Følg med i CBS’ nye forskningsudgivelser / December
Photo: Bjarke MacCarthy
Are you a journalist, researcher or simply interested in academic articles on business and society?
Sign up for this newsletter to receive a monthly update on the latest research publications at CBS.
The following is a rough list. If you need more information, please contact the researcher.
The academic articles have been peer-reviewed, which means they have been judged by other researchers within the same area.
THE FOLLOWING IS THIS MONTH’S PEER-REVIEWED RESEARCH – ENJOY YOUR READING:
Find the abstracts under each heading.
Abstract: We examine how banks adjust credit supply in areas with higher exposure to climate risks by utilizing the province-level air pollution and loan growth data of a large emerging market, Turkey, following the Paris Agreement in 2015. Our results show that banks limit their credit extension to more polluted provinces in the post-agreement interval, implying that banks consider climate change-related risks and adjust their credit provisioning accordingly. Our baseline findings are intact against a myriad of robustness checks. We also find that the shift in the climate risk-credit provisioning nexus is asymmetric depending on the levels of air pollution.
Abstract: This article develops a model to explore the implications of nondistressed debt renegotiation on debt prices and corporate policies. The model incorporates the empirical observation that creditors can influence firms also outside corporate distress through debt covenant renegotiation and not only in distress. We find that considering both distressed and nondistressed creditor interventions is key to investigating how creditor governance affects firms. The model explains cross-sectional patterns of control premiums and credit spreads that traditional debt renegotiation models do not capture. We also derive novel implications for the impact of firm characteristics associated with renegotiation on debt prices and corporate policies.
Abstract: This article investigates if cryptocurrencies returns' are similarly affected by a selection of demand- and supply-side determinants. Homogeneity among cryptocurrencies is tested via a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) model where determinants of Bitcoin returns are applied to a sample of 12 cryptocurrencies. The analysis goes beyond existing research by simultaneously covering different periods and design choices of cryptocurrencies. The results show that cryptocurrencies are heterogeneous, apart from some similarities in the impact of technical determinants and cybercrime. The cryptocurrency market displays evidence of substitution effects, and design choices related explain the impact of the determinants of return.
Abstract: To commemorate 40 years since the founding of the Journal of Business Ethics, the editors in chief of the journal have invited the editors to provide commentaries on the future of business ethics. This essay comprises a selection of commentaries aimed at creating dialogue around the theme Ethics at the centre of global and local challenges. For much of the history of the Journal of Business Ethics, ethics was seen within the academy as a peripheral aspect of business. However, in recent years, the stakes have risen dramatically, with global and local worlds destabilized by financial crisis, climate change, internet technologies and artificial intelligence, and global health crises. The authors of these commentaries address these grand challenges by placing business ethics at their centre. What if all grand challenges were framed as grand ethical challenges? Tanusree Jain, Arno Kourula and Suhaib Riaz posit that an ethical lens allows for a humble response, in which those with greater capacity take greater responsibility but remain inclusive and cognizant of different voices and experiences. Focussing on business ethics in connection to the grand(est) challenge of environmental emergencies, Steffen Böhm introduces the deceptively simple yet radical position that business is nature, and nature is business. His quick but profound side-step from arguments against human–nature dualism to an ontological undoing of the business–nature dichotomy should have all business ethics scholars rethinking their “business and society” assumptions. Also, singularly concerned with the climate emergency, Boudewijn de Bruin posits a scenario where, 40 years from now, our field will be evaluated by its ability to have helped humanity emerge from this emergency. He contends that Milieudefensie (Friends of the Earth) v. Royal Dutch Shell illustrates how human rights take centre stage in climate change litigation, and how business ethics enters the courtroom. From a consumer ethics perspective, Deirdre Shaw, Michal Carrington and Louise Hassan argue that ecologically sustainable and socially just marketplace systems demand cultural change, a reconsideration of future interpretations of “consumer society”, a challenge to the dominant “growth logic” and stimulation of alternative ways to address our consumption needs. Still concerned with global issues, but turning attention to social inequalities, Nelarine Cornelius links the capability approach (CA) to global and corporate governance, arguing that CA will continue to lie at the foundation of human development policy, and, increasingly, CSR and corporate governance. Continuing debate on the grand challenges associated with justice and equality, Laurence Romani identifies a significant shift in the centrality of business ethics in debates on managing (cultural) differences, positing that dialogue between diversity management and international management can ground future debate in business ethics. Finally, the essay concludes with a commentary by Charlotte Karam and Michelle Greenwood on the possibilities of feminist-inspired theories, methods, and positionality for many spheres of business ethics, not least stakeholder theory, to broaden and deepen its capacity for nuance, responsiveness, and transformation. In the words of our commentators, grand challenges must be addressed urgently, and the Journal of Business Ethics should be at the forefront of tackling them.
Abstract We examine the predictive value of El Niño and La Niña weather episodes for the subsequent realized variance of 16 agricultural commodity prices. To this end, we use high-frequency data covering the period from 2009 to 2020 to estimate the realized variance along realized skewness, realized kurtosis, realized jumps, and realized upside and downside tail risks as control variables. Accounting for the impact of the control variables as well as spillover effects from the realized variances of the other agricultural commodities in our sample, we estimate an extended heterogeneous autoregressive (HAR) model by means of random forests to capture in a purely data-driven way potentially nonlinear links between El Niño and La Niña and the subsequent realized variance. We document such nonlinear links, and that El Niño and La Niña increase forecast accuracy, especially at longer forecast horizons, for several of the agricultural commodities that we study in this research.
Abstract: The world is affected by COVID-19, an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Tests are necessary for everyone as the number of COVID-19 affected individual's increases. So, the authors developed a basic sequential CNN model based on deep and federated learning that focuses on user data security while simultaneously enhancing test accuracy. The proposed model helps users detect COVID-19 in a few seconds by uploading a single chest X-ray image. A deep learning-aided architecture that can handle client and server sides efficiently has been proposed in this work. The front-end part has been developed using StreamLit, and the back-end uses a Flower framework. The proposed model has achieved a global accuracy of 99.59% after being trained for three federated communication rounds. The detailed analysis of this paper provides the robustness of this work. In addition, the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) will improve the ease of access to the aforementioned health services. IoMT tools and services are rapidly changing healthcare operations for the better. Hopefully, it will continue to do so in this difficult time of the COVID-19 pandemic and will help to push the envelope of this work to a different extent.
Abstract: The academic discussion on decoupling commonly centres on the macro level, distinguishing between policy-practice and means-ends decoupling. The former concerns the merely symbolic adoption of policies; the latter refers to compliant adopters not achieving intended goals. I build on prior propositions of a trade-off between policy-practice and means-end decoupling in highly opaque fields where causal complexity undermines the understanding of institutional actors. Specifically, I argue that a similar tension exists on the micro level regarding the ethical behaviour of employees. Norm ambiguity in organisations is prone to trigger ethical blindness among ethically bounded humans, whereby their moral values and intentions fade away. This drives corporations to introduce tight control elements in form of clear rules, stringent monitoring and sanctioning to induce substantive compliance with specific aspects of ethics programmes. However, such tight controls fail to address overall field opacity by undermining the moral awareness of target individuals. Thereby, they hinder the achievement of an organisation’s broader value-oriented ethics goals. The resulting tension points towards an inherent trade-off: addressing policy-practice decoupling may aggravate means-ends decoupling and vice versa. I conceptualise this tension and define conditions for a behavioural ethics approach in corporations under which the trade-off can be reduced.
To examine associations over time between national tobacco control policies and adolescent smoking prevalence in Europe and Canada.
In this ecological study, national tobacco control policies (MPOWER measures, as derived from WHO data) in 36 countries and their changes over time were related to national-level adolescent smoking rates (as derived from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study, 2006-2014). MPOWER measures included were: Protecting people from tobacco smoke (P), offering help to quit tobacco use (O), warning about the dangers of tobacco (W), enforcing bans on advertising, promotion and sponsorship (E) and raising taxes on tobacco (R).
Across countries, adolescent weekly smoking decreased from 17.7% in 2006 to 11.6% in 2014. It decreased most strongly between 2010 and 2014. Although baseline MPOWER policies were not directly associated with differences in average rates of adolescent smoking between countries, countries with higher baseline smoke-free policies (P) showed faster rates of change in smoking over the time period. Moreover, countries that adopted increasingly strict policies regarding warning labels (W) over time, faced stronger declines over time in adolescent weekly smoking.
A decade after the introduction of the WHO MPOWER package, we observed that, in our sample of European countries and Canada, measures targeting social norms around smoking (i.e., smoke-free policies in public places and policies related to warning people about the dangers of tobacco) are most strongly related to declines in adolescent smoking.
This paper stimulates methodological debates and advances the research agenda for qualitative research about time and temporality in organizing processes. It develops a framework for studying the temporal in organizing that contributes by: (1) providing an overview to prepare for and navigate various methodological challenges in this regard, (2) offering inspiration for relevant solutions to those challenges and (3) posing timely questions to facilitate temporal reflexivity in scholarly work.
Based on a literature review of studies about temporality in organizing processes, the authors develop a framework of well-acknowledged methodological challenges, dilemmas and paradoxes, and pose timely questions with which to develop potential solutions for research about organization and time.
The framework of this study offers a synthesis of methodological challenges and potential solutions acknowledged in the organization studies literature. It consists of three interrelated dimensions of methodological challenges to studying temporality in organizing processes, namely: empirical, analytical and representational challenges. These manifests in six subcategories: empirical cases, empirical methods, analytical concepts, analytical processes and coding, representing researchers’ temporal embeddedness and representing multiple temporalities.
This paper allows scholars to undertake a more ambitious, collective methodological discussion and sets an agenda for studying the temporal in organizing. The framework developed stimulates researchers’ temporal reflexivity and inspires them to develop solutions to specific methodological challenges that may emerge in their study of the temporal in organizing.
Journal: Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management
Published: September 2022
Contact CBS researcher: Miriam Feuls, Iben Sandal Stjerne
Abstract: We analyze the role and effect of ecosystem leadership understood as the exercise of effort towards others with the purpose of establishing and maintaining an ecosystem around a focal systemic innovation. While there has been much attention to the firms that sponsor ecosystems in the ecosystem literature, ecosystem leaders are usually characterized in an atheoretical manner, and the emphasis is on, leadership in existing ecosystems, thus neglecting the role leadership might play in ecosystem emergence. We clarify and provide theoretical grounding for the important role of leadership in emerging and maturing ecosystems. Building on transaction cost economics, we conceptualize an ecosystem as a governance structure that enables and sustains coordination and cooperation among multiple economic agents towards a focal innovative value proposition. Our basic argument is that the emergence of such an ecosystems is hampered by coordination and cooperation problems which markets and the price system cannot solve by itself. Resolving these problems requires assistance, and such assistance is what we call ecosystem leadership. To further characterize the exercise of leadership we use Teece's tripartite dynamic capabilities scheme. Leadership enables ecosystem emergence through three externally-oriented dynamic capabilities: facilitating the formation of a shared vision (sensing), inducing others to make ecosystem-specific investments (seizing) and engaging in ad hoc problem solving to create and maintain stability (reconfiguring/transforming). The latter capability in particular often continues to be important in a mature ecosystem. We provide a characterization of these capabilities and argue that the ecosystem leader role in a mature ecosystem likely stems from having successfully exercised these capabilities and that their exercise also puts the leader in a prime position for value capture. We discuss implications of our arguments for ecosystem theories, for managers and for policy makers
Abstract: This article addresses the business family, which so far has received only limited scholarly attention. The business family as the group of family members regularly discussing and deciding business matters is key for the functioning of both the business and the family. Specifically, we propose and empirically test the concept of the enterpriseness of business families, which is the ability to handle the potentially contradictory expectations of the family and business systems. We empirically validate the enterpriseness scale using a sample of 451 business families. Results indicate high levels of validity and reliability. The two subscales decision-making ability (six items) and business family identity (four items) offer a methodically rigorous, theoretically sound, and parsimonious measure. The article presents opportunities for potential applications of the enterpriseness concept and scale for family business as well as business family research and practice.
Abstract: In Science and Technology Studies, performativity has been debated and used to question economic governance, the role of explicitness, the creation of signification and the enactment of theories, investigating the influence of language on social reality. Based on Wittgenstein’s concept of language game, we explain that even if algorithms were designed, induced and justified by a particular rational language (theoretical framework), their implementations (their particular use in a specific context) can potentially generate unthought (irrational) outcomes: flash crashes that were not conceptualised in the original framework, generating a new form of performativity of computerised effects – these unthought consequences of flash crashes are a new phenomenon and with new implications for financial practices and financial knowledge. Algorithms as languages illustrate what the first Wittgenstein describes as a linguistic framework structuring the world that could lead, as the second Wittgenstein explained, to a complexity and multiplicity of language games. Our contribution to the literature is twofold. First, we determine that the implementation of the performativity of theory provoke new unthought effects. Second, we demonstrate that these unthought effects can become a material reality, contradicting the theory that originated these effects, which we call ‘performability of effects.’
Abstract: Vote buying is a form of political clientelism involving pre-electoral transfers of money or material benefits from candidates to voters. Despite the presence of secret ballots, vote buying remains a pervasive phenomenon during elections in developing countries. While prior literature has focused on how vote buying is enforced by parties and political candidates and which types of voters are most likely targeted, we know much less about the behavioral spillover effects of vote buying on citizens’ demand for redistribution and contributions to the provision of public goods. In this paper, we provide evidence on how vote buying causally affects voters’ candidate choice, support for redistribution, and public goods provision. Using data from a laboratory experiment in Kenya, we find that vote buying is a double-edged sword for candidates using clientelist strategies: it attracts votes from those who were offered money and accepted it, but it also leads to negative reactions from those who rejected the offer as well as those who were not offered money. In line with its effect on voting behavior, vote buying has negative effects on subjects’ evaluations of the vote-buying candidate. Vote buying significantly reduces individuals’ stated preferences for more government spending on police and law enforcement—yet, surprisingly, not on other welfare areas such as unemployment benefits or health. We also find that open ballots—but not vote-buying campaigns—reduce individuals’ willingness to contribute to public goods provisions.
Abstract: Kriser som COVID-19-krisen forøger den indbyggede spænding i HR’s rolle mellem loyalitet over for og eksekvering af ledelsens beslutninger, og så et menneskefokus på medarbejdernes trivsel. HRkriseforskningen peger på, at evnen til at balancere denne spænding er vigtig, for at virksomheder kommer godt ud på den anden side af en krise. På trods af denne indsigt ses det ofte, at HR’s rolle forrykkes mod at agere ’ledelsens forlængede arm’, mens fokus på medarbejderudvikling og -trivsel nedprioriteres under kriser. Men er det overhovedet muligt for HR at sikre, at begge disse ofte modsatrettede behov hos henholdsvis ledelse og medarbejdere kan tilgodeses under en krise, således at virksomhederne kommer igennem krisen med en bæredygtig økonomi og et sundt arbejdsmiljø for alle medarbejdere? Dette spørgsmål undersøger vi ved at trække på data fra interviews med 15 danske HR-chefer om deres oplevelser med HR’s krisehåndtering under COVID-19-krisen. I tråd med Minbaevas (2020) antagelse viser vores undersøgelse, at HR-chefer oplever et HR, som er blevet ’disrupted’ eller kraftigt forstyrret under COVID-19-krisen. Men snarere end ’disruption’ af selve måden arbejdet udføres på, hvilket er fokus for Minbaeva (2020), så ser vi et HR, der er disrupted i selve sin selvforståelse, rolle og praksis som følge af COVID-19. Dette gælder særligt virksomheder, der har gennemgået fyringer og omplacering af medarbejdere. HR’s svære balancegang i spændingen mellem snævre økonomiske interesser versus et udviklings- og menneskefokus bliver således sat på prøve under kriser med konsekvenser for arbejdet med medarbejdertrivsel
Abstract: Many countries have created research and innovation (R&I) policy instruments with the mission of addressing grand challenges. The new policy rationale suggests that these instruments must target civil society actors in new and more diverse constellations, combining them with ‘traditional’ R&I actors (universities and firms). Investigating the extent to which policy instruments are designed according to this requirement, this paper analyses co-occurrences of targeted R&I actors in science, technology and innovation policy instruments and identifies five typical constellations of targeted R&I actors. We focus on two constellations that are likely to include civil society actors. Wide constellations (dominated by universities and firms) are positively associated with grand challenge policy instruments. Civil-society-led constellations are less heterogeneous and possibly associated with grand challenge instruments. This original contribution shows partial consistency between the grand challenge policy rationale and its instruments, and evidence of civil-society-led actor constellations not yet considered in the literature.
Abstract: This article addresses the development of standardized Charts of Accounts (CoAs) in public sector accounting and reporting. In particular, it focuses on matters concerning the role CoAs have, or should have, at a national level, their main technicalities and the expected impact of using them as a bookkeeping instrument on the accuracy of accounting records and, ultimately, on the reliability and usability of the financial information for different purposes. Empirical evidence is provided from a survey to representatives of accounting international and national (Belgium, Brazil, Estonia and Portugal) standard-setters and preparers.
Abstract: Modularity-in-design (MID) and modularity-in-production (MIP) relationship has been gaining the attention of scholars and practitioners along the years. However, the literature does not specify how this connection occurs and its implications. This paper analyzes the relationship between MID and MIP within the automotive scenario and investigates its main technical and organizational implications. Through an abductive, matched pair case study carried out in two large automakers, the study gathered data from interviews, on-site observations, and field notes from all interactions within the plants. The paper indicates that (i) both automakers prioritize modular design before modular production, characterizing a product-related approach, and (ii) the investigated automotive companies have different approaches when developing MID. One automaker focuses on product functionalities to develop the modules; the other company dedicates efforts towards a MID-MIP relationship through the industrial condominium concept. Results indicate significant propositions to be tested regarding MID-MIP connection, with original insights from two make-to-order (MTO) automotive companies.
Journal: International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
Published: October 2022
Contact CBS researcher: Juliana Hsuan
Abstract: The article offers a qualitative examination of compounded precarity in creative work during the Covid-19 pandemic. Drawing on repeated in-depth interviews with twelve creative workers operating in the creative industries in Ghana, we examine one of the most prevalent practices for navigating, coping with, and managing compounded precarity: that of hustling. We empirically identify and discuss three interrelated practices of hustling in creative work: digitalization, diversification, and social engagement. We present a new way of conceptualizing creative work in precarious geographies by theorizing hustling, and the associated worker resourcefulness, improvisation, savviness, hopefulness, and caring not merely as an individualized survival strategy, but rather as an agentic and ethical effort to turn the vicissitudes of life into situated advantages and opportunities, and even social change.
Abstract: The question of whether the due diligence rule applies in cyberspace has become a key issue in the cyber norms debate. Yet there is no consensus whether the rule is binding, and states lack clear guidance on what the norm requires them to do. This is not just unfortunate but also dangerous since a crisis caused by a cyber attack routed through a third state where the victim state and the third state have fundamentally different views as to which duties apply carries a serious escalation risk. While scholars have suggested adapting legal approaches from other successful due diligence regimes, these rules are not a good match for the crucial issue in cyber due diligence: what do states need to do to ensure that no state is attacked using their networks? This article suggests going back to the roots and implementing principles derived from the laws of neutrality, the field that originally brought the due diligence principle into international law. Designed to manage escalation risk at the fringes of international conflict, it is our best guide through the grey zone of due diligence in cyberspace. The classic cases such as Alabama and Corfu Channel were disputes related to armed conflicts but between states that were at peace with each other. Read closely, they offer clear guidance on how to develop a flexible, but reliable, due diligence standard for cyberspace that will help states manage expectations of responsible behaviour and thereby defuse future potential conflicts before they arise, while avoiding the need to formally attribute the original attack. The final section will seek to consolidate the historical, legal as well as technological developments discussed here to lay out what the due diligence rule in cyberspace is likely to look like soon.
Abstract: In the management of the global COVID-19 pandemic, the mandated closure of workplaces and stay-at-home orders have forced workers to adapt to a prolonged period of unplanned telecommuting, which we term epidemic-induced telecommuting. Although epidemic-induced telecommuting has drastically altered how work is conducted, scant attention is being paid to this emerging work arrangement. To this end, we combine psychological reactance theory and person-environment fit theory to advance the concept of misfit between worker and environment as a core determinant of employees’ work experience in the epidemic-induced telecommuting. Particularly, we distinguish between supply-value and demand-ability misfits as constraints on workers’ freedom at work. Having analyzed data collected through a survey administered on remote workers, we discovered that both misfits positively influenced workers’ perceived psychological reactance, which led to work exhaustion and counter-productive behaviors. We also found that the utilization of collaborative technologies moderated the effects of misfit on workers’ psychological reactance.
We are questioning the current approach of "adding up" national models to a common denominator. We wish to open up the discussion of a paradigm change in cultural diplomacy and intercultural action, beyond national perspectives.
Abstract: In the context of global mobility the number of individuals living and working with people from other cultural backgrounds is continuously increasing. The skills needed for successful interaction in a multicultural setting are not inherent, but need to be developed and nurtured over time. This article illustrates the need for a holistic and inclusive approach in consulting and coaching, in order to strengthen intercultural co-operation in the working environment. The author develops a comprehensive methodology for analysing complex intercultural situations from a systemic and relationshipbased approach on the one hand and through the lens of the individuals' leitmotif (with reference to Adler) on the other hand. This is illustrated with a case study. On the one hand, concrete measures can be derived from an analysis of the context and the specific situation. Moreover, a change in perspective and perception can be triggered on a personal level. This gives a solid foundation and sets a starting point for the individual to explore new opportunities and ways of interacting in a multicultural environment, simultaneously fostering enduring intercultural skills.
Abstract: A supply chain ecosystem is a collection of complex asynchronous events. Blockchain has already found commercial applications in the SC domain, particularly in product tracing and verification. However, there is a lack of uniformity in these approaches. Application-generated data cannot be accessed across the supply chain ecosystem, resulting in data silos. Data silos reduce the opportunity for supply chain process optimizations. This paper does not propose any supply chain solution but a generic framework primarily aimed at reducing the communication gaps among the stakeholders and application developer(s) to build quality solutions. The ideal readers are who want to blockchanify their existing supply chain applications. The proposed framework can add real value to the organization by developing effective SC solutions satisfying application requirements. The framework consists of four stages. In the first stage, it extracts the application requirements and then maps on blockchain following an asynchronous mode of communication among the stakeholders and application developer(s). Next, it discusses how it can combine technologies to achieve the requirements stated in the first stage. Later, it discusses how to perform effective data management. Finally, it proposes a four-stage software build method that can lead to an efficient SC solution. The primary aim of this framework is to reduce communication gaps during solution development and ensure smooth operational data movement across the SC ecosystem, thanks to blockchain. The software development process also embeds eight essential features for a quality solution. The paper is concluded by discussing the technical challenges.
Abstract: Wage inequality is on the rise in most developed economies, and this phenomenon has fostered a growing body of research on its potential drivers. Using German data over the period 1985–2009, Card et al. (The Quarterly Journal of Economics 2013, 128(3), 967-1015) argue that rising workplace heterogeneity has contributed substantially to the rise in wage inequality. I revisit their findings in two ways. First, because the generalization of their findings remains an open question, I apply their methodological approach to Danish register data and test whether rising workplace heterogeneity explains a significant share of the rise in wage inequality in Denmark. I find that, contrary to Germany, workplace heterogeneity remained practically stable over time, and this pattern contributed slightly negatively to the rise in wage inequality. Second, I complement Card et al.'s (2013) methods with the variance decomposition exercise proposed by Song et al. (2019) to identify more precisely the sources of the rise in wage inequality in Denmark. Although the rise in wage inequality is partly a between-establishment phenomenon, I show that the strengthening of assortative matching patterns and the rising heterogeneity of workers within establishments are the main drivers of growing inequality.
Abstract: This article places ambiguity at the centre of Human Resource Management theory and practice of organizational culture and advances a multi-dimensional framework that makes productive use of tensions between cultural integration and differentiation. Providing an illustrative analysis of Greenland Police, we identify a clash between a strong integrational pull and a similarly powerful differentiating force, involving an integrated occupational culture and differentiated national sub-cultures. This clash, we show, becomes productive when organizational members articulate and enact ambiguous identities. Emphasising the contextuality of organizational culture, we do not believe the empirical findings to be generalisable, but, instead, offer the analytical framework for studying multi-dimensional organizational culture as our main contribution. Conceptually, we emphasise how ambiguity is articulated in and between integration and differentiation, thus enhancing the relationality of the dimensions. The practical aim is to set ambiguous dynamics in motion that enable productive relations between different cultural dimensions.
Abstract: Why have Russia and Cuba developed and produced vaccines against COVID-19 while Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries that are members of the European Union have only played a marginal role in the global supply of such vaccines? We argue that the answer is to be found in the capacity of Russia’s national security state and entrepreneurs to mobilise historic Soviet advantages as part of a broader security motivated statecraft. CEE countries lacked this legacy and this drive. Similarly, they failed to massively invest – as for example, Cuba has – into potential synergies between public health systems and biotech firms.
Abstract: The map of the Plan for an Offensive Operation of the Coastal Front from Poland 1970 forms the basis for this paper. The map portrays the blueprint of the combined operational war plans for the Polish armed forces in the late 1960s and the 1970s. It details an offensive against NATO countries and their forces in Northern Europe.As such, this map is clearly designed, not just as an actual plan of the offensive, but also to produce a narrative about the Polish army as capable of undertaking such a massive enterprise. We argue, taking our point of departure from this particular map, that military maps can be understood as performative maps, outlining not just plans and struc-turing space, but often also narratives.
Abstract: This research examines travelers purchase behavior of “Airbnb experiences” by developing a model based on the stimulus organism response theory. Motivation, conceptualized as hedonic and utilitarian, is proposed to influence attitudes toward “Airbnb experiences.” The model is tested using data collected from two separate empirical studies on Indian domestic travelers. Empirical findings from both studies demonstrate a significant influence of perceived authenticity, perceived enjoyment, and service quality on travelers’ attitudes toward “Airbnb experiences.” The results from the two studies also converge with respect to the influence of attitudes on purchase intention and word-of-mouth. Both studies suggest a moderating effect of trend affinity on the relationship between attitudes and word-of-mouth. The research presents scholars with a theoretically robust model with the motivational attributes that positively impacts on travelers’ attitudes toward “Airbnb experiences” and the latter’s influence on purchase intention and word-of-mouth. We discuss the practical implications and limitations of the research.
Abstract: In a rich, calibrated life-cycle model, we show that well-designed mandatory pension plans significantly improve the welfare of individuals procrastinating on savings, and even improve most rational individuals’ welfare through a return tax advantage and fair annuitization. For a group of heterogeneous savers, in terms of preferences and sophistication, the best plan has contributions of 10% of income from age 30, a glidepath investment strategy, payouts following a variable lifelong annuity, and options to choose a different investment strategy and to modify the annuitization feature. This plan generates an average welfare gain of $175,000 per individual.
Abstract: In response to the growing standardization and impersonalization of the market—side-effects of new technology and business automation—consumers increasingly seek more personized purchase experiences, such as buying products directly from the producer. While extant literature has documented the positive effects of personizing market offerings, there is surprisingly little insight about whether knowing who made a product influences consumers’ product preferences. We aim to fill this gap by focusing on the critical role of the producer’s gender. In thirteen studies, including field and online experiments (ntotal = 2,978), we observe a general preference for products made by women over products made by men, with female consumers consistently showing a strong preference for products made by women and male consumers showing no systematic preference for either product. We find that this difference between female and male consumers’ product preferences occurs because female consumers, in relation to male consumers, hold stronger action efficacy beliefs—beliefs that their individual purchase choices can contribute to restoring gender equalities in business.
Abstract: Grand Challenges have stimulated a search for new solutions at the interplay between fields and disciplines which previously have been separated. In this essay, I argue that a further development of temporal interplay between strategy and organizational identity may enrich studies of Grand Challenges, exemplified by how actors respond to climate change. This interplay is motivated by recent elaborations of the differences in temporality between strategy and organizational identity from a distinction between a dominant focus on the future (strategy) or the past (organizational identity) to a conceptualization of the differences in temporal structures between them. Using management research to contribute to the fight against climate change, sustained temporal interplay between strategy and organizational identity can advance our understanding of how organizations may act now for future climate goals. I suggest questions for future research focused on making an impact.
Abstract: Colour-blindness is a prominent concept across disciplines in the US but is less prominent and still an emerging and under-utilised conceptual tool in the European and Swedish context. Existing research measures colour-blind attitudes – defined as the belief that race does not matter. In this paper we examine what happens when we translate these US measurements and understandings of colour-blind attitudes to the Swedish context? We present the results from two quantitative studies conducted between 2009 and 2020 in Sweden. Based on these results, we discuss the possibilities, limitations, and implications of replicating the theoretical concepts from the US in the Swedish context and propose possibilities for measuring colour-blindness quantitatively. The paper thereby not only contributes to the theoretical and methodological discussion on understanding colour-blind attitudes in the European context but also highlights the prominence of colour-blind racial attitudes in Sweden.
Abstract: Finding direction in new policy areas requires a combination of mandate, expertise, and stakeholder engagement. Here we investigate the formation of the EU's sustainable finance agenda through activity in and around its High Level Expert Group and Technical Expert Group. Actors from different professional ecologies struggle to determine the treatment of sustainable finance and establish policy practices. Those who shape issue treatments can be supported by a capacity to influence from either official mandate, scientific esteem, or claims to experience. These are contending conjectures to locate action among the professionals engaged in the process. We adjudicate between mandate, esteem, and experience with an assessment of the network ties and career histories of those involved in sustainable finance. Our findings suggest that those with many ties and mixed careers win. Professionals identified as offering access to a potential network of investors exhibit greater control over how issues are treated, to the detriment of civil society actors. We demonstrate likely influence over issue treatment through a discussion of environmental and social disclosures and debt financing mechanisms in European sustainable finance expert groups.
Journal: Governance: An international journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions
Published: October 2022
Contact CBS researcher: Leonard Seabrooke, Annika Stenström
Abstract: This paper examines practices and narratives of hustling in the creative industries. We draw on two illustrative cases: independent female filmmakers in Nairobi, Kenya, and independent female fashion designers in Toronto, Canada, with a combined 69 interviews. Taking a comparative, intersectional approach, we explore both the practices and narratives that entrepreneurial creative workers construct. In doing so, we contribute to ongoing conceptual debates regarding the contemporary nature of work in creative industries. We define hustling in the creative industries as entrepreneurially navigating precarity to build and sustain creative businesses. We argue that hustling is not merely a “stage” of work and life to be moved past or overcome, but instead an ongoing, entrepreneurial creative practice. This fact has implications for how we think about success and creative work: hustling is not a deviation from the good life, but a way of making a good life in precarious circumstances.
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to assess the possibility of using blockchain technology in the realm of public procurement within the EU, particularly in connection with the award of public contracts. In this context, blockchain is used as an umbrella term covering IT technologies and cryptographic solutions used to generate consensus on a distributed ledger. The article will present three real use cases for public procurement in Spain, Colombia and Peru. It will also posit two specific areas of EU public procurement practice that might benefit from the use of blockchain technology – the area of data management and accessibility and in situations of clear lack of confidence in public powers.
Journal: European Procurement & Public Private Partnership Law Review
Contact CBS researcher: Pedro Telles
Abstract: Despite the well-known governance problems in public (state-owned) organizations, such as process rigidity, limited autonomy, and weak incentives, public organizations exhibit substantial performance heterogeneity, with some performing similarly to their private counterparts. In this paper, we scrutinize those sources of heterogeneous performance based on the interplay of management practices and resources. We argue that the governance constraints in public organizations inhibit the adoption of performance-enhancing practices. However, this negative effect is attenuated by the presence of distinct resources, such as human capital. We examine these effects in the context of over 9,000 public and private schools in Brazil. We find that private schools are more likely to use internal operational practices, such as planning and human resource management, as well as practices of engaging with external stakeholders. Differential adoption of these practices partially explains why private schools outperform their public counterparts in terms of student learning. Yet, access to highly educated teachers in public schools attenuates the negative association between public governance and the adoption of superior practices. In other words, schools with skilled teachers are more likely to adopt superior practices, thus reducing their performance gap compared with private schools. This result suggests that heterogeneous resource endowments—in our context, human capital—can soften governance constraints that inhibit performance-enhancing practices in public organizations. We thus show that heterogeneous practices and resources jointly explain not only performance differences across public and private organizations but also variations in the performance of organizations with the same governance form.
Purpose: To contribute the process perspective on strategy the systems theoretical concept of time binding and show how time, when unfolded and linked, is compressed or stretched, thereby demonstrating the motion of temporal spaces within organizations.
Design/methodology/approach: Case approach and with emphasis on communicative events.
Findings: The finding of three different time bindings in strategy work showing not only how time is unfolded and multiplied but also how these bindings were unexpectedly found to be experienced simultaneously, thus turning a seemingly linear strategy based on goal achievement into a complex of interrelated motions driven by performativity, potentiality and reiteration.
Research limitations/implications: The research implications are significant to the process perspective on strategy as time should not only be understood and investigated as different unfoldings and time-links within organizations, but also on the motion of these temporal spaces, which is to say, how they move the organization ahead.
Practical implications: From a practical perspective, when taking both the existing and future research on strategy into account, one notices that most management literature and the mainstream courses held at business schools tend to draw on one-dimensional casualities and chronological timelines in order to combine accurate forecasts with predicted end-results. Such attempts reflect one unfolding, one binding, one temporal space and one way of moving, but if managers want to improve knowledge on deliberate change, temporal awareness should be part of their strategic change repertoire alongside the ability to match different motions to the skills and capacity of an organization.
Social implications: The concept of time binding is a way to extend the ways by which we seek to comprehend the temporal nature of social relations and structures within organizations and in particular those practices that are considered strategic. In particular, it offers ways of understanding how strategy is a temporal exercise that provides organizations with different temporal spaces within single events and hence different motions – all of which simultaneously move the organization differently ahead in time.
Originality/value: By providing the system theoretical concept of time binding it brings new and original value into the process and practice field of strategy research. The empirical findings demonstrate how unusual and not yet seen unfoldings and bindings between before and after appears and how such bindings take the form of temporal spaces that simultaneously and differently moves the organizations ahead in time.
Abstract: In this article, we argue that a key diversity issue to be tackled in the classroom is disparity: Some students are more privileged than others, and their inputs are more valued than others’. Therefore, as educators, we need to devise new ways to rebalance benefits and deficits in our classrooms. Complementing critical work on privilege in business schools that has exposed and theorized the problem, we take a practical, By design approach to addressing privilege while avoiding diversity education dilemmas. We propose that such a proactive rather than reactive approach can help mitigate the negative consequences that the exercise of privilege may have on our students’ learning. Specifically, we propose that we can learn from designers how to use tools that help create collaborative, positive-sum environments when conducting team-based activities in the classroom. We present a selection of simple yet powerful design devices: Speaking rules, Problem framing, and Iteration. We discuss how these devices may help address privilege in the classroom with illustrative examples and reflections on the outcomes and limitations of these devices. We thus enrich the underdeveloped conversation on how design methods can be translated and applied to management education.
Abstract: This note addresses how ignoring may be investigated as an interactional phenomenon. Ignoring-related practices can be stated to produce absences in the data rather than presences. Thus, their scrutiny poses challenges for analysts. We argue that inspiration can be found in Billig’s work, which leverages a relational understanding of unconscious processes combined with the close attention to interactional details associated with the conversation analytical approach. We conceptualize the practices of ignoring through the psychodynamic concept of blindness to demonstrate the combined approach in an exemplary analysis of data obtained from an emergency call center.
Abstract: Despite significant advances afforded by recent insights into the coexistence of multiple paradoxes, we still know little about the precise ways in which multiple intertwined or knotted paradoxes relate to one another. In particular, scholars have not yet studied how differences in the perceived intensity of paradoxes influence the development of paradox knots. We draw on a longitudinal qualitative case study of a German development NGO operating in Uganda to elucidate and elaborate upon the knotted nature of two paradoxes faced by this NGO, namely a means-end paradox and an identity elasticity paradox. Our analysis shows how the intensity of these two knotted paradoxes developed inversely, with the NGO’s response to the means-end paradox amplifying the identity elasticity paradox and its response to the identity elasticity paradox mitigating the means-end paradox. Based on these findings, we extend the literature on paradox knots in two ways. First, we show how knotted paradoxes can be asymmetrically aligned, with each alternately amplifying or mitigating the intensity of the other over time. Second, we show that paradox knots need to be understood as temporary and unstable phenomena that can both emerge and decline – or “fade in” and “fade out” – in their effects.
Abstract: We forecast realized variance (RV) of Real Estate Investment Trusts for 10 leading markets and regions, derived from 5-minutes-interval intraday data, based on the information content of two alternative metrics of daily oil-price uncertainty. Based on the period of the analysis covering January 2008 to July 2020, and using variants of the popular MIDAS-RV model, augmented to include oil market uncertainties, captured by its RV (also derived from 5-minute intraday data) and implied volatility (i.e. the oil VIX), we report evidence of significant statistical and economic gains in the forecasting performance. The result is robust to the size of the forecasting samples, including that of the COVID-19 period, lag-length, nonlinearities, asymmetric effects, and forecast horizon. Our results have important implications for investors and policymakers.
Abstract: This paper develops the concept of labour regimes as an application to better understand multi-stakeholder initiatives that are established to govern labour in global production networks. The labour regimes approach connects both global production dynamics and territorialised economic, political, and social formations in understanding labour outcomes at the workplace. The labour regimes approach helps explicate the intersection of labour, capital, and the state, configured across time and space. I argue that such an analytical approach can reveal often contested, and sometimes obscured relations between stakeholders and how they shape the progress and the sustainability of multi-stakeholder initiatives. I make this case by taking the Accord on Fire and Building Safety in the Bangladeshi apparel industry as an empirical case example. This study takes a different approach from the existing works on the Accord. With the Accord having completed its tenure in 2019, this paper specifically focuses on the absence of two key national stakeholders - the state and manufactures from the Steering Committee of the Accord, and examines how this absence affected the Accord’s ability to deliver its objectives. Based on qualitative research in and around the Dhaka garment cluster, the paper demonstrates that this absence of the state and manufacturers engendered paradoxical outcomes. While it helped the Accord successfully implement its building safety program in the short-term, the transition of the Accord at the end of its tenure, and thus its long-term sustainability was affected by the lack of commitment of the state and manufacturers to the Accord’s mandate.
Abstract: This article contributes to debates on global apparel workers’ health and well-being through an examination of how Sri Lankan workers were affected and treated during the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on qualitative interviews in and around the Katunayake Export Processing Zone, the article takes the Sri Lankan apparel industry as a case study. It reconceptualises the “precarious working body” as a “collective body” in order to demonstrate how workers’ health was a matter of collective precariousness. Workers’ health was not only dependent on that of others around them inside densely populated factories, but was also shaped by systemic material and discursive practices that affected workers collectively. These material practices included labour control and incentive structures that prevented workers from seeking medical attention and taking leave when needed, which in turn led to the spread of the virus across factories. The discursive practices comprise the social stigma and devaluation of women apparel workers that facilitated the blaming of workers for spreading the virus and enabled their inhumane treatment during the pandemic response. We argue that conceiving of apparel workers as a “collective body” enables a recognition of the systemic forces that create ill health at work and that expose certain (but not all) working bodies to the risks of infection.
Abstract: This report reflects the discussion that took place at a virtual panel at the ICIS 2020 conference. It focuses on a candid conversation on the code of conduct (AIS4C) among AIS community members. As our AIS community has evolved, we have grown in size, diversity, and in the scope of member needs; it is important for all stakeholders to understand what is expected as members of this academic community. The panel included those currently serving in AIS committees related to member and research conduct. The objective of the panel was to start a dialogue about what we – as members of the AIS – each hope to gain from our academic interactions, and how AIS can help members achieve these goals and help each other achieve desired outcomes. Maintaining good standing in the AIS community protects individuals’ professional reputations and the reputation of the IS discipline as a whole. Understanding what AIS offers its members to accomplish these objectives, allows individuals to fully leverage AIS member services to become more successful researchers and teachers. By situating the panel within the current COVID-disrupted world, the descriptions of desirable behavior among members and the outlining of member services, this panel report is intended to benefit current and future members of AIS.
Journal: Communications of the Association for Information Systems
Published: August 2022
Contact CBS researcher: Helle Zinner Henriksen