Spotlight on new research publications in January
Photo: Bjarke MacCarthy
Are you a journalist, researcher or simply interested in academic articles on business and society?
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The following is a rough list. If you need more information, please contact the researcher.
The academic articles have been peer-reviewed, which means they have been judged by other researchers within the same area.
THE FOLLOWING IS THIS MONTH’S PEER-REVIEWED RESEARCH – ENJOY YOUR READING:
Find the abstracts under each heading.
Abstract: New Public Management har lært ledere og medarbejdere at reducere kompleksitet gennem simpel styring og kontrol. Det synes dog ikke længere at være svaret, men derimod kilden til de udfordringer, den offentlige sektor står midt i. Vi lever i det, som nogen sociologer kalder den antropocæne tidsalder. Det er et navn for den geologiske periode, hvor menneskets aktiviteter nu påvirker Jorden i en så høj en grad, at det medfører globale ændringer i jordens tilstand. I forhold til offentlig ledelse betyder den stigende kompleksitet – og behovet for at forholde os til de ekstreme kriser i det antropocæne – at der må iværksættes radikale mønsterbrud. Denne artikel argumenterer for nødvendigheden af en regenerativ bæredygtig ledelse, der tager afsæt i en kreativ æstetisk rationalitet. Og den viser, hvordan FN’s verdensmål kan omsættes til 6 mønsterbrud, der flytter blikket fra den formelle organisations interne og på forhånd givne ressourcer til et blik for stedets levende økosystemer. I stedet for et funktionsopdelt hierarki, der søger at levere serviceydelser til borgeren, banes vejen for et perspektiv, hvor alle aktører, også nonhumane, er med til at skabe lokal bærekraft. Artiklens hovedpointe er, at regenerativ bæredygtig ledelse bliver et spørgsmål om, at offentlige ledere og medarbejdere må lede den sociale bevægelse af affektive og gensidige berøringer mellem mennesker, planter, dyrearter og steder.
Published: September 2022
Contact CBS researcher: Christa Breum Amhøj
Abstract: This study examined various roles in HCI and incongruences between practitioners’ and educators’ perceptions and experiences. The incongruences are articulated through the conceptual lens of Technological Frames (TF), which are evidenced by shared understanding of theory, practice, and a common approach to practice. We conducted 21 interviews with HCI practitioners, educators, and people who both practice and teach. We adopted a template analysis approach with matrix queries to identify similarities and distinctions between the different TFs of these roles. Our findings include incongruences between these roles in how they frame and elicit users’ mental models, how they define HCI success, and their levels of enthusiasm for HCI. Congruence was found in framing communication skills, collaboration, and creativity. We contribute proposals for new requirements to frames and skills within HCI curricula that may help close the gap between education and practice. We conclude that despite some convergence across and within groups, perceptions of the HCI field are still unstable, resembling an “era of ferment.”
Abstract: This article introduces structured machine learning regressions for high-dimensional time series data potentially sampled at different frequencies. The sparse-group LASSO estimator can take advantage of such time series data structures and outperforms the unstructured LASSO. We establish oracle inequalities for the sparse-group LASSO estimator within a framework that allows for the mixing processes and recognizes that the financial and the macroeconomic data may have heavier than exponential tails. An empirical application to nowcasting US GDP growth indicates that the estimator performs favorably compared to other alternatives and that text data can be a useful addition to more traditional numerical data. Our methodology is implemented in the R package midasml, available from CRAN.
Abstract: We find that climate-related risks forecast the intraday data-based realized volatility of exchange rate returns of eight major fossil fuel exporters (Australia, Brazil, Canada, Malaysia, Mexico, Norway, Russia, and South Africa). We study several metrics capturing risks associated with climate change, derived from data directly on variables such as, for example, abnormal patterns of temperature. We control for various other moments (realized skewness, realized kurtosis, realized upside and downside variance, realized upside and downside tail risk, and realized jumps) and estimate our forecasting models using random forests, a machine learning technique tailored to analyze models with many predictors.
Abstract: We analyze how employees’ former involvement in entrepreneurship influences firm performance, defined as productivity. Such entrepreneurial human capital (EHC) complements traditional skills and human capital measures accumulated through work experience and education. Using detailed longitudinal register data, we track the previous years of entrepreneurial experience for employees in all Swedish private sector firms. We provide evidence that higher EHC among employees is associated with higher levels of labor productivity. The results imply that a 10 percent increase of employees being former entrepreneurs increases productivity by 3,9 percent in a firm. The results are robust for various outcome measures and the definitions of entrepreneurship. We propose several channels of our findings via the heterogeneity in the employees and the entrepreneurial experience and argue that the results are important at both the firm and policy levels.
Abstract: We study under which circumstances firms choose to install boards and their roles in a historical setting in which neither boards nor their duties are mandated by law. Boards arise in firms with large, heterogeneous shareholder bases. We propose that an important role of boards is to mediate between heterogeneous shareholders with divergent interests. Voting restrictions are common and ensure that boards are representative and not captured by large blockholders. Boards are given significant powers to both mediate and monitor management, and these roles are intrinsically linked.
Abstract: Research Question/Issue: The purpose of this special issue (SI) is to encourage research examining the effect of different ownership types in and from different countries on corporate governance and objectives.
Research Findings/Insights: The articles included in this SI provide novel insights as to the influence of different types of owners, including states and sovereign wealth funds, families, and different types of institutional investors, as well as of other features of ownership structures, on various aspects of corporate governance, in a variety of institutional contexts.
Theoretical/Academic Implications: As companies face different institutional contexts when they operate internationally, and shareholders have become increasingly global, the resulting heterogeneity of shareholder types poses new challenges in our understanding of their behavior. This SI is a step in the direction of disentangling the complex implications of ownership for corporate governance across institutional contexts.
Practitioner/Policy Implications: Together with other owner types, the ever-increasing $100 trillion global asset management industry representing 40% of global market capitalization (PwC, 2020) fuels corporate governance and performance pressures on portfolio companies. The articles included in the SI provide useful insights as to the new ownership landscape and its consequences for operating firms in different countries.
Abstract: Key Points: We conceptualise innovation as new interactions being created by the digital platform, in contrast to coordination which facilitates existing interactions or market transactions. We apply this framework to the DMA to assess two of the most contentious practices: self-preferencing and data-sharing. We show that these practices differ hugely in the extent to which they replace existing interactions (little to negative innovation effect), sustain existing interactions (moderate, positive innovation effect), or trigger new interactions (large, positive innovation spillovers). We thus derive that the business model agnostic approach to digital platforms taken in the DMA risks treating practices that increase the value created by an interaction equally to those that simply shift the distribution of value.
Abstract: This paper examines employee flows and the association with firm earnings and interest rates. We use administrative employer–employee matched panel data from Denmark spanning 17 years and hence exploit actual data on employee arrivals (labor inflows) and departures (labor outflows). Three main findings emerge. First, we condition by firms’ economic conditions. Departures predict earnings increases for prior-year loss firms, while they predict earnings decreases for prior-year profit firms, suggesting that this conditioning can help explain the mixed results in the literature. Arrivals predict earnings increases, though only for prior-year profit firms. These effects are stronger for high-paid employees than for low-paid ones. Second, the effects of departures are generally larger than the effects of arrivals, consistent with departures disrupting operations. Third, we find that lenders price employee flow information but only for departures of high-paid employees, despite the predictive ability of the flow of other employees for future earnings. Overall our results suggest that employee flows predict firm financial performance but are only partially priced by lenders.
Abstract: Purpose – The authors propose an alternative robust technique to test for discontinuities in distributions and provide consistent evidence of discontinuities around zero for both scaled and unscaled earnings levels and changes. The advantage of the proposed test is that it does not rely on arbitrary choice of bin width choices. Design/methodology/approach – To evaluate the power of the test, the authors examine the density function of non-discretionary earnings and detect no evidence of discontinuities around zero in levels and changes of these non-discretionary earnings. As robustness, the authors use pre-managed earnings excluding accrual and real manipulation and find similar evidence. Findings – The finding using our technique support the Burgstahler and Dichev (1997) interpretation on earnings management, even for smaller sample sizes and reject the theory that discontinuities arise from scaling and sampling methods. Originality/value – The study provides an overview of those studies that support and those that oppose using “testing for discontinuities” as a way to examine earnings management. The authors advance the literature by providing an alternative methodology supporting the view that the kink in the distribution represents earnings management.
Abstract: Collaboration across sectors is an imperative to solve complex public problems, i.e to reach the Sustainable Development Goals. This article draws particular attention to the inclusion of associations as civil society organizations, in the collaborative turn of public policymaking. The issues the collaboration raises are important. Yet, there is a gap between the discourse valuing collaboration and the difficulties actors face in practice to develop it. From a literature analysis underlining the fragmentation of knowledge, three proposals are articulated for the evolution of the research agenda : (1) Bridging of the different research fields addressing the collaborative evolution and aspirations of public policymaking and management ; (2) Developing a multilevel approach to collaboration as an actor-led process and adopting theoretical anchorages that are consistent with this aim ; (3) to the collaborative process and the adoption of theoretical assurances corresponding to this objective ; (3) The diversification of methodological approaches to collaboration.
Abstract: The effects of different temporal structures among actors in interorganizational projects can be hugely consequential, especially for large societal projects. By applying a temporal translation view to a real time study of an interorganizational project, we studied the influence of differences between such structures during the collaboration. We found that the three participating organizations, having distinctly different temporal structures, adopted different modes of translation, which we identified as integrative, adaptive, and transformative. These different modes of translations affected dramatically how the project unfolded, as they impacted differently the time and effort required to adapt to common schedules and deadlines. Our study contributes a processual extension of entrainment theory by shedding light on entrainment as ongoing accomplishment as enabled by a translation view. It also contributes to a processual understanding of the temporality of interorganizational projects.
Abstract: This explorative article contributes by investigating technology upgrading in 23 manufacturing industries in China 1995–2015. We find not only industry-specific trends in the intensity of technology upgrading but also variations in terms of global interactions. Whereas, Chinese manufacturing industries differ considerably when it comes to the relevance of foreign actors for the commercialisation of frontier technology, the sourcing of foreign technology by Chinese actors remains low in all industries. In addition, we find positive relations between the intensity of technology upgrading and imports, inward FDI, and outward FDI at the industry level. However, there are no strong signs of a corresponding link between technology upgrading and revealed comparative advantages in exports. Moreover, we find only weak evidence of faster technology upgrading in the industries identified as ‘strategic’ by the Chinese Government.
Abstract: Behaviourists treat habits as thoughtlessly undertaken actions. Pragmatists, by contrast, emphasise the role intelligence plays in habit’s cultivation. Although organisational analysts have tended to prefer behavioural approaches to habit, pragmatism has been recently resurgent. This paper analyses how David Foster Wallace’s Infinite Jest dramatises this hermeneutical dichotomy. The novel, we demonstrate, represents the difference between terminal decline and lasting sobriety by opposing the fates of two characters: the suffering addict (Randy Lenz) is characterised mechanistically whereas the recovering addict (Don Gately) is characterised experientially. Infinite Jest’s fictionalisation of addiction and recovery, we claim, emphasises the saving power of pragmatism. Wallace’s novel can therefore be read as another contribution towards the ongoing recovery of pragmatism both within and beyond organisation studies.
Abstract: Lately, cultural sociologists have been engaged in theorizing the complexity and ambiguities of border-crossing translations from a variety of research strings. This article contributes to this theorizing by developing the concept of interstitial institutions as ongoing sites of translations. Building on the history of gift-giving practices of Danish philanthropic organizations from the enactment of the Danish constitution in 1849 till today, the article broadens and expands on civil sphere theory (CST) in three ways. First, it shows how interstitial institutions are an important site of translation because they work as a lock on the border between the non-civil and civil spheres, and this dual membership inevitably leads to ongoing boundary tensions. Second, the study of interstitial institutions provides insights into how civil repair is molded by cultural-historical contexts and narratives and consequently fertilizes particular ways of mobilizing cultural codes. Third, studying interstitial institutions and their translation practices emphasizes and strengthens CST’s processual ground.
Abstract: How does the pursuit of transparency and insight tend to produce secrecy and vice versa? In popular and political discourse, secrecy and transparency are usually depicted as mutually exclusive practices. At the same time, we know from extant research that the two are closely related, that they each have performative effects, and tend to encroach on each other. The inseparability and performative dynamics between the two, however, remains to be unfolded. This critical essay revisits the secrecy-transparency relationship through the lens of Edgar Morin’s dialogical principle. From this perspective, we argue that secrecy-transparency dialogics perform as a complex whole, involving both complementary and antagonistic forces. As an illustration of dialogic performativity, we draw on the phenomenon and practice of ‘open meetings’ in public sector organizations. Specifically, we argue that the ambiguous fascination with knowing and not knowing create conditions for simulated insight and self-imposed conformity in ways that recalibrate the relationship between transparency and secrecy. On this background, we call for renewed critical and reflexive engagement with the transparency ideal and its presumed antipode, secrecy.
Abstract: “Woke” companies are those that are committed to socially progressive causes, with a particular focus on diversity, equity, and inclusion as these terms are understood through the lens of critical theory. There is little evidence of systematic support for woke ideas among executives and the population at large, and going woke does not appear to improve company performance. Why, then are so many firms embracing woke policies and attitudes? We suggest that going woke is an emergent strategy that is largely shaped by middle managers rather than owners, top managers, or employees. We build on theories from intra-organizational ecology to argue that new variation is introduced when middle managers and support personnel use their delegated responsibility and specialist status to engage in woke internal advocacy, which may increase their influence and job security. Broader social and cultural trends tend to reinforce this process. We discuss implications for organizational behavior and performance including perceived corporate hypocrisy (“woke-washing”), the potential loss of creativity from restricting viewpoint diversity, and the need for companies to track the evolving woke frontier.
Abstract: Core organization design issues have emerged in recent popular and influential discussions of managers and organizations, specifically in a genre of writing—the “bossless company narrative”—that declares that the classic managerial hierarchy is dead. In this article, we review our critical discussion of this genre in our book, Why Managers Still Matter, arguing that the narrative manifests bad empiricism and half-baked organization theory. However, we also raise the possibility of a charitable reading of the genre: it points to themes in organization design theory that are currently underdeveloped, notably with respect to, for example, the impact of organizational structure and control on employee motivations and the importance of contingencies such as the characteristics of knowledge for organization design.
Abstract: Digitalisering har stor indflydelse på de fleste virksomhedsøkonomiske fagfelter – herunder performance management. I denne artikel diskuterer vi, hvordan to centrale dele af digitalisering – Big Data og algoritmer – påvirker evalueringen af virksomheders ansatte. Dette er en nøgleproblemstilling indenfor performance management. Vi argumenterer for, at Big Data potentielt kan forbedre evalueringer ved at skabe mere objektiv information, men vi understreger også, at mange af de grundproblemer der er forbundet med evalueringer, ikke forsvinder med digitaliseringen og tværtimod nogle gange forstærkes. I relation til brugen af algoritmer viser vi, at algoritmer kan skabe problemer i forhold til gennemsigtigheden i, hvordan evalueringerne foretages. Overordnet ser vi digitalisering som et blandt mange elementer i en given organisatorisk kontekst, der påvirker kvaliteten af evalueringerne af de ansatte. Derfor kan man heller ikke analysere digitaliseringens effekter isoleret set uden at tage andre organisatoriske forhold, som f.eks. de incitamenter og de arbejdsopgaver evalueringen er rettet imod, med i analysen.
Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to further the understanding of how the regulatory foci of the multinational enterprises (MNE) headquarters and the subsidiary lead to internal legitimacy crises. This paper discusses how pragmatic and moral legitimacy crises affect relational social capital.
Design/methodology/approach: The paper is conceptual. Findings: This paper highlights the importance of internal legitimacy as well as the motivational orientations of headquarters and subsidiaries for the functioning of MNEs. Internal legitimacy management is crucial for building relational social capital. This study proposes that legitimacy crises are particularly likely to occur in cases of goal incongruence between headquarters and subsidiaries. This study postulates that organizations with a promotion-oriented institutional logic are concerned by the absence of pragmatic legitimacy processes. In contrast, given their aim of protecting the status quo, prevention-oriented institutional logic MNEs are concerned about the absence of moral legitimacy.
Originality/value: To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first to explore the relationship between regulatory focus, internal legitimacy and relational social capital.
Abstract: Studies of sexual harassment in professional contexts, including academia, provide detailed explanations of the predominance and pervasiveness of sexist organizational norms that enable harassing behavior—and offer a thorough critique of the structures and practices that support and reproduce these norms. When sexist organizational norms are linked to acts of sexual harassment, it becomes clear that harassment is systemic, and that organizations tend to justify and excuse the very norms and behaviors that propagate harassment. Focusing on the context of Danish universities, we do not ask whether sexism exists in Danish society generally and in academia specifically, but rather, why issues of systemic sexism and normalized sexual harassment have been ignored for so long and how sexist organizational norms have been maintained. Based on an investigation of prevalent rhetorical strategies for legitimating sexual harassment and gendered discrimination, we discuss how recognizing these strategies may translate into concerted action against them. Introducing queer organization studies as a lever for such translation, we suggest that a norm-critical approach may, first, explain how currently dominant norms offer sexist excuses for continued harassment and, consequently, delegitimize and change these unjust norms and the untenable practices they support.
Abstract: Management and organization studies have long been interested in the social contexts and enduring consequences of individual and collective action. Yet empirically observing both the situated nature of actions and their ultimate consequences remains challenging. In this paper, we describe microhistory as a complementary approach to grounded and longitudinal studies that reconciles situated action in time with its broader consequences over time. Microhistorical research involves the reflexive use of dual temporal frames: a microtemporal frame suited for an empirically grounded study of individuals in time and a macrotemporal frame accounting for processes of continuity and change in social structures over time. We describe the epistemology, method, and form inherent in theorizing with microhistory and consider its potential for management researchers. Microhistory's approach, we recognize, is well-suited to several phenomena that remain elusive to contemporaneous and longitudinal studies. For example, exceptional normal actions, unintended consequences, non-linear and emergent processes, contingent process, and unobserved or inconceivable processes. Finally, we consider how microhistory's reflexive temporality offers management scholars opportunities to situate ourselves and our own theorizing in time and to account for their evolving consequences over time.
Abstract: Reviews of: Baars, G. (2019) The corporation, law and capitalism: A radical perspective on the role of law in the global political economy. Leiden and Boston: Brill. Historical Materialism Book Series, volume 188, (HB, pp. xx + 498, €155.00/$186.00, ISBN: 978-90-04-29707-4).
Baars, G. and A. Spicer (eds.) (2017) The corporation: A critical, multi-disciplinary handbook. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (HB, pp. xi + 554, £99.99, ISBN: 978-1-107-07311-1)
Abstract: I study a registry-based dataset of Swedish mutual fund managers’ personal portfolios. The majority of managers do not invest personal wealth into the very same funds they professionally manage. The managers who do invest personal money into their funds subsequently outperform the managers who do not. The results suggest that fund managers, in contrast to regular investors, are certain about their ability to generate an abnormal return, or lack thereof, and invest their personal wealth accordingly.
Journal: Global Focus: Annual Research
Contact CBS researcher: Alan Irwin
Abstract: Purpose Artificial intelligence (AI) has gained significant momentum in recent years. Among AI-infused systems, one prominent application is context-aware systems. Although the fusion of AI and context awareness has given birth to personalized and timely AI-powered context-aware systems, several challenges still remain. Given the “black box” nature of AI, the authors propose that human–AI collaboration is essential for AI-powered context-aware services to eliminate uncertainty and evolve. To this end, this study aims to advance a research agenda for facilitators and outcomes of human–AI collaboration in AI-powered context-aware services.
Design/methodology/approach Synthesizing the extant literature on AI and context awareness, the authors advance a theoretical framework that not only differentiates among the three phases of AI-powered context-aware services (i.e. context acquisition, context interpretation and context application) but also outlines plausible research directions for each stage.
Findings The authors delve into the role of human–AI collaboration and derive future research questions from two directions, namely, the effects of AI-powered context-aware services design on human–AI collaboration and the impact of human–AI collaboration.
Originality/value This study contributes to the extant literature by identifying knowledge gaps in human–AI collaboration for AI-powered context-aware services and putting forth research directions accordingly. In turn, their proposed framework yields actionable guidance for AI-powered context-aware service designers and practitioners.
Abstract: Carbfix, an Icelandic green tech pioneer, has attracted worldwide attention for its novel solution to fight climate change by capturing and storing CO2 safely in basalt rock and eliminating it from the atmosphere. This study explores how responsible ownership can drive innovative solutions to deal with climate change and foster a sustainable future. An exploratory case study using archival data was applied, which provided evidence of relationship between responsible ownership and sustainable technology commercialization. The results show that an effective ownership strategy strengthens a focus on the SDGs on climate action. The results demonstrate as well how responsible ownership produces an innovative green tech solution throughout a long-time horizon to address CO2 reduction and commercialization. This study’s originality is that it delves into the business facets of a green pioneer by exploring the relationship between owners and green tech innovation. The theoretical contribution is on advancing the literature on responsible ownership in innovation and technology for the transition to a sustainable future. Using grounded theory methodology to analyze the empirical data, it is concluded that owners practicing responsible ownership can overcome many of the barriers to bringing innovative green tech solutions to market.
Abstract: The U.S. housing boom from 2000 to 2006 consisted of two fundamentally different phases. An increase in foreign credit supply (a savings glut) can explain the initial countercyclical run-up in house prices from 2000 through 2002, whereas an increase in domestic credit demand –driven by a relaxation of domestic credit standards– can explain the subsequent procyclical boom phase from 2003 to 2006. A tightening of domestic credit standards can fully explain the bust from 2007 to 2010. I base these conclusions on a quantitative open economy model with housing and collateralized foreign debt. Countercyclical government spending financed by a lump sum tax stabilizes house prices, output and domestic inflation over the entire boom period, pushes the economy away from the zero lower bound, and raises domestic utility.
Abstract: Denne artikel introducerer en model til at imødegå fremtidige kriser ved opbygning af resiliens, altså robusthed. På den anden side, skal robustheden ikke overgøres, da det resulterer i, at virksomhederne – og dermed forsyningskæderne – bliver in-effektive. Forfatterne præsenterer en model, der tager højde for den balancegang.
Abstract: Does national culture influence entrepreneurship? Given that entrepreneurship and the economic, formal institutional, and cultural characteristics of nations are deeply intertwined and co-vary, it is difficult to isolate the effect of culture on entrepreneurship. In this study, we examine the self-employment choices of second-generation immigrants who were born, educated, and currently live in one country, but were raised by parents stemming from another country. We argue that entrepreneurship is influenced by durable, portable, and intergenerationally transmitted cultural imprints such that second-generation immigrants are more likely to become entrepreneurs if their parents originate from countries characterized by a strong entrepreneurial culture. Our multilevel analysis of two independent samples –65,323 second-generation immigrants of 52 different ancestries who were born, raised, and live in the United States and 4,165 second-generation immigrants of 31 ancestries in Europe– shows that entrepreneurial culture is positively associated with the likelihood that individuals are entrepreneurs. Our results are robust to alternative non-cultural explanations, such as differences in resource holdings, labor market discrimination, and direct parent-child linkages. Overall, our study highlights the durability, portability, and intergenerational transmission of entrepreneurial culture as well as the profound impact of national culture on entrepreneurship.
Abstract: This article proposes a new typology between professional and voluntary care, thus seeking to understand why attempts to establish clear boundaries between them often end in ambiguity and frustration. We argue that because both forms of care represent their own unique and paradoxical ways of combining formal and relational care principles, any attempt to fix the boundaries between them and create the sense of a predictable world usually proves challenging. As such, we show that the two different care practices, in fact, have severe difficulties drawing their boundaries on their own terms. Finally, we consider how these insights might enhance efforts to manage collaborations between professional and voluntary care delivery.
Abstract: Finansministeriet udstedte i perioden november-december 2008 30-årige fastforrentede danske statsobligationer i flere omgange for i alt 87,6 mia. kr. Disse lån er efterfølgende blevet kritiseret for at have været dyre for staten. Det førte i august 2021 til et ønske fra Statsrevisorerne om en rapport fra Rigsrevisionen både om lånoptagelsen i 2008 og om Finansministerens svar i samråd i Folketingets Finansudvalg i 2017 om disse udstedelser og deres begrundelse. I april 2022 kom en rapport fra Rigsrevisionen med Statsrevisorernes bemærkninger. Der var stærk kritik af de sidste lånoptagelser, omfattende i alt 27,6 mia. kr. Kritikken gik både på selve lånoptagelserne og på manglende begrundelser for optagelse af disse lån. I denne artikel anlægger vi en lidt anden synsvinkel på forløbet end Rigsrevisionen og Statsrevisorerne. Vi mener, at ATP, Finansministeriet og Nationalbanken også fortjener betydelig ros.
Abstract: There is increasing interest in the study of globalization on whether the emergence and consolidation of global value chains (GVCs) have exacerbated inequalities within and across nations and/or how GVCs may be leveraged to mitigate them. Although power asymmetries have been identified as a central factor shaping (un)successful GVC participation, dominant discourses still disregard the links between power and inequality or use these concepts interchangeably. In this article, we provide an analytical approach to GVC-related inequalities (within, along and through value chains) and examine how they may co-evolve with different types of power (bargaining, demonstrative, institutional and constitutive). We apply this approach to the case study of the hake value chain in South Africa to illustrate how existing inequalities are manifested, challenged, mitigated or exacerbated—and draw an agenda for future research.
Abstract: This study demonstrates the importance of accounting for correlated unobserved heterogeneity to correctly identify the relevance of career and education for fertility decisions. By exploiting individual-level life-cycle information on fertility, career and education from large administrative longitudinal datasets, this paper shows that non-linear panel models produce substantially different results than the cross-sectional approaches widely used in previous studies. Higher opportunity costs of having children are found to be associated with lower fertility within a country, while the magnitude of the adjustment differs strongly across countries. In Germany, fertility decisions are found to depend more on individual circumstances than in France, where better public childcare support enhances the compatibility between family and professional life.
Abstract: Objective This study uses time diaries to examine how parents' work arrangements shaped their time use at home and work during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Background The pandemic transformed home and work life for parents, disrupting employment and childcare. The shift to work from home offered more flexibility to manage increased care burdens, but the lack of separation between work and family also likely contributed to more challenging work environments, especially among mothers.
Method This study relies on the 2017–2020 American Time Use Survey and matching to estimate changes in time use among parents working from home and on site in the pandemic relative to comparable parents prior to the pandemic.
Results Data showed no overall increases in primary childcare time among working parents. Parents working from home during the pandemic, however, spent more time in the presence of children and supervising children, much in combination with paid work. Mothers working from home increased their supervisory parenting while working for pay more than fathers, and they more often changed their paid work schedules. The study's main findings were robust to gendered unemployment and labor force exits.
Conclusion Parents, especially mothers, working from home responded to childcare demands through multitasking and schedule changes with potential negative effects on work quality and stress. Parents working on site during the pandemic experienced smaller changes in time use.
Implications The pandemic has generated new inequalities between those with and without the flexibility to work from home, and exacerbated gender inequalities among those working from home
Abstract: Smart living represents the hardware-software co-habiting with humans for better living standards and improved well being. Here, hardware monitors human activities (by collecting data) specific to a context. Such data can be processed to offer valuable context-specific insights. Such insights can be used for optimizing the well being, living experience, and energy cost of smart homes. This article proposes the Secure Embedded Living Framework (SELF), which enforces a privacy-preserving data control mechanism by integrating multiple technologies, such as the Internet of Things, cloud/fog platform, machine learning, and blockchain. The primary aim of SELF is to allow the user to retain more control of its data.
Abstract: Kunstig Intelligens (eng. forkortelse, AI) bringer løfter om at kunne løse mange af de problemer, den offentlige sektor har kæmpet med i årtier. Ofte opfattes AI her som en mere eller mindre færdig og stabil ”ting”, der er klar til at blive implementeret i organisationer, når man beslutter sig for det. Når vi iagttager et offentligt AI-projekt ud fra et CCO-perspektiv via begreberne dislokal og presentificeret, fremstår AI som et sociomaterielt sammenvævet og situeret fænomen, som forandrer sig over tid, og vi kan derfor stille spørgsmålet om, hvilke former for situeret ledelsesarbejde der udfolder sig, når organisationer beslutter sig for at anvende AI. Vi har gennemført etnografiske observationer over halvandet år i et dansk, tværkommunalt AI-projekt, og analysen heraf viser, at AI-digitalisering blandt andet realiseres gennem forhandlinger af, hvad AI er og kan være. Disse forhandlinger indebærer et ledelsesarbejde, der dog i vid udstrækning er usynligt i den forstand, at det er undervurderet og overset i mange af de fremstillinger, der fremhæver AI som en færdig løsning.
Abstract: We provide a unifying framework for the evaluation of population health. We formalize several axioms for social preferences over distributions of health. We show that a speciﬁc combination of those axioms characterizes a large class of population health evaluation functions combining concerns for quality of life, quantity of life and health shortfalls. We refer to the class as (unweighted) aggregations of health-adjusted life years (HALYs). Two focal (and somewhat polar) members of this family are the (unweighted) aggregations of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). We also provide new characterization results for these focal members that enable us to scrutinize their normative foundations and shed new light on their similarities and diﬀerences.
Abstract: The island economy of Papua New Guinea (PNG) is facing severe electricity shortages and is therefore turning to implementing broader power sector reforms as a vehicle to attract private capital and investments in electricity generation. This study, based on a case-study approach, revisits the reform progress and plans in the electricity sector of PNG alongside the development and integration of IPPs in its small power system. Lessons of reform experiences and IPPs integration are drawn from three other smaller power systems belonging to Nepal, Nicaragua and the Northern Territory of Australia including stakeholder consultations, which includes two IPPs of PNG. We find a widening gap between reform ‘theory’ and ‘practice’ in the PNG power sector. Cost reflective pricing is implemented but cost recovery is never achieved by the vertically integrated state-owned utility while the insolvency of this state-owned single buyer poses the greatest perceived revenue risk to the IPPs. This lack of revenue reimbursement to the IPPs by the single buyer is a barrier towards attracting private capital into electricity generation We recommend that strong political will and strengthening of institutional arrangements are urgent reform measures to attract private capital in power generation as political instability continue.
Abstract: Projektet “Religion – levende kulturarv” har givet en række konkrete erfaringer omkring arbejdet med religion på kulturhistoriske museer og samspillet med nye og etablerede brugergrupper, og vi har også gjort os erfaringer omkring samarbejdet mellem forskellige fagmiljøer, på tværs af fagligheder og kontekster. Denne artikel er en konklusion på hele udgivelsen og samler vores overvejelser om disse aspekter.
Abstract: Researchers and practitioners are increasingly interested in understanding how organizations transform their value proposition and practices using digital technologies. While extant literature offers important empirical and theoretical insights into digital transformation in individual organizations, we know little about how adopting organizations within an organizational field react differently over time to the same digital transformation initiative. This is unfortunate, as such insights can help scholars and managers understand option repertoires and constraints in handling digital transformation ideas that travel into organizations. Against this backdrop, we had access to a unique case over an eighteen-year period, which shows how organizations within the Danish homecare field reacted differently to a nation-wide digital transformation initiative on mobile technology use. To analyze this case, we applied the Virus Theory as a promising perspective for examining how and why the same digital technology and transformation idea occasions different reactions in similar contexts. Our analysis highlights the emerging, fluctuating, and consequential nature of digital transformation within the Danish homecare field that led to very different reactions across the adopting organizations. Drawing on this analysis, we contribute to the expanding literature on digital transformation by providing theoretical and practical knowledge about variations in how organizations within an organizational field react over time to digital transformation ideas.
Abstract: Extant research on the gender pay gap suggests that men and women who do the same work for the same employer receive similar pay, so that processes sorting people into jobs are thought to account for the vast majority of the pay gap. Data that can identify women and men who do the same work for the same employer are rare, and research informing this crucial aspect of gender differences in pay is several decades old and from a limited number of countries. Here, using recent linked employer–employee data from 15 countries, we show that the processes sorting people into different jobs account for substantially less of the gender pay differences than was previously believed and that within-job pay differences remain consequential.
Abstract: Policy-capturing (PC) methodologies have been employed to study decision-making, and to assess how decision-makers use available information when asked to evaluate hypothetical situations. An important assumption of the PC techniques is that respondents develop cognitive models to help them efficiently process the many information cues provided while reviewing a large number of decision scenarios. With this study, we seek to analyze the process of answering a PC study. We do this by investigating the information acquisition and the cognitive processes behind policy-capturing, building on cognitive and attention research and exploiting the tools of eye-tracking. Additionally, we investigate the role of experience in mediating the relationship between the information processed and judgments in order to determine how the cognitive models of student samples differ from those of professionals. We find evidence of increasing efficiency as a function of practice when respondents undergo the PC experiment. We also detect a selective process on information acquisition; such selection is consistent with the respondents’ evaluation. While some differences are found in the information processing among the split sample of students and professionals, remarkable similarities are detected. Our study adds confidence to the assumption that respondents build cognitive models to handle the large amounts of information presented in PC experiments, and the defection of such models is not substantially affected by the applied sample.
Abstract: This article explores the use of participatory art and technology workshops as an approach to create more diverse and inclusive modes of engagement in the design of digital technologies. Taking the starting point in diverse works of science fiction, we draw on the concept of critical making and Ursula Le Guin’s disdain for the distinction between hard and soft technology to discuss the role of collaborative reimagining in the creation of technological futures. Such an approach facilitates a nuanced and reflected understanding for how technologies come to be designed and can empower more open and diverse participation in technology development.
Abstract:Solving a workhorse incomplete markets model in continuous time is many times faster compared to its discrete time counterpart. This paper dissects the computational discrepancies and identifies the key bottlenecks. The implicit finite difference method – a commonly used tool in continuous time – accounts for a large share of the difference. This method is shown to be a special case of Howard’s improvement algorithm, efficiently implemented by relying on sparse matrix operations. By representing the policy function with a transition matrix it is possible to formulate a similar procedure in discrete time, which effectively eliminates the differences in run-times entirely.
Abstract: Der er begrænset viden om, hvordan virksomhederne selv opfatter revisor og revisors erklæringer. Vi har derfor undersøgt betydningen af revisor og revisors erklæringer for små virksomheder.
Abstract: This study examines new product development (NPD) processes in high-technology new product ventures in the emerging market context. Drawing upon the knowledge-based view and the capability-based view, we propose a model that characterizes relationships between NPD process execution stages and product competitive advantage, and accounts for the moderating effects of NPD integration mechanisms on these relationships. Our model also explains how pricing capabilities can become a liability that undermines how product advantage impacts new product performance. We test this framework within an emerging market context that has been notably absent from the literature. Our data are generated from 187 new product projects and a follow-up of 83 projects, from Chinese high-technology ventures. We identify important theoretical interdependencies within our structural model results. Specifically, marketing–technical integration positively moderates the relationship between product development and testing capability and commercialization capability, while new product implementation capability positively moderates the relationship of commercialization capability and product competitive advantage. Yet, penetration pricing capability negatively moderates the link between product competitive advantage and new product performance.
Abstract: This paper aims to explore key pillars of supply chain competitiveness (SCC) and understand how top supply chains remain competitive in the long term. The research design is divided into two phases. First, an extensive review of the scholarly SCC literature is conducted to identify the core pillars that help achieve SCC. Second, the literature published in practitioner outlets on the five selected companies of Gartner’s Supply Chain Top 25 is scrutinized to understand how top supply chains apply the core pillars of SCC in practice. A total of 193 scientific and practitioner articles were analyzed to develop the key pillars of SCC. This study identified six key pillars of SCC in the literature: innovation, sustainability, collaboration, information technology, agility, and flexibility. It has been found that a combination of these pillars, if not all, will be required to remain competitive in the post-COVID-19 era
Abstract: Consumer information is an increasingly valuable resource in the digitally interconnected modern world. Globally, the number of firms collecting and exploiting consumer information to optimize their marketing efforts is increasing rapidly. The authors determine how four cultural dimensions—power distance, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, and long-term orientation—affect consumers’ willingness to share their personal information with firms (WTS). The authors empirically test the direct effect of national culture on WTS, as well as its moderating effect on the link between WTS and two of its key drivers, privacy concerns and perceived benefits. Drawing on regulatory focus theory, the authors develop a conceptual framework and test it using multilevel modeling on data from 15,045 consumers across 24 countries. The empirical findings demonstrate that national culture directly affects WTS and moderates the effects of both privacy concerns and perceived benefits on WTS. These results highlight the need for managers and marketers to consider international cultural differences when collecting consumer information.
Abstract: Discretion is a central topic in the literature on service delivery of frontline professionals, especially in the light of neoliberal transformations in all welfare states. Previous studies have focused on exploring “discretionary space” and its meaning for service delivery, but these studies have not been able to clearly identify single determinants of perceived discretion. This study aims to contribute to the discussion by investigating factors that influence perceived discretion. To this end, data were examined from a nationwide survey of Swedish frontline professionals (N = 1319) within two major welfare organizations: the Public Employment Service and the Swedish Social Insurance Agency. Hierarchical OLS regression was applied, resulting in the identification of two major influencing factors. Frontline professionals who reported higher levels of work pressure showed less perceived discretion, and frontline professionals working at the Public Employment Service showed higher levels of perceived discretion than those working at the Social Insurance Agency, highlighting the importance of organizational context for discretion. Greater work experience also proved to increase the feeling of having discretion at work. The results of this paper add to the existing literature by proposing a model of factors that are important for perceived discretion by frontline professionals.
Abstract: Sustainability labels provide consumers with information about the production process, but the number of specialized labels is increasing rapidly. Different label combinations on one product can lead to trade-offs for consumers since sustainability dimensions, e.g., animal welfare and climate impact, may conflict. Consumers may face a combination of sustainability labels where not all characteristics are positive. The likelihood of a combination of positive and negative labels is particularly high when certain labels become mandatory. It is unclear how this influences the decision-making of consumers. This study analyzes the effect of different multi-level sustainability labels: animal welfare label, climate label, and a binary label (organic), and a nutritional label: the Nutri-Score on two food products. We measured the willingness to pay (WTP) for chicken breast and whole milk for different label combinations using a discrete choice experiment with 985 German consumers. Our results provide first indications that the presence of a sustainability label does not diminish the marginal utility of another sustainability label and that the effects of a negative label on the WTP cannot be compensated by a positive label. Consumers can handle two different types of labels at the same time and seem to be able to cope even with contradictory information in a trade-off situation between different sustainability dimensions. For manufacturers, this means that they should avoid scoring negatively on any sustainability dimension.
Abstract: The study presents the first computational model of COVID vaccine stigma that can identify stigmatised sentiment with a high level of accuracy and generalises well across a number of social media platforms. The aim of the study is to understand the lexical features that are prevalent in COVID vaccine discourse and disputes between anti-vaccine and pro-vaccine groups. This should provide better insight for healthcare authorities, enabling them to better navigate those discussions. The study collected posts and their comments related to COVID vaccine sentiment in English, from Reddit, Twitter, and YouTube, for the period from April 2020 to March 2021. The labels used in the model, “stigma”, “not stigma”, and “undefined”, were collected from a smaller Facebook (Meta) dataset and successfully propagated into a larger dataset from Reddit, Twitter, and YouTube. The success of the propagation task and consequent classification is a result of state-of-the-art annotation scheme and annotated dataset. Deep learning and pre-trained word vector embedding significantly outperformed traditional algorithms, according to two-tailed P(T≤t) test and achieved F1 score of 0.794 on the classification task with three classes. Stigmatised text in COVID anti-vaccine discourse is characterised by high levels of subjectivity, negative sentiment, anxiety, anger, risk, and healthcare references. After the first half of 2020, anti-vaccination stigma sentiment appears often in comments to posts attempting to disprove COVID vaccine conspiracy theories. This is inconsonant with previous research findings, where anti-vaccine people stayed primarily within their own in-group discussions. This shift in the behaviour of the anti-vaccine movement from affirming climates to ones with opposing opinions will be discussed and elaborated further in the study.
Abstract: This study contributes to the literature on public innovation by investigating how the imperative to innovate is interpreted and enacted on the frontlines. By constructing a case based on interviews with 20 first-line managers in the childcare sector, this study examines how these frontline managers interpret the innovation imperative and how they enact it by efforts to engage employees in the translation of innovation into practice. Three methods to engage staff in translating innovation into practice are identified: interpretation and adaptation of new ideas; experimentation in practice; and collegial reflection processes. The study draws on translation theory to understand how frontline organizations utilize innovation activities during everyday operations in order to integrate new ideas into existing practices. This is important for advancing our knowledge about the implications of the normative framing of innovation in public service organizations.
Abstract: Composite materials have a wide range of applications in emerging eco-friendly environments. Composites that created from naturally available materials are easily decomposed over time and very cost-effective. Fly ash and sugarcane fiber are widely available waste materials produced on a massive scale. This research was aimed to find an optimal mixture of reinforced composites (fly ash, sugarcane fiber and CNTs) in order to maximize yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and Young’s modulus using a Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm with Decomposition (MOEA/D). Optimizing one objective may have a negative impact on another objective, so the authors used the sophisticated MOEA/D algorithm to simultaneously find optimal values on all three objectives. The Design of Experiments (DOE) method was performed using ANOVA, and then regression equations were generated. The regression equations were optimized using the MOEA/D algorithm to obtain optimal values. Using the optimal compositional values produced by the algorithm, materials were fabricated. The fabricated materials were tested using a Shimadzu UTM machine to cross-validate the findings. A combination of 0.2 wt.% of fly ash, 2 wt.% of SCF, and 0.39 wt.% of CNTs showed a maximum yield strength of 7.52 MPa and Young’s modulus of 1281.18 MPa, with a quite considerable ultimate tensile strength of 10.54 MPa compared with the optimized results obtained through the response surface methodology.
Abstract: Sustainable entrepreneurship can contribute to sustainable development by seeking synergies between social, environmental and economic outcomes, turning market failures into commercial opportunities. However, institutional conditions often act to obstruct sustainable entrepreneurs. While policy is instrumental in shaping conditions for entrepreneurship, how policy can best support sustainable ventures specifically is under-researched. This study uses a novel crowdsourcing approach with multiple actors in the sustainable entrepreneurship ecosystem to explore how policy can create conditions conducive to sustainable entrepreneurship. An emergent multi-level policy framework outlines six mechanisms by which this may be achieved: resource prioritisation, competency building, sustainable market creation, networked sharing, collaborative replication, and impact valuation. These mechanisms enable three interconnected policy objectives: enterprise creation, system transformation, and impact reorientation. The study thereby makes four main contributions to literature on sustainable entrepreneurship and policy. First, it reveals the importance of a ‘meso-level’ of policy that supports the sustainable entrepreneurship ecosystem, complementing micro-level supply-side and macro-level demand-side policies. Second, it proposes a policy focus not just on enterprises and how they are grown, but on sustainability-oriented innovations and how they are replicated. Third, it identifies the need for ‘impact re-orientation’ policies that track and optimise entrepreneurs' individual and collective triple-bottom-line impacts. Fourth, the study exemplifies a promising crowdsourcing method of co-creating policy.
Abstract: Cities worldwide are struggling to build resilience to the risks posed by climate change for their infrastructures, economies and quality of life. However, no city government has sufficient capacities to fund the adaptations required to ensure such resilience alone. Copenhagen’s efforts to secure financing for adaptation and mitigation are investigated, focusing on its innovative arrangements for funding projects to protect against extreme rainfall and flooding. A mixed-methods approach explores how municipal actors and investors accessed finance for supporting transition to a climate-adapted city. Mobilising concepts from the multilevel perspective to analyse the governance and market conditions that facilitate or impede such financing, this paper contributes to sustainable transition theory and the assessment of different funding approaches. The case study confirms the comprehensiveness and effective implementation of the city’s plans, especially its innovative financing product for adaptation to urban flooding. However, this approach has knock-on effects for tackling other climate hazards, partnerships and investment urgency. Although extreme rainfall events in 2011–13 opened a valuable ‘window of opportunity’ for change at the system landscape level, catalysing a radical shift in government policy and investment, this disruption did not elicit a commensurate response from the city’s finance sector.
Abstract: Research has linked cultural differences between a sojourner’s home and host country with their cultural transformation. Nonetheless, the results of empirical studies are inconclusive due to different operationalizations of cultural differences and testing among different groups of sojourners. We extend previous investigations by examining the effects of cultural novelty (i.e., the subjective perception of cultural differences) on the experience of international students (N = 1114) in Denmark, Germany, Italy, Poland, and the USA. Drawing on acculturation and social learning theories, we conceptualized a model of students’ adjustment and satisfaction taking into account cultural novelty. We tested the model through multi-group structural equation modeling (SEM) and examined the various relationships across subsamples from all five countries. We determined the significant effects of cultural novelty and a range of factors impacting students’ intercultural experience, such as their cultural intelligence, cultural background, second-language skills, time in the host country, and socialization with domestic students, and how the effects may vary by the host country. We discuss implications for future research and practice.
Abstract: In new democracies, political parties often use clientelist strategies to mobilize voters during elections. In this paper, we show that political machines systematically use vote buying to target voters with low costs of voting. We employ a geo-coded survey of 3,192 respondents collected immediately after the municipal elections of 2016 in South Africa. We combine the survey data with administrative data on the geographical location of more than 22,600 polling stations. Our identification strategy exploits discontinuities in distances to vote generated by voting district boundaries in South Africa. This allows us to proxy the cost of voting with distance to the polling station and estimate the causal effect of the cost of voting on parties’ use of vote buying. The results have important implications for core assumptions concerning parties’ targeting strategies, and for how electoral institutions shape the linkage strategies parties use to mobilize political support.
Abstract: Diffusion of hydrogen refueling stations (HRS) is key for promotion of hydrogen vehicles. We explore the nexus between critical stakeholders in the HRS industry from a game perspective. We model the three main actors in the policy for the development of HRS in Chinese hydrogen pilot cities, i.e. the public sector, the private investor, and the consumer. The tripartite evolutionary game analyzes the interaction of subsidy provision, HRS investment, and fuel consumption. We examine the evolutionary stable strategy of the system and propose a policy mechanism for setting the values of key parameters to promote active cooperation in the HRS diffusion. The simulation validates the equilibrium solution of the game, performs sensitivity analyses of initial probabilities and key parameters, and obtains the threshold values of subsidy and hydrogen price triggering a cooperative behavior. Furthermore, we find that, while there are several ways to stimulate cooperation such as subsidy provision and cost reduction, boosting the initial probabilities of actors to choose cooperative strategies is most effective for leading the game system to the ideal outcome. Accordingly, we offer recommendations on how to improve the actors' initial willingness to cooperate by enhancing the formulation and enforcement of regulations.