Department of Digitalization

Research Themes

The departments research is organized to create opportunities for collaboration and to accommodate for the fast moving pace and radical innovation that characterizes the IT field. Themes are emergent, topical, popular, inter-disciplinary and dynamic in nature. They are usually active for 3 – 7 years when they transform into other themes or dissolve altogether. Below you can find the departments research themes.


Our research themes

IT Challenges in Mergers and Acquisitions
IT Challenges in Mergers and Acquisitions

How firms address challenges associated with IT integration form an important part of the explanation to value creating mergers and acquisitions (M&As). 45‐60% of the expected benefits from M&As are said to be directly dependent on the integration of IT resources. IT integration is reported as the third most cited reason for acquisition failure by general managers, and reports states that less than a third of all IT mangers involved in M&As deemed their last M&A-related IT integration project successful.

What we do

Trough collaborative research projects together with Danish and international companies, the research theme contributes to increasing understanding of the IT-related challenges that face firms involved in M&As and the development of approaches to address these challenges.
Who we are
Who we work with
  • Business collaborations: Cisco, Danske Bank, Danisco, Carlsberg, Grundfors, Trelleborg, ...
  • Academic collaborations: University of Memphis, UNSW Sydney, Melbourne University, …

What we have researched

Examples of studies involving theme researchers:

The role of IT integration in acquisition value creation and IT integration risk factors

Study with Trelleborg AB, a Swedish industry group that makes 5-10 acquisitions per year to identify IT integration strategies that fits with different acquisition benefits and to asses IT integration risk factors in due diligence.

The ’IT-ready to acquirer’

Study with Danisco A/S addressed at the IT infrastructure and capability conditions that makes a firm ready to integrate IT of emerging acquisition targets.

Capability spillover following acquisitions

Reflecting on Danske Bank’s five major acquisitions in the 2000’s, this study searched to explain how these acquisitions affected Danske Bank’s general IT capabilities. 

Sustaining effective IT integration and the quality of IT resources over a series of acquisitions

Forced to undertake major IT projects to correct cumulative complexity, both Cisco Systems and Danisco have experienced the downside of short-sighted acquisition IT integration. This study address mechanisms to enable long-term viability of acquisition programs.

Architecting growth: The use of Enterprise Architecture in M&As

Cisco and Oracle are two companies that use the EA capability extensively in their acquisition processes. This study investigated the merits of including EA in selection and integration of acquisitions.

The use of consultants in the IT integration project

Almost all acquirers rely extensively on consultants. Investigating Carlsberg, Grundfors, Danisco, and Norican this study explored the different ways of utilizing external resources for IT integration.

Technological innovation acquisitions

Through expert interviews with heads of acquisition and heads of acquisition integration in 15 US-based ‘hi-tech’ companies, we explored the technical integration challenges related to the acquisition of innovative technologies to keep the technological edge in these fast-moving industries.
What we want to do
  • Move from explanation to solution design and action
  • Additional emphasis on the extended enterprise
  • Further exploration of serial acquisitions (acquirers) and acquisition programs
  • Unearth additional challenges of complex mergers
  • Expand research to new industries with digital business models

Further information

Stefan Henningsson
Phone: +45 2479 4329, +46 735 845 654
Related publications
Practitioner-oriented articles
  1. Henningsson, Stefan; Kettinger, William J. (2015) “Late to the Game: Assessing IT Integration Risk After the Acquisition Target has Been Identified”. Proceedings of the 48th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, HICSS-48.
                 *** Best paper award at HICSS-48 – Forthcoming in MIS Quarterly Executive ***
  2. Henningsson, S; Toppenberg, G; Shanks, G (2014) Sustaining an Acquisition-Based Growth Strategy: The Use of Enterprise Architecture at Cisco Systems. Paper presented at Pre-ICIS 2014 SIM/MISQE Academic Workshop on Enterprise Architecture for Business Transformation. December 13, 2014, Auckland, New Zealand.
  3. Yetton, P., Henningsson, S. & Bjørn-Andersen, N. (2013) “Ready to Acquire”: The IT Resources Required for a Growth-by-Acquisition Business Strategy. MIS Quarterly Executive. March 2013 (12:1)
Academic journal articles
  1. Henningsson, S (2014) Learning to Acquire : How Serial Acquirers Build Organisational Knowledge for Information Systems Integration.European Journal of Information Systems, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2014, p. 373-379.
  2. Henningsson, S. & Carlsson, S. A. (2011) “The DySIIM Model for Managing IS Integration in Mergers & Acquisitions”. Information Systems Journal, 21(5), 441-476.
  3. Carlsson, S., Henningsson, S., Hrastinski, S., & Keller, C. (2011) “Developing Design Theory for IS Governance and Management: The Case of IS Integration in Mergers and Acquisitions”. Journal of Information Systems and e-Business Management, 9(1), 109-131.
  4. Alaranta, M. and S. Henningsson (2008) “An approach to analyzing and planning post-merger IS integration: Insights from two field studies”. Information Systems Frontiers. 10(3). 307-319.
  5. Henningsson, S. (2006) “The Role of IS in corporate M&A - An Examination of IS Research Based on an Integrative Model for M&A Research”. ICFAI Journal of Mergers & Acquisitions (March 2006).
Academic conference and workshop articles
  1. Toppenberg, Gustav; Henningsson, Stefan (2014) Taking Stock and Looking Forward : A Scientometric Analysis of IS/IT Integration Challenges in Mergers.
Proceedings of European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) 2014.
  2. Henningsson, S.; Yetton, P. (2013) “Post-acquisition IT Integration: The sequential effects in growth-by-acquisition programs”. Proceedings of the 24th Australasian Conference on Information Systems (ACIS). Melbourne, Australia, 4-6 December 2013.
  3. Gustav Toppenberg; Stefan Henningsson (2013) “An Introspection for the Field of IS Integration Challenges in M&A”. Proceedings of the Nineteenth Americas Conference on Information Systems. Atlanta, GA: Association for Information Systems. AIS Electronic Library (AISeL) 2013
  4. Henningsson, S.; Yetton, P. (2013) “IT-based value creation in serial acquisitions”. Proceedings of the 13th Annual European Academy of Management Conference (EURAM 2013). European Academy of Management, 2013. ISBN No: 978-975-8400-35-5.
  5. Henningsson, S & Yetton, P (2011) Managing the IT Integration of Acquisitions by Multi- Business Organizations. ICIS 2011, Shanghai in December 2011.
  6. Bohm, M., Henningsson, S., Yetton, P., Leimestre, J.M., Krcmar, H. (2011) A Dual View on IT Challenges in Corporate Divestments and Acquisitions. ICIS 2011, Shanghai in December 2011.
  7. Carlsson, S., Henningsson, S., Hrastinski, S., & Keller, C. (2009)  An Approach for Designing Management Support Systems: The Design Science Research Process and its Outcomes. DESRIST 2009: The 4th International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Technology, Philadelphia, USA.
  8. Carlsson, S.A., et al.  (2008) Towards a Design Science Research Approach for IS Use and Management: Applications from the Areas of Knowledge Management, E-Learning and IS Integration. Desrist 2008. 7-9 May, 2008. Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  9. Henningsson, S. and L. Selander  (2007) Dancing to the Post-Acquisition Integration Blues: An Organizational Learning Perspective on Post-Acquisition IS Integration in Multinational Companies. 23rd EGOS Colloquium. Vienna, Austria.
  10. Henningsson, S., C. Svensson, and L. Wallén  (2007) Mastering the integration chaos following frequent M&As: IS integration with SOA Technology. 40th Hawaii International Conference on System Science 2007-01-05. Waikoloa, Hawaii, US.
  11. Henningsson, S.  (2007) The Relation Between Is Integration And M&A As A Tool For Corporate Strategy. 40th Hawaii International Conference on System Science Waikoloa, Hawaii, US.
  12. Alaranta, M. and S. Henningsson  (2007) Shaping the Post-Merger Information Systems Integration Strategy. 40th Hawaii International Conference on System Science 2007-01-05. Waikoloa, Hawaii, US.
  13. Henningsson, S., C. Svensson, and L. Wallén  (2007) SOA to salve the post-acquisition integration blues? Australia and New Zealand Systems Conference (ANZSYS) 2007. 2007-12-04. Auckland, New Zealand.
  14. Henningsson, S.  (2007) How IS Integration Relates to M&A as a Tool for Corporate Strategy. 13th Asia Pacific Management Conference (APMC). 18-20 November, 2007. Melbourne, Australia.
  15. Henningsson, S. and S. Carlsson  (2007) The Dynamic Relation Between IS Integration and the Acquisition Process. 13th Asia Pacific Management Conference (APMC). 18-20 November, 2007. Melbourne, Australia.
  16. Henningsson, S. and S. Carlsson (2006) Governing and Managing Enterprise Systems Integration in Corporate M&A European Conference on Information Systems 2006. 15-17 July, 2006. Gothenburg, Sweden.
  17. Henningsson, S.  (2005) The Role of IS in corporate M&A IRIS'28 (Information Systems Research in Scandinavia). August 6 - 9, 2005. Lillesand, Norway.
  18. Henningsson, S.  (2005) Managing Enterprise Systems Integration in Corporate Mergers and Acquisitions - A Tentative Framework and the Case of TIH. in 5th International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA) Conference. 2005-12-13. Cairo, Egypt.
  19. Henningsson, S.  (2005) IS Integration in Corporate M&A: Applicability of Related Theory and Future Advancements of the Research Field. in 5th International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA) Conference. 2005-12-13. Cairo, Egypt.
Internet of Things
Internet of Things Theme (IoTT)
IoTT at Copenhagen Business School, department of Digitalization

IoTPeople is from CBS, Denmark but have partners from all the EU.
We are everything from politicians, entrepreneurs and researchers.

A2E: Connecting Anything to Everything [as coined by IoT Theme@CBS]

Challenge: To create an Internet of People and Societies by creating multidisciplinary and cross-disciplinary approaches with researchers, politicians, citizens, NGO’s and enterprises pursuing socially productive scenarios in the merging of our physical world and the virtual world. Our mission is to contribute to, develop and gather the IoT ecosystem in EU.

Definition: IoT is a dynamic global network infrastructure with self-configuring capabilities based on standard and interoperable communication protocols where physical and virtual “things” have identities, physical attributes, and virtual personalities, use intelligent interfaces, and are seamlessly integrated into the information network.

Research projects/Funding: Interpretative phenomenological analysis of user experience (TC). ICT and knowledge as Commons, focusing on emergent economies in Latin America (EU funded) (LBR, JN). Personal Intelligent Information Mate (HTF app.)(JN, RUP, LBR), itGrows (HTF)(TC, RUP, GP), Bus. Sus. Platform, New Business in Society Platforms (all), EUStart Grant for FP7.

In press

Smart grid-projekt Rasmus Ullslev Pedersen (Participant), Ingeniøren, 12 Oct 2012

Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen University(KU), Aalborg University(AAU), Alexandra Instituttet.

Confederation of Danish Industry (DI), European Commission, Nordic Startup awards, Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster, Dong Energy, Grundfos, Nabto, 1st Mile,, Startup Weekend, IoT Forum.

Teaching/Supervision: 4th semester HA(it), 7th semester CMD(it), 9th semester CMD(it) with big Data Theme, Innovation, 2nd semester MIL. IT-Master thesis projects, Ebuss master thesis and Ph.D. Project, projects.

DIGI participants: Torkil Clemmensen, Leif Bloch Rasmussen, Janni Nielsen, Ivan Häuser, Szymon Furtak, Mads Bødker, Abayomi Baiyere and the rest of the core team: Alessandro Bassi, Britta Thomsen, Ina Lauth, Kim Balle, Lars Ringe, Thomas Sørensen and Ziggie Precht – in collaboration with businesses/researchers from EU/Latin America.

Important links:

FinTech at Copenhagen Business School, Department of Digitalization

Historically, payments involved two parties exchanging goods or services for money. Today, payments, with increasing frequency, consist of digital representations of money transferred through a global, highly complex technical infrastructure.

However, there are still 94 billion in coins and banknotes floating around in the economy. There are drawback and benefits with cash. For instance, they are costly (time and security) to manage for banks and merchants, they create negative environmental impact (production and transportation), and they lead to crime of cash. On the other hand cash are easy and convenient to use, they are anonymous, they are national symbols), and they can be used by anyone regardless of age or legal capacity.

Over the past decade payments has evolved due to the increase in online shopping and smartphones. We have witnessed new ways of paying, including PayPal, MobilePay, DSBs ticket app, and new currencies like Art Money and Bitcoins. In parallel, society try to regulate and promote innovations through SEPA and E-Money Driective from EU and merchants in Denmark are trying to change the law so that they can say no to cash.

In this changing and evolving environment, we have created a research theme that will explore some of the issues that Financial Technologies will lead to. We focus on choice of payment instrument, money, payment systems, and adoption of payment methods.

Who we are:

What do we do:
  • How and why does the digital payment infrastructure evolve?
  • How does the digitalization of money affect the use and experience of money (different carriers of money)?
  • How does the digitalization of transactions (process) influence the performance of and preference for different payment methods (means of transferring money)?
  • How does the technology (artifact) influence the performance of and preference for different payment methods (means of transferring money)?
  • How can future money, payment process, and technology be designed?
If you are interested and would like to know more, please contact Jonas Hedman

In press

TV2 Finans


DR 2-dagen
 Jonas Hedman (Participant), DR2, 5 Apr 2013 (Podcast)



Research projects/Collaborators
  • Academic: Royal institute of Technology, Stockholm School of Ecnomics, Lund University, University of Cork, University of Augsburg, Essec Business School, Aalto Univeristy.
  • Industry: Danske Bank, Nordea, National Bank, Nets, Finansrådet, Cellpoint Mobile, CFIR


Carton, F. and J. Hedman (eds.) (2013) Second International Society Cashless Roundtable, 18-19 April, Dublin, Ireland. Link.

Kazan, E. and J. Damsgaard (2013) A Framework for Analyzing Digital Payment as a Multi-Sided Platform: A Study of Three European NFC Solutions, The European Conference of Information Systems in Utrecht, June 5-8, 2013. Link.

Sang-Un, C. and J. Hedman (2013) Exploring Business Models for NFC Enabled Mobile Payment Services: The Case of Google Wallet and ISIS, The European Conference of Information Systems in Utrecht, June 5-8, 2013. Link.

Hedman, J. ed. (2012) First International Cashless Society Roundtable (ICSR), 18-19 May Copenhagen, Denmark. Link.

Olsen, M, Hedman, J and R. Vatrapu (2012) Designing Digital Payment Artifacts, ICEC 2011, The 14th International Conference on Electronic Commerce, Singapore, August. Link.

Hedman, J. and S. Henningsson (2012) Competition and Collaboration Shaping the Digital Payment Infrastructure, ICEC 2011, The 14th International Conference on Electronic Commerce, Singapore, August. Link.

Hjelholt, Morten; Damsgaard, Jan (2012) Genesis and Evolution of Digital Payment Platforms. The European Conference on Information Systems in Barcelona, Spain. Link.

Carton, F. Hedman, J., Damsgaard J. Tan, K. and B. McCarthy (2012) Framework for Mobile Payments Integration, Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation, vol 15. Link.

Big Social Data Analysis

Social Business at Copenhagen Business School, department of Digitalization

The Internet resulted in a vertical integration of organizational channel capacities such as production, distribution, transaction, and communication and a horizontal integration of organizational communications such as advertising, public relations, and promotion (Li and Leckenby 2007). Social media channels that emerged from the participatory turn of the Internet facilitated by developments in social computing created new opportunities for interaction and innovation within and across the different stakeholder groups in both the public and the private sectors.

The increasing adoption and use of social media channels in organizational settings is resulting in a new kind of organizational paradigm that is termed “social business”. A social business is an organization that strategically engages, analyses, and manages social media to structure organizational processes and support organizational functions in order to realize operational efficiencies, generate comparative advantages, and create value for customers, shareholders, and other societal stakeholder (Vatrapu, 2013).

The Social Business research theme at ITM, CBS research, teach, and consults on the three critical aspects of social business: social media engagement, social media analytics, and social media management.

DIGI Participants:
Ravi Vatrapu research focus, Theory of Social Business. Daniel Hardt research focus, Social Media and Language. Matthias Trier research focus, Collective use of IS. Chris Zimmerman Ph.D. project, Social Business Intelligence. Signe Dyrby Ph.D. project, Mediatization of Social. Abid Hussain, Ph.D. project, Social Data Analytics. Zeshan Jaffari Ph.D. project, Social Business Management. Katrine Kunst Ph.D. project, Social Consumption. Soley Rasmussen Ph.D. project, news-as-a-service. Mimmi Sjöklint also doing a Ph.D. project. Kiran Kumar Kocherla, research assistant. Kostas Pantazos, research assistant. Usman Tanveer, research assistant. Keld Hansen, research assistant. Weifang Wu, Assistant Professor.


Vatrapu, Ravi (2013) Book Chapter: Understanding Social Business, Emerging Dimensions of Technology Management, Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Link.

Hussain, Abid. Vatrapu, Ravi (2011) Conference: SOGATO: A Social Graph Analytics Tool, The 12th Eurpoean Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work 2011. Link.

Seisto, Anu. Aikala, Maiju. Vatrapu, Ravi. Kuula Timo (2012) Article: Advances in Printing and Media Technology, International Association of Research Organizations for the Information, Media and Graphic Arts Industries. The 39th International Research Conference of IARIGAI. Link.

Robertson, Scott. Vatrapu, Ravi. Medina, Richard (2010) Off the Wall Political Discourse : Facebook Use in the 2008 U.S. Presidential Election, Journal; Information Polity: The International Journal of Government & Democracy in the Information Age. Vol. 15. Link.

Matthias Trier; Alexander Richter / "I Can Simply…"? : Theorizing Simplicity as a Design Principle and Usage Factor.
In: ECIS 2013 Proceedings Atlanta, GA: Association for Information Systems. AIS Electronic Library (AISeL) 2013 Article in proceedings

Robert Hillmann; Matthias Trier / Influence and Dissemination Of Sentiments in Social Network Communication Patterns
In: ECIS 2013 Proceedings Atlanta, GA: Association for Information Systems. AIS Electronic Library (AISeL) 2013 Article in proceedings

Mimmi Sjöklint; Ioanna Constantiou; Matthias Trier / Numerical Representations and User Behaviour in Social Networking Sites : Towards a Multi- Theoretical Research Framework.
In: ECIS 2013 Proceedings Atlanta, GA: Association for Information Systems. AIS Electronic Library (AISeL) 2013 Article in proceedings

Karen Stepanyan; George Gkotsis; Hendrik Kalb; Yunhyong Kim; Alexandra I. Cristea; Mike Joy; Matthias Trier; Seamus Ross / Blogs as Objects of Preservation : Advancing the Discussion on Significant Properties.
In: iPress 2012: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Preservation of Digital Objects. . ed. /Reagan Moore; Kevin Ashley; Seamus Ross. Toronto: University of Toronto 2012, p. 218-224 Article in proceedings

Robert Hillmann; Matthias Trier / Dissemination Patterns and Associated Network Effects of Sentiments in Social Networks
In: Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining: IEEE 2012, p. 510-515 Article in proceedings

Robert Hillmann; Matthias Trier / Sentiment Polarization and Balance among Users in Online Social Networks
In: AMCIS 2012 Proceedings: Virtual Communities and Virtual Worlds. . ed. /K.D. Joshi; Youngjin Yoo. Atlanta, GA : Association for Information Systems. AIS Electronic Library (AISeL) 2012 Article in proceedings

Hendrik Kalb; Matthias Trier / The Blogosphere as Oeuvre : Individual and Collective Influence on Bloggers. In: ECIS 2012 Proceedings. ed. /Jan Pries-Heje; Mike Chiasson; Jonathan Wareham; Xavier Busquets; Josep Valor; Sandra Seiber. Atlanta, GA : Association for Information Systems. AIS Electronic Library (AISeL) 2012 Article in proceedings

Relevant journals:

  • Trier M., Bobrik A. (2009): Searching and Exploring Social Architectures in Digital Networks, IEEE Internet Computing Journal, Vol. 13 No. 2, p. 51-59. 
  • Trier M. (2008): Towards Dynamic Visualization for Understanding Evolution of Digital Communication Networks.  Information Systems Research, Vol.19 No.3, 2008, p.335-350.
  • Cho, H.-K., Trier M., Kim E. (2005): The Use of Instant Messaging in Working Relationship Development: A Case Study. Journal of Computer-mediated Communication, Vol 10, No. 4, 2005.



Social Data Analytics Tool (SODATO)

WebDataNet EU COST Action

Augmentd Reality for Print Products EU COST Action

Networked Business Intelligence Project

Social Data Analytics for Sustainability

National Gallery of Denmark; Impact of postings (image, text).

Telia; network problems and complaints social media.

Informedia; quality of manual sentiment analysis.

Danske Bank; reputation analysis in social media.



UC Berkeley, Institute for Data Sciences and Engineering (IDSE)

Columbia University New York,

University of Hawaii at Manoa. USA

Indian Institute of Science (IISc), India

Industry Partners

TDC, Mindjumpers, Jyllands-Posten, Maersk, Danske Bank, IBM Denmark, Infomedia, Telia, National Gallery of Denmark.

Cloud Business

Cloud Business at Copenhagen Business School, Department of Digitalization

Cloud computing is disrupting the IT landscape. Cloud technologies, defined by the National Institution of Standards and Technology (NIST) as “a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service-provider interaction” have come to stay.

On the consumer side, organizational cloud use is expected to reach a platform of productivity, and promises to achieve cost efficiency, realize flexibility, standardization and elasticity in obtaining IT resources, and enhance innovation capabilities (Marston et al. 2011; Venters and Whitley 2012). On the provider side, cloud-based services will become the common model of delivering IT solutions and continue to shape the IT industry towards platforms of software-as-a-service providers and their surrounding ecosystems (Cusumano 2010). Significant challenges, however, remain in the strategic, economic, and policy related questions for cloud providers, consumer businesses, and the society.

Mission Statement

This research theme provides a platform for critical inquiry into the strategic, economic, organizational, societal and individual choices and impacts related to cloud-based services and underlying technologies for consumers and providers of information technology with the goal of developing thought leadership, engaging with practice, enabling research-inspired teaching and disseminating high-class academic work, as well as for providing a point of expertise for research in other themes.

Phenomena of interest include, but are not limited to, the aspects in the following illustration:



Teaching Offering

The Master level elective course on “Cloud Computing for Business” will be offered by researchers of this theme and affiliated partners. This practically oriented course includes lectures, workshops, student presentations, and guest talks from invited industry professionals.

The course is also open for enrollment as a single course for external practitioners. In case of interest, please contact student hub at CBS or the Department of Digitalization secretariat

For further information, please refer to the CBS catalog course description (2018/2019).

Selected publications

Sabine Khalil; Till J. Winkler; Xiao Xiao / Two Tales of Technology : Business and IT Managers’ Technological Frames Related to Cloud Computing. In: ICIS 2017 ProceedingsAtlanta, GA : Association for Information Systems. AIS Electronic Library (AISeL) 2017 (Proceedings / International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Vol. 2017)

El-Gazzar, R., Henriksen, H., & Wahid, F. (2017).  IT Innovations and Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies-Is Cloud Computing a Magic Ingredient for Egyptian Entrepreneurs? In ECIS 2017 proceedings.

Till J. Winkler; Alexander Benlian; Marc Piper; Henry Hirsch / Bayer HealthCare Delivers a Dose of Reality for Cloud Payoff Mantras in Multinationals, In: MIS Quarterly Executive, Vol. 13, No. 4, 2014, p. 193-208

Till J. Winkler; Carol V. Brown / Horizontal Allocation of Decision Rights for On-Premise Applications and Software-as-a-Service, In: Journal of Management Information Systems, Vol. 30, No. 3, 2014, p. 13-48

Mads Rebsdorf; Jonas Hedman / Cloud Challenges for an ERP Vendor: Business Model Implications. In: Governing Sourcing Relationships. A Collection of Studies at the Country, Sector and Firm Level. Springer International Publishing, 2014, p. 35-48.

Ben Eaton; Hanne Kristine Hallingby; Per-Jonny Nesse; Ole Hanseth / Achieving Payoffs from an Industry Cloud Ecosystem at BankID, In: MIS Quarterly Executive, Vol. 13, No. 4, 2014, p. 223-235

Till Winkler; Alexander Benlian / The Dual Role of IS Specificity in Governing Software as a Service. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Systems, ICIS 2012. Atlanta, GA : Association for Information Systems. AIS Electronic Library (AISeL) 2012


Other References

Marston, S., Li, Z., Bandyopadhyay, S., Zhang, J., & Ghalsasi, A. (2011), Cloud computing—The business perspective. Decision Support Systems, 51(1), 176-189.

Venters, W., & Whitley, E. A. (2012), A critical review of cloud computing: researching desires and realities. Journal of Information Technology, 27(3), 179-197.

Cusumano, M. (2010), Cloud computing and SaaS as new computing platforms. Communications of the ACM, 53(4), 27-29.

Sharing Economy

Sharing Economy Research Theme at Copenhagen Business School, Department of Digitalization

Sharing is ingrained in the fabric of society and it constitutes an emerging force driving a growing part of the economic activity today. With greater connectivity brought about by the proliferation of internetworking technologies, it has become much easier for individuals to circumvent spatial and temporal barriers during interactions, thereby giving rise to a sharing economy that is built on the disintermediation of conventional channels of commerce through grassroots-based exchange of both tangible and intangible resources. The sharing economy has gained notable attention within mainstream media as a new economic paradigm that leverages peer-to-peer technological platforms to facilitate exchange of resources among individuals who are joined via fluid relational networks. Almost overnight, numerous peer-to-peer platforms—in the likes of hospitality (e.g., Airbnb), transportation (e.g., blablacar), crowd-funding (e.g., Kickstarter), and work (e.g., TaskRabbit)—have sprung up to facilitate both individuals and/or organizations to pool resources in resolving problems.

While there are many practitioners who have prophesized the sharing economy as a game-changer for how organizations and society function, there are also a number of detractors who questioned the uncertain and potentially disruptive future that is brought about by such peer-to-peer exchanges. Critics have painted a dismal picture of the sharing economy as a means for individuals and/or firms to dodge proper regulations and live beyond their means, which in turn contributes to doomsday scenarios of massive job displacements and spending habits detrimental to society. In light of the opportunities and challenges posed by the sharing economy, there is a clear urgency for a systematic and thorough scrutiny of how value creation and appropriation can take place within such economic environments while minimizing its negative impact to society. Research conducted within this theme will explore the intertwining relationship between the sharing economies of production and the sharing economies of consumption.

Research Topics

  • Design of innovative crowd platform services
  • Value creation and appropriation on crowd platforms
  • Self-organizational practices of data / information sharing
  • Information managerial implications of linked open data
  • New business models and innovation inspired by the sharing/collaborative economy
  • The effects of the sharing/collaborative economy on business and society
  • Case studies on established and emerging startups
  • Sharing economy platforms and economic impacts in different industries/sectors
  • Users’ incentives to participate in sharing economy platforms
  • Sharing/collaborative economy applications in healthcare
  • The tension between innovation and regulation in the sharing/collaborative economy
  • Public private partnerships in sharing economy
  • Data-driven sharing economy examples
  • Adoption and diffusion of sharing economy ideas


External Collaborators

  • Izak Benbasat, Professor, University of British Columbia (Canada)
  • Eveline Hage, Assistant Professor, University of Groningen (Netherlands)
  • Eric Lim, Lecturer, University of New South Wales (Australia)


  • Published interview with Ioanna Constantiou and Chee-Wee Tan in Politiken Ressourcer (November 17th, 2014)


  • Constantiou, I., Marton, A., Tuunainen, V.K. (2017) "Digitization and the New Dimensions of Competition : The Case of Digital Platforms in the Sharing Economy" The 33rd EGOS Colloquium 2017
  • Constantiou, I., Marton, A., Tuunainen, V.K. (2017) "Four Models of Sharing Economy Platforms" MIS Quarterly Executive, 16(4), pp. 231-251
  • Constantiou, I., Marton, A., Lagoudakos, G. (2017) "Openness and Legitimacy Building in the Sharing Economy: An Exploratory Case Study about CouchSurfing" Proceedings of the 50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS) Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.
  • Avital, M., Carroll, J.M., Hjalmarsson, A., Levina, N., Malhotra, A. and Sundararajan, A.  (2015) "The Sharing Economy: Friend or Foe?" Proceedings of the 36th International Conference on Information Systems, Fort Worth, TX  
  • Avital, M., Andersson, M., Nickerson, J., Sundararajan, A., Van Alstyne, M., and Verhoeven, D. (2014) "The Collaborative Economy: A Disruptive Innovation or Much Ado about Nothing?," Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Auckland, New Zealand.
  • Andersson, M., Hjalmarsson, A. and Avital, M. (2013), " Peer-to-Peer Service Sharing Platforms: Driving Share and Share Alike on a Mass-Scale," Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Milan, Italy.

Further Information

Attila Marton

Chee-Wee Tan
M: +45 4185-2149

Digital Transformation of Work

Digital Transformation of Work Research Theme at Department of Digitalization

Digital technologies transform how, where, and when work gets done. New forms of work, also known as “smart work”, are characterized by spatial and temporal flexibility supported by technological tools that provide employees with the best working conditions to accomplish their tasks. Our research within the theme of Digital Transformation of Work focuses on the profound and accelerating transformation of business activities, processes, competencies, and models that are initiated to fully leverage the changes and opportunities of digital technologies and their impact across society in a strategic and prioritized way, with present and future shifts in mind.   

Digital transformation of work includes new practices in which services and products are produced differently by use of crowds, machines, artificial intelligence, and algorithms. Furthermore, traditional labour law meets digital platforms and the gig-economy. Similarly, meaningful work and employment is considered a scarce resource.

Research Topics

  • Digital transformation of public sector work (e.g., what happens when more decision power is delegated to machines?)
  • Crowd work and new models of work (e.g., can we imagine a future crowd workplace in which we would want our children to participate?)
  • Design of new work practices (e.g., how do we design ICT, physical space, and HR practices to support new ways of working?)
  • Flexible & mobile work (e.g., what are the expectations towards being constantly available?)
  • Lived experiences with digital work (e.g., what does being a digital nomad feel like?)
  • People analytics or data-driven approach to managing people at work (e.g., what are the long-term consequences of being managed by algorithms?)


External Collaborators

  • João Baptista, Associate Professor, Warwick Business School
  • Dubravka Cecez-Kecmanovic, Professor, UNSW Business School
  • Uri Gal, Associate Professor, The University of Sydney Business School
  • Riitta Hekkala, Postdoctoral Researcher, Aalto University
  • Gazi Islam, Associate Professor, Grenoble Ecole de Management
  • Jean-Charles Pillet, PhD Scholar, Grenoble Ecole de Management
  • Daniel Schlagwein, Senior Lecturer, UNSW Business School
  • Kamaran Sheikh, PhD Scholar, Warwick Business School
  • Carsten Sørensen, Associate Professor (Reader), LSE


  • Gol, E. S., Stein, M. K., & Avital, M. (2019). Crowdwork platform governance toward organizational value creation. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Preprint.
  • Stein, M. K., Newell, S., Wagner, E.L., & Galliers, R.D. (2019). Datification, Accountability and the Pursuit of Meaningful Work Among Academics. Journal of Management Studies, Preprint. 
  • Busch, P. A., & Henriksen, H. Z. (2018). Digital discretion: A systematic literature review of ICT and street-level discretion. Information Polity, Preprint.
  • Busch, P. A., Henriksen, H. Z., & Sæbø, Ø. (2018). Opportunities and challenges of digitized discretionary practices: a public service worker perspective. Government Information Quarterly, 35(4), 547-556.
  • Roto, V., Clemmensen, T., Väätäjä, H., & Law, E. L. C. (2018). Designing interactive systems for work engagement. Human Technology, 14(2).
  • Jensen, T. B. (2018). Digital Transformation of Work. Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, 30(2), 27-40.
  • Bødker, M. (2017). “What else is there…?”: reporting meditations in experiential computing. European Journal of Information Systems.
  • Bødker, M. & Jensen, T.B. (2017). Sounding Out IS? Moods and Affective Entanglements in Experiential Computing. The European Conference on Information Systems, Portugal.
  • Henriksen, H. Z. (forthcoming). One Step Forward and Two Steps Back: e-Government Policies in Practice. In Policy Analytics, Modelling, and Informatics: Innovative Tools for Solving Complex Social Problems, Springer.
  • Avital, M., Beck, R., King, J., Rossi, M., & Teigland, R. (2016). Jumping on the Blockchain Bandwagon: Lessons of the Past and Outlook to the Future. ICIS Proceedings 2016.
  • Stein, M. K., Jensen, T. B. (2016). Ambiguity: Unpacking the “Constant State of Limbo” Characteristic to Digitalized Work in Knowledge Professions. Paper presented at ICIS 2016 JAIS Theory Development Workshop.
  • Stein, M. K., Jensen, T. B., & Hekkala, R. (2015). Comfortably ‘Betwixt and Between’? Delimiting and Blending Space, Time, Tasks and Technology at Work. ICIS Proceedings 2015.

Funding and Industry Collaboration

  • Organizational and Managerial Issues of IS in Remote Work in Elisa (2014-2019)
  • E-ledelsesudvikling af fremtidens ledere, i-Lead, Industriens Fond (2017-2021)
  • ICT-enabled Transformation of Work, Timyo (2017-2019)

Conferences and workshops

  • ICIS 2019 track on “Future of Work” (co-chairs: Damien Joseph, Nishtha Langer and Mari-Klara Stein)
  • 5th and 6th Changing Nature of Work (CNoW) workshop at ICIS 2017, Seoul, Korea and ICIS 2018, San Francisco, USA (co-chaired by Mari-Klara Stein and João Baptista)
  • ECIS 2018 track on “Digital Organization, Work, and Beyond” (co-chairs: Michel Avital, Mari-Klara Stein, Carsten Sørensen)


Helle Zinner Henriksen

Niels Bjørn-Andersen

  • “Digitaliseringens påvirkning af finansielle virksomheder – den ambiente organization” [The impact of digitalization on financial organizations – the case of the ambient organization] at Finansforbundet, May 3rd, 2017
  • “The origin of Socio-Technical Information Systems Research in Scandinavia”at The annual symposium of the Socio-Technical Specialist Group of the British Computer Society, October 27th, 2017

Tina Blegind Jensen

  • Smart arbejde understøttet af digital teknologi – er det smart?” [Smart work enabled by digital technology – is it smart?] at CBS’s Uddannelsesadministrative Seminar, October 26th, 2017.

Mari-Klara Stein

  • IT Implementations in the Workplace: Managing Uncertainty and Ambiguity” at Sundhedsfaglig festival Sjællands Universitetshospital, September 7th, 2017


Further Information

Tina Blegind Jensen
M: +45 24794372

Mari-Klara Stein
M: +45 53550002


Blockchain in Business and Society

Blockchain, mostly known as the backbone technology behind Bitcoin, is one of the hottest and most intriguing technologies currently in the market. Global organizations and governments as well startup companies and investors have all identified blockchain as a revolutionary technology. Blockchain is a transformative technology that can change the deep structure of business organization and the human enterprise at large.  Similar to the internet, the blockchain has the potential to disrupt multiple industries by making transactions and processes more efficient, more secure, more transparent, and more democratic. Building on the promising potentials of blockchain, members of the research theme examine how the unique features and the underlying mechanisms of blockchain technology can enable the development of new blockchain-based cryptographic socio-economic systems that underlie thriving business ventures in a wide array of markets.


Further information and inquiries:

Michel Avital

Sports Digitalization

Sports Digitalization at Copenhagen Business School, Department of Digitalization

Ever since its first manifesto in Greece around 3000 years ago, sports as a field has accumulated a long history with strong traditions while at the same time, gone through tremendous changes toward professionalization and commercialization. The current waves of digitalization have intensified its evolution, as digital technologies are increasingly entrenched in a wide range of sporting activities and for applications beyond mere performance enhancement.

Though the use of digital tools in sports can be traced back to Michael Lewis’ “Moneyball” where Billy Bean, the head coach of Oakland Athletics, deployed analytics to make decisions regarding the composition of the team, nowadays digitalization in sports settings goes beyond data analytics, and expands to areas such as organizing and managing sports teams and their stakeholders, accessing and interpreting sports information, inventing new instruments and strategies that would not be possible otherwise. Further, digitalization has also led to creation of new sports – e-sports, which poses profound implications for the very nature of the sports field.

The research theme of sports digitalization focuses on the broad phenomenon of digitalization in the context of professional sports. Our goal is three-fold: (1) to examine how sports organizations have approached digitalization and utilized various digital tools across different sports areas; (2) to understand how digitalization and/or digital technologies changes the practices and the very organization of sports; (3) and to develop informed guidelines to sports organizations in their journey towards digitalization. Potential projects of the theme include but not limited to:

  • e-sports and its relationship with traditional sports
  • Sports analytics, its use and impacts
  • Digitalization of sports related experiences
  • Digitalization and the changing nature of sports


Who we are:

Further information and inquiries:

Xiao Xiao

Related publications:

Digital Anthropomorphism

Digital Anthropomorphism at Copenhagen Business School, Department of Digitalization

The research theme 'Digital Anthropomorphism' focus on the human user of technology. Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human qualities to non-humans (anthro = human, morph = shape, transform into). As customers, users, employees, workers, etc., we assign human qualities to interactive products and machines, and we design products and machines so to enhance this assignment. Our anthropomorphic perceptions influence how we interact with systems, products, machines, robots, animals, plants, and even new technology-enabled realities such as vibrant and smart environments, how much we like them, trust them, and rely on them.

What we do

Through collaborative research projects together with academic researchers and danish and international companies, the research theme contributes to increase understanding of 'Digital Anthropomorphism'. Anthropomorphism as a research topic is relatively hot (again) due to smart agents, AI, robotics, recommender systems, automation, and the arts and performances. The 'digital in 'Digital Anthropomorphism' is to signify our take on this.

Who we are

Who we work with

  • Academic researchers
  • Danish and international companies

What we have researched

For now, please see our research at


The page was last edited by: Department of Digitalization // 09/11/2019