography, doi: 10.1093/jeg/lbs018
Kokko, Ari and Yingqi Liu 2012.  ‘Governance of New Energy Vehicle Technology in China: The Case of Hybrid Electric Vehicles’. In M. Nilsson, K. Hillman, A. Rickne, and T. Magnusson (Eds.) Paving the Road to Sustainable Transport: Governance and Innovation in Low-Carbon Vehicles. London: Routledge, 200-220.

Li, Xin, 2012. ‘Michael Barr: Who’s Afraid of China? The Challenge of Chinese Soft Power’, Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies, (30) 1: 117-119

Liu, Yingqi and Ari Kokko 2012. ‘NEV Technology in China’. Chinese Management Studies 6 (1): 78-91.

Wuthnow, Joel, Xin Li and L. Qi 2012. ‘Diverse Multilateralism: Four Strategies in China’s Multilateral Diplomacy’, Journal of Chinese Political Science, (17) 3: 269-290

Aggarwal Aradhna  2011 Strategising of SEZs : Analysis of China and India, Asia Kenkyu, pp 345-370

Chen, Taotao, Ari Kokko, and Patrik Tingvall 2011. ‘FDI and Spillovers in China: Non-Linearity and Absorptive Capacity’. Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies 9 (1): 1-22.

Li, Xin, and V. Worm 2011. ‘Building China’s soft power for a peaceful rise’, Journal of Chinese Political Science, (16) 1: 69-89

Worm, Verner 2011. International Negotiation in China and India – A Comparison of the emerging Business Giants.  With R. Kumar. Palgrave MacMillan

Worm, Verner 2011. Building China's Soft Power for a Peaceful Rise. (2011) With X. Li. Journal of Chinese Political Science, Vol. 16 (1): 69-89.

Worm, Verner 2011. Communication and Collaboration in Subsidiaries in China : Chinese and Expatriate Accounts. (2011) With A. M. Søderberg. European Journal of Cross-Cultural Competence and Management, Vol. 2 (1): 54-76.

Aggarwal Aradhna 2010 Achieving Sustainable Trade and Investment: The role of FDI policies in China, Vietnam and India; Background paper for Trade and Investment report, UNESCAP, Bangkok.

Andersson, Magnus, Anders Engvall and Ari Kokko 2010. ‘In the Shadow of China: Integration and Internationalization in Lao PDR’. In L. Yueh (Ed.) The Future of Asian Trade and Growth: Economic Development with the Emergence of China. London: Routledge, 271-294.

Christensen, Nis Høyrup 2010. ‘Kinas frie marked: Og hvorfor grænsen mellem stat og marked så let overskrides’ in Kaspersen, Lars Bo; Joachim Lund; Ole Helby Petersen (ed.) 2010. Offentligt eller privat?: Historiske og aktuelle udfordringer i politik og økonomi. København: Jurist- og Økonomforbundet, p. 37-51

Liu, Yingqi and Ari 2010. ‘Wind Power in China: Development and Policy’. Energy Policy 38 (10): 5520-5529.

Worm, Verner 2010. Chinese Personality: A Center in a Network.(2010)  In P.Durst-Andersen and E. Lange. Mentality and Thought- North, South, East, West. Copenhagen Business School Press.

Worm, Verner 2010. Corporate Cross-Cultural Collaboration the Contextual Challenges of Multi-cultural Teams in China and Japan.(2010) With L. Clausen. Association for Computing Machinery. Pp. 239-242.

Kokko, Ari, Christer Ljungwall, and Patrik Tingvall 2009. ‘Economic Growth and Growth Linkages in China 1994 – 2003’. China Economic Journal 2(3): 257-275.

Li, Xin,, K. E. Brødsgaard, and M. Jacobsen 2009. ‘Redefining Beijing Consensus: Ten economic principles’, China Economic Journal, (2) 3: 297-311
This article is reprinted in Thomas Oatley 2011. Debates in International Political Economy, 2nd Edition, Longman

Worm, Verner 2009. Konfutze på fabriksgulvet : Fremtiden bygger på traditionen.(2009) Kinabladet, No. 43, pp. 38-40.

Christensen, Nis Høyrup 2008. The Chinese Paradox : Integrating Socialism and the Market Economy. Politik, Vol. 11, No. 2, p. 59-66

Gammeltoft, Peter (2008), ‘Emerging multinationals: outward FDI from the BRICS countries’, International Journal of Technology and Globalisation, Vol. 4, Iss. 1: 5-22.

Kjersem, Julie Marie and Peter Gammeltoft (2008), ’Knowledge exchange with offshore R&D units: Novo Nordisk, GN Resound, and BenQ Siemens Mobile in China’, in Govindan Parayil and Anthony D'Costa (eds.), The New Asian Innovation Dynamics: China and India in Perspective, Palgrave Macmillan. Also printed in Verner Worm (ed.), China –  Business Opportunities in a Globalizing Economy, Copenhagen: CBS Press.

Worm, Verner 2008. China -  Businesses Opportunities in a Globalizing Economy (Editor) Copenhagen Business School Press.

Worm, Verner  2008. Guanxi capital as sustainable competitive advantages. With M. Bjørn. In China – Businesses Opportunities in a globalized world. Ed. by V.Worm. Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School Press.

Worm, Verner 2008. Sino-Western Business Negotiation revisited – 30 Years after China’s  Open Door Policy (2008) With Tung, R & Fang, T. Organizational Dynamics 37(1): 60-74.      
Worm, Verner 2008. Editorial: The Changing Chinese culture and business Negotiation. (2008)   With T. Fang & S. Zhao International Business Review Vol 17, pp. 141- 145.

Worm, Verner 2008. Changing success and failure factors in Cusiness negotiations with the PRC. With T. Fang and R. Tung.  International Business Review Vol. 17, pp 159-169.

Worm, Verner 2008. Book review: Shenkar, O. The Chinese Century. International Business Review. Vol 17. pp 210 - 212.

Worm, Verner 2006. Der skal drikkes meget te. I Vi skal til Kina. Ed. by K. E.. Brødsgaard.København: Forlagskompagniet. In Danish.

Worm, Verner 2006. “Kina i international politik – et erhvervsøkonomisk perspektiv (China in international Politics – a business perspective) [in Danish] (2006). Økonomi og Politik. December, DJØF

Aggarwal Aradhna 2005 ‘The use of Anti-dumping by China, Brazil, India and South Africa’, Report, National Board of Trade, Sweden  case study of India

Worm, Verner 2005. ”A Comparative Analysis of Indian and Chinese Negotiating Behavior” With Professor R. Kumar. International Journal of Conflict Management 15(3): 304-334.

Worm, Verner 2005. Moderating Effects of Culture in Transfer of Knowledge: A Case of Danish Multinationals and their Subsidiaries in P. R .China and India. With Xu, X.J. & Sinha, J.B. Working Paper.

Worm, Verner 2003. “Social Capital and the dynamics of business negotiations between the Northern Europeans and the Chinese” 2003 With R. Kumar International Marketing Review, 20(2), 262-285.

Worm, Verner 2003. “Personal networks in Russia and China: blat and guanxi in an international business context”. (2003) With Professor S. Michailova. European Management Journal 21(4), 509-519

Worm, Verner 1999. “Managerial Adaptation in a Transitional Economy: China” With Selmer, J., Erdener, C., Tung, R. & Simon. D. In China’s Managerial Revolution. Ed. Warner, M. London: Frank Cass. 1999, 29-46.

Worm, Verner 1998. China and the Chinese – a  guide for Danish visitors.  København: Fuhu/Gyldendal. In Danish

Worm, Verner 1998.  "Interpersonal Cooperation in Western Subsidiaries in China." In International Management in China. Ed. by Selmer, J. London: Routledge. 183-196.

Worm, Verner 1998. “Business environment and business culture in China” In China- the world largest challenge (Kina - verdens største udfordring). Copenhagen: Federation of Danish Industry, 1998. 13-26. In Danish

Worm, Verner 1997. Vikings and Mandarins. Sino-Scandinavian Business Cooperation in Cross-Cultural Settings. Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School Press,

Worm, Verner  1995. Nordic Companies in China.  Ph.D.-dissertation. København: Handelshøjskolen i København. In Danish.

Worm, Verner, Brødsgaard, K.E. & Dall, M 1994. China  - A  market for Danish companies?  With Professor. København: Industriens Forlag.

Worm, Verner  2001.”Social capital and the management of process ambiguities in Chinese – Danish Negotiations.”(2001). With R. Kumar. In International Business. Børsens Forlag. In Danish.         
Worm, Verner  2001. “Network Capitalism: the Role of Human Resources in Penetrating the China Market.”(2001). With Professor Tung, R. International Journal of Human Resource management. 12 (4): 517-534

Worm, Verner  2000. “The Dilemma of Managerial Cooperation in Sino-Western Business Operations”. (With  Professor Frankenstein, J. Thunderbird International Business Review. 42 (3): 261-285.

Worm, Verner  2000. “Northern European Expatriates in China - Perspectives for the 21st Century”. With Petersen, S. ARC Newsletter. No. 8.

Worm, Verner  2000.  “Western Joint Venture “Partnering” with Chinese SOEs: A Corporate Governance Interpretation.” With Professor Davis, J. ARC Newsletter. No. 8.

Worm, Verner 1999. “Managerial adaptation in a Transitional Economy: China” With Selmer, J., Erdener, C., Tung, R. & Simon, D.(1999) Asia Pacific Business Review. 5 (3/4): 29-46

Worm, Verner 1999. “Culture guide: China”  Virksomhedens Internationale Aktiviteter. Nr. 2. 1999. København: Børsen Forum A/S. In Danish.

Worm, Verner 1998. China and the Chinese – a  guide for Danish visitors.  København: Fuhu/Gyldendal. In Danish

Worm, Verner 1998.  "Interpersonal Cooperation in Western Subsidiaries in China." In International Management in China. Ed. by Selmer, J. London: Routledge. 183-196.

Worm, Verner 1998. “Business environment and business culture in China” In China- the world largest challenge (Kina - verdens største udfordring). Copenhagen: Federation of Danish Industry, 1998. 13-26. In Danish

Worm, Verner 1998. “Zhongxi Fang Qiye Jingying Zhong de Guanli Hezuo Nanti” In Chinese. (The Dilemma of Management Cooperation in Sino-Western Business Operations) With Frankenstein, J. Shantou University Journal 14 (6.):1-11.

Worm, Verner 1997. East meet West: North European Expatriates  in China. with Professor Tung, R.  Business and Contemporary World. 9(1): 137-148

Worm, Verner 1997. “Management of Chinese Human Resources in Foreign Companies in China.” ARC Newsletter. No.2. 1997.       

Worm, Verner 1996. Hong Kong’s Economy.” Geografisk Orientering. No. 6. 1996. 524-529. In Danish.

Worm, Verner  1994. ”Danish management in China – the cultural Challenge. (1994). With Associate Professor Schultz, P.  Virksomhedens Internationale Aktiviteter. Bind 2. København: Børsen Forum A/S

Worm, Verner  1994 . “Chinese Management keeps its roots.” (1994). With Schultz, P. Ledelse i dag.13: 64-69.

Worm, Verner 1993. “Transformation of China’s State-owned Enterprises”. With Professor Schultz, P. In Stetting, L., Svendsen, K. & Yndgaard, E (Eds.) Global Change and Transformation. Copenhagen: Handelshøjskolens Forlag.


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